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Western Equine Encephalitis

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Symposium report: emerging threats for human health - impact of socioeconomic and climate change on zooanthroponosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

Irene Huber, Katerina Potapova, Elena Ammosova, Wolfgang Beyer, Sergey Blagodatskiy, Roman Desyatkin, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Margarita Ignateva, Ludmila Kokolova, Stefanie Lemke, Mikhail Neustroev, Ayan Nyukkanov, Galina Protodyakonova, Alexander Reshetnikov, Thomas Romig, Vyacheslav Shadrin, Izabella Samoilova, Sergey Semenov, Konstantin Stepanov, Nadezhda Tarabukina, Liliia Vinokurova, Raisa Zakharova, Konstantin Nifontov,

Population growth, socio-cultural and economic changes as well as technological progress have an immediate impact on the environment and human health in particular. Our steadily rising needs of resources increase the pressure on the environment and narrow down untainted habitats for plants and wild animals. Balance and resilience of ecosystems ... Read more >>

Int J Circumpolar Health (International journal of circumpolar health)
[2020, 79(1):1715698]

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Antibodies for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Protect Embryoid Bodies from Chikungunya Virus.

Emily M Schultz, TyAnthony J Jones, Kelli L Barr,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses, and whether ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(3):]

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Borna disease outbreak with high mortality in an alpaca herd in a previously unreported endemic area in Germany.

Vanessa Schulze, Reinhard Große, Jenny Fürstenau, Leonie F Forth, Arnt Ebinger, Madita T Richter, Dennis Tappe, Tanja Mertsch, Kristin Klose, Kore Schlottau, Bernd Hoffmann, Dirk Höper, Lars Mundhenk, Rainer G Ulrich, Martin Beer, Kerstin-Elisabeth Müller, Dennis Rubbenstroth,

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) is the causative agent of Borna disease, an often fatal neurologic condition of domestic mammals, including New World camelids, in endemic areas in Central Europe. Recently, BoDV-1 gained further attention by the confirmation of fatal zoonotic infections in humans. Although Borna disease and BoDV-1 have ... Read more >>

Transbound Emerg Dis (Transboundary and emerging diseases)
[2020, :]

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Emerging Threats to Animals in the United Kingdom by Arthropod-Borne Diseases.

Arran J Folly, Daniel Dorey-Robinson, Luis M Hernández-Triana, L Paul Phipps, Nicholas Johnson,

Worldwide, arthropod-borne disease transmission represents one of the greatest threats to public and animal health. For the British Isles, an island group on the north-western coast of continental Europe consisting of the United Kingdom (UK) and the Republic of Ireland, physical separation offers a barrier to the introduction of many ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:20]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Special Issue "Equine Viruses": Old "Friends" and New Foes?

Romain Paillot,

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million (FAOSTAT 2017).[...]. ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(2):]

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The Capsid Protein of Semliki Forest Virus Antagonizes RNA Interference in Mammalian Cells.

Qi Qian, Hui Zhou, Ting Shu, Jingfang Mu, Yuan Fang, Jiuyue Xu, Tao Li, Jing Kong, Yang Qiu, Xi Zhou,

RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved antiviral immune defense in eukaryotes, and numerous viruses have been found to encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract antiviral RNAi. Alphaviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses that maintain their transmission and life cycles in both mosquitoes and mammals. However, ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, 94(3):]

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Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?

Sylvie Lecollinet, Stéphane Pronost, Muriel Coulpier, Cécile Beck, Gaelle Gonzalez, Agnès Leblond, Pierre Tritz,

Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2019, 12(1):]

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Mosquito Iridescent Virus: New Records from Nature and Infections Using Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae) as a Vector Under Laboratory Conditions.

E Muttis, M V Micieli, M B Bonica, P D Ghiringhelli, J J García,

Iridoviridae is a DNA virus family that affects both vertebrates and invertebrates. Immature aquatic stages of many dipteran species infected with iridovirus have been found in different places worldwide. The most represented genera of the Culicidae family are Aedes and Psorophora. To date, sixteen species of Aedes naturally infected with ... Read more >>

Neotrop. Entomol. (Neotropical entomology)
[2020, 49(2):268-274]

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Influence of climatic variables on the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus populations in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Lucinéia Claudia De Toni Aquino da Cruz, Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães, Emerson Marques de Souza, Raquel da Silva Ferreira, Raphael de Souza Rosa Gomes, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko, Marina Atanaka,

INTRODUCTION:Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector species responsible for the transmission of important arboviruses. METHODS:Adult mosquitoes were collected in the urban areas of four municipalities in Mato Grosso within 1 year. RESULTS:A total of 19,110 mosquitoes were collected. Among them, 16,578 (86,8%) were C. quinquefasciatus (44% female and 56% ... Read more >>

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. (Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
[2020, 53:e20190185]

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Antibodies for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Protect Embryoid Bodies from Chikungunya Virus

Emily Schultz, TyAnthony Jones, Hannah Clamp, Kelli Barr,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses and whether ... Read more >>

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Serological evidence of arboviruses and coccidia infecting horses in the Amazonian region of Brazil.

Fábio Alves Gomes, Ana Maria Jansen, Rosângela Zacarias Machado, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Angélica Silva, Bruna Farias Alves, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo,

BACKGROUND:Arboviruses and protozoans can cause neurologic disorders in horses. In Brazilian Amazon, several horses presenting signs compatible with disorders caused by these infectious agents have been observed. OBJECTIVE:To contribute to the knowledge of this epidemiological picture, we sought to construct a serological diagnostic panel for neurotrophic infectious agents in local ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(12):e0225895]

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Agua Salud alphavirus defines a novel lineage of insect-specific alphaviruses discovered in the New World.

Kyra Hermanns, Marco Marklewitz, Florian Zirkel, Gijs J Overheul, Rachel A Page, Jose R Loaiza, Christian Drosten, Ronald P van Rij, Sandra Junglen,

The genus Alphavirus harbours mostly insect-transmitted viruses that cause severe disease in humans, livestock and wildlife. Thus far, only three alphaviruses with a host range restricted to insects have been found in mosquitoes from the Old World, namely Eilat virus (EILV), Taï Forest alphavirus (TALV) and Mwinilunga alphavirus (MWAV). In ... Read more >>

J. Gen. Virol. (The Journal of general virology)
[2020, 101(1):96-104]

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Perspectives Regarding the Risk of Introduction of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) in the United States.

Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Leela E Noronha, Dana Mitzel, D Scott McVey, Natalia Cernicchiaro,

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic, emerging disease transmitted by mosquito vectors infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Its potential for emergence into susceptible regions is high, including in the United States (US), and is a reason of economic concern among the agricultural community, and to public health due ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:48]

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Association of Human Eastern Equine Encephalitis With Precipitation Levels in Massachusetts.

Leonard A Mermel,

JAMA Netw Open (JAMA network open)
[2020, 3(1):e1920261]

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Cooperativity between the 3' untranslated region microRNA binding sites is critical for the virulence of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

Derek W Trobaugh, Chengqun Sun, Nishank Bhalla, Christina L Gardner, Matthew D Dunn, William B Klimstra,

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a mosquito-borne RNA virus, is one of the most acutely virulent viruses endemic to the Americas, causing between 30% and 70% mortality in symptomatic human cases. A major factor in the virulence of EEEV is the presence of four binding sites for the hematopoietic cell-specific ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(10):e1007867]

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Comparison of 2 collection methods for cerebrospinal fluid analysis from standing, sedate adult horses.

Hayley Chidlow, Steeve Giguère, Melinda Camus, Bridgette Wells, Elizabeth Howerth, Roy Berghaus, Erin McConachie Beasley,

BACKGROUND:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is an important component of the evaluation of horses with neurologic disease. Lumbosacral (LS) centesis is routine, but CSF is also collected from the space between the first and second cervical vertebrae (C1-C2). OBJECTIVES:To compare collection times, CSF cytology results, and equine protozoal myelitis (EPM) titers ... Read more >>

J. Vet. Intern. Med. (Journal of veterinary internal medicine)
[2020, 34(2):972-978]

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CD200 is up-regulated in R6/1 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

Andrea Comella Bolla, Tony Valente, Andres Miguez, Veronica Brito, Silvia Gines, Carme Solà, Marco Straccia, Josep M Canals,

In Huntington's disease (HD), striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. However, there are many evidences that cells from the peripheral immune system and central nervous system (CNS) immune cells, namely microglia, play an important role in ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(12):e0224901]

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Discriminating Tonate Virus from Dengue Virus Infection: A Matched Case-Control Study in French Guiana, 2003-2016.

Rémi Mutricy, Félix Djossou, Séverine Matheus, Enguerrane Lorenzi-Martinez, Franck De Laval, Magalie Demar, Mathieu Nacher, Dominique Rousset, Loïc Epelboin,

Tonate virus (TONV) is an arbovirus discovered in 1973 in French Guiana (FG) belonging to the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex, Alphavirus genus. Only few publications and cases have been reported in FG. The objectives of the present study were to describe the clinical picture of TONV and to compare ... Read more >>

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2020, 102(1):195-201]

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Rapidly fatal encephalitis associated with atypical lymphoid proliferations of the basal ganglia subsequent to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Ayesha Kar, Evin L Guilliams, Joshua A Cuoco, Eric A Marvin,

Rapidly fatal encephalitis associated with atypical lymphoid proliferations after intracranial aneurysm rupture has not been reported. Here, we describe a 52-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a severe headache. Imaging demonstrated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, which was treated ... Read more >>

Clin Pract (Clinics and practice)
[2019, 9(4):1187]

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Development and Evaluation of a Duo Zaire ebolavirus Real-Time RT-PCR Assay Targeting Two Regions within the Genome.

Laurence Thirion, Remi N Charrel, Yannik Boehmann, Iban Corcostegui, Hervé Raoul, Xavier de Lamballerie,

Preparedness and response actions to mitigate Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks rely on rapid diagnosis to be implemented locally to sort suspect patients attending health centers. Our aim was (i) to develop and evaluate an RT-qPCR assay combining primers and probes derived from two reference assays targeting different genomic regions; ... Read more >>

Microorganisms (Microorganisms)
[2019, 7(12):]

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Encephalitic alphaviruses exploit caveolae-mediated transcytosis at the blood-brain barrier for CNS entry

Hamid Salimi, Matthew Cain, Xiaoping Jiang, Robyn Roth, Wandy Beatty, Chengqun Sun, William Klimstra, Jianghui Hou, Robyn Klein,

Abstract Venezuelan and Western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and WEEV) invade the CNS early during infection, via neuronal and hematogenous routes (1, 2). While viral replication mediates host-shut off, including expression of type I interferons (IFN) (3, 4), few studies have addressed how alphaviruses gain access to the CNS during ... Read more >>

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Genome-Scale Phylogeny and Evolutionary Analysis of Ross River Virus Reveals Periodic Sweeps of Lineage Dominance in Western Australia, 1977-2014.

Alice Michie, Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran, Michael D A Lindsay, Peter J Neville, Jay Nicholson, Andrew Jardine, John S Mackenzie, David W Smith, Allison Imrie,

Ross River virus (RRV), an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is the most medically significant mosquito-borne virus of Australia. Past RRV phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses have been based on partial genome analyses only. Three geographically distinct RRV lineages, the Eastern, the Western, and the supposedly extinct North-Eastern lineage, were classified ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, 94(2):]

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Hepatitis E Virus Induces Brain Injury Probably Associated With Mitochondrial Apoptosis.

Jijing Tian, Ruihan Shi, Peng Xiao, Tianlong Liu, Ruiping She, Qiaoxing Wu, Junqing An, Wenzhuo Hao, MajidHussain Soomro,

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been associated with extrahepatic manifestations, particularly neurological disorders. Although it has been reported that HEV infection induced hepatocyte apoptosis associated with mitochondria injury, activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in the central nervous system during HEV infection was not clearly understood. In this study, the ... Read more >>

Front Cell Infect Microbiol (Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology)
[2019, 9:433]

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Equine Parvovirus-Hepatitis in China: Characterization of Its Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Natural Recombination Events Between the Chinese and American Strains.

Gang Lu, Liyan Wu, Jiajun Ou, Shoujun Li,

Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) was first reported in a horse that died of equine serum hepatitis in the USA in 2018, and was determined having a strong association with equine serum hepatitis in the following studies. As a newly discovered virus, the genomic sequences of only seven EqPV-H strains have been ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in Veterinary Science)
[2020, 7:121]

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