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West Nile Encephalitis

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A case series of inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccination associated with positive West Nile virus blood donor screening nucleic acid tests.

Steven J Drews, Kai Makowski, Heidi Wood, Kristina Dimitrova, Matthew T S Yan, Dale Young, Robert Skeate, Michiko Ng, Gordon Hawes, Margaret Fearon, Mark Bigham,

BACKGROUND:West Nile Virus (WNV) is a member of the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) serocomplex within the Flaviviridae family. We report four whole blood donors and one plasma donor with WNV nucleic acid test (NAT)-reactive donations between September 2018 and November 2019, following recent Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccination. CASE SERIES:Cases 1 ... Read more >>

Transfusion (Transfusion)
[2020, :]

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Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Regulatory T Cells in Neurotropic Virus Infections.

Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Andreas Beineke,

Neurotropic viruses infect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause acute or chronic neurologic disabilities. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role for immune homeostasis, but may inhibit pathogen-specific immunity in infectious disorders. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about Treg in human CNS infections and their animal ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(5):]

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Biochemical and molecular resistance mechanisms to DDT and some pyrethroid insecticides in vector of West Nile virus, Culex pipiens

Hassan Vatandoost, Yaser Salim-Abadi, Mohammad Oshaghi, Mohamad Abai, Ahmad Enayati, Mohammad Gorouhi,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Objectives : Culex pipiens complex act as an important vector of several vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis and bird malaria. This study was designed in order to clarify the molecular and biochemical resistance mechanisms in Cx. pipiens to DDT and some ... Read more >>

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Serological Evidence of West Nile and Usutu Viruses Circulation in Domestic and Wild Birds in Wetlands of Mali and Madagascar in 2008.

Véronique Chevalier, Maud Marsot, Sophie Molia, Harena Rasamoelina, René Rakotondravao, Miguel Pedrono, Steve Lowenski, Benoit Durand, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck,

The geographical distribution and impact on animal and human health of both West Nile and Usutu viruses, two flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis complex, have been increasing during the past two decades. Both viruses circulate in Europe and Africa within a natural cycle between wild birds and mosquitoes, mainly from ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
[2020, 17(6):]

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Clinical Quandaries Posed by Concurrent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and West Nile Virus (WNV) infections: Case Report.

T Momah, N Mbride,

Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV), co-existent with Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV), are rare with less than eleven cases in the literature. This clinical combination has an overall mortality of about 30%, as WNV has greater risk in patients with an immunocompromised status. Distinguishing between an acute retroviral HIV ... Read more >>

West Afr J Med (West African journal of medicine)
[2020, 37(2):197-198]

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West Nile Virus in Farmed Crocodiles, Zambia, 2019.

Edgar Simulundu, Kunda Ndashe, Herman M Chambaro, David Squarre, Paul Michael Reilly, Simbarashe Chitanga, Katendi Changula, Andrew N Mukubesa, Joseph Ndebe, John Tembo, Nathan Kapata, Matthew Bates, Yona Sinkala, Bernard M Hang'ombe, King S Nalubamba, Masahiro Kajihara, Michihito Sasaki, Yasuko Orba, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa,

We detected West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zambia. Phylogenetically, the virus belonged to lineage 1a, which is predominant in the Northern Hemisphere. These data provide evidence that WNV is circulating in crocodiles in Africa and increases the risk for animal and human transmission. ... Read more >>

Emerging Infect. Dis. (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2020, 26(4):811-814]

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Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus by Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae).

John F Anderson, Andrew J Main, Francis J Ferrandino,

West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) first caused human and veterinary disease, and was isolated from Culex pipiens pipiens L. and Aedes vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States in 1999. We report that a Connecticut strain of Ae. vexans was competent to transmit West Nile virus both ... Read more >>

J. Med. Entomol. (Journal of medical entomology)
[2020, :]

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The longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the United States.

Musa Kiyani, Beiyu Liu, Lefko T Charalambous, Syed M Adil, Sarah E Hodges, Siyun Yang, Promila Pagadala, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad,

Introduction. Previous studies of viral encephalitis have focused on acute costs, estimating incidence at 7.3 per 100 000 and total US annual charges at $2 billion in 2010.Aim. We aim to quantify the most updated longitudinal health economic impact of viral encephalitis in the USA from 2008 to 2015.Methodology. Data on ... Read more >>

J. Med. Microbiol. (Journal of medical microbiology)
[2020, 69(2):270-279]

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West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Report of four cases in Northern Greece, 2018.

Ioannis Papagiannis, Magda Tsolaki, Andreas Kiryttopoulos, Eleni Antoniadi, Chrysanthi Kyriakogianni, Dimitrios Fotiou, Konstantinos Notas, Evangelia Liougka, Athina Myrou, Apostolos Hatzitolios, Pantelis Haloudis, Maria Papaioannou, Martha Spilioti, Anna Papa, Thomas Tegos,

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus which caused several epidemics worldwide. The year 2018 was a WNV record year for Europe, including Greece, with earlier and longer transmission season with higher than the previous number of cases. It has been proposed that some simple biochemical markers may be ... Read more >>

J. Med. Virol. (Journal of medical virology)
[2020, :]

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Antiviral Activity of Benzavir-2 against Emerging Flaviviruses.

Yong-Dae Gwon, Mårten Strand, Richard Lindqvist, Emma Nilsson, Michael Saleeb, Mikael Elofsson, Anna K Överby, Magnus Evander,

Most flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, transmitted by either ticks or mosquitoes, and cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. They are endemic in many countries and have recently emerged in new regions, such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) in South-and Central America, the West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, and the ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(3):]

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Selection and characterization of highly specific recombinant antibodies against West Nile Virus E protein.

S Rizzo, P Imperato, E Mora-Cárdenas, S Konstantinidou, A Marcello, D Sblattero,

West Nile virus is a widespread mosquito-borne human and animal pathogenic virus of increasing importance. The E protein of the viral envelope is critical for attachment and entry into the host cell and has been the target for vaccine design and small molecule inhibitors. Furthermore, the detection of anti-E IgM ... Read more >>

J. Biotechnol. (Journal of biotechnology)
[2020, 311:35-43]

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West Nile Virus and Related Flavivirus in European Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Latium Region, Italy: A Retrospective Study.

Angela Petruccelli, Tiziana Zottola, Gianmarco Ferrara, Valentina Iovane, Cristina Di Russo, Ugo Pagnini, Serena Montagnaro,

BACKGROUND:A retrospective sero-survey for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in European wild boar (Sus scorfa) was conducted in the Latium region, Italy, on stored serum samples of the period November 2011 to January 2012. METHODS:Sera were collected from 168 European wild boars and screened for antibodies to WNV ... Read more >>

Animals (Basel) (Animals : an open access journal from MDPI)
[2020, 10(3):]

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Can local risk of West Nile virus infection be predicted from previous cases? A descriptive study in Quebec, 2011-2016.

Jean-Philippe Rocheleau, Serge-Olivier Kotchi, Julie Arsenault,

OBJECTIVES:This study aimed at (1) describing the local risk of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans based on previous case reports and (2) investigating the spatial clustering of cases in the five most affected administrative regions of Quebec, Canada, for the 2011-2016 period. METHODS:Human WNV cases declared to the ... Read more >>

Can J Public Health (Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique)
[2020, 111(2):229-238]

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Imported Human West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Infection in Spain: Neurological and Gastrointestinal Complications.

María Velasco, María Paz Sánchez-Seco, Carolina Campelo, Fernando de Ory, Oriol Martin, Laura Herrero, Octavio J Salmerón Béliz, Teodora Minguito, Mª Carmen Campos, Francisca Molero, Alejandro Algora, Ana Vázquez,

We report the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 infection imported to Spain by a traveler returning from Romania. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine samples were analyzed and West Nile virus infection was identified by PCR and serological tests. The patient developed fever, diarrhea and neurological ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(2):]

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A 15 Year Evaluation of West Nile Virus in Wisconsin: Effects on Wildlife and Human Health.

Johnny A Uelmen, Charles Brokopp, Jonathan Patz,

West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important and widespread mosquito-borne virus in the United States (U.S.). WNV has the ability to spread rapidly and effectively, infecting more than 320 bird and mammalian species. An examination of environmental conditions and the health of keystone species may help predict the susceptibility ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(5):]

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Comparison of vector competence of Aedes vexans Green River and Culex pipiens biotype pipiens for West Nile virus lineages 1 and 2.

Elisabeth Wöhnke, Ana Vasic, Cristian Raileanu, Cora Marielle Holicki, Birke Andrea Tews, Cornelia Silaghi,

West Nile virus (WNV), a zoonotic arbovirus, has recently established an autochthonous transmission cycle in Germany. In dead-end hosts like humans and horses the WNV infection may cause severe symptoms in the central nervous system. In nature, WNV is maintained in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and ornithophilic mosquitoes. ... Read more >>

Zoonoses Public Health (Zoonoses and public health)
[2020, :]

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Patterns of mosquito and arbovirus community composition and ecological indexes of arboviral risk in the northeast United States.

Joseph R McMillan, Philip M Armstrong, Theodore G Andreadis,

BACKGROUND:In the northeast United States (U.S.), mosquitoes transmit a number of arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, and West Nile that pose an annual threat to human and animal health. Local transmission of each arbovirus may be driven by the involvement of multiple mosquito species; however, the specificity of ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(2):e0008066]

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VAMP8 Contributes to the TRIM6-Mediated Type I Interferon Antiviral Response during West Nile Virus Infection.

Sarah van Tol, Colm Atkins, Preeti Bharaj, Kendra N Johnson, Adam Hage, Alexander N Freiberg, Ricardo Rajsbaum,

Several members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate immune pathways, including the antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) system. Previously, we demonstrated that TRIM6 is involved in IFN-I induction and signaling. In the absence of TRIM6, optimal IFN-I signaling is reduced, allowing increased replication of interferon-sensitive ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, 94(2):]

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Autogeny in Culiseta longiareolata (Culicidae: Diptera) mosquitoes in laboratory conditions in Iran.

Fereshteh Ghahvechi Khaligh, Abdollah Naghian, Shadiyeh Soltanbeiglou, Saber Gholizadeh,

OBJECTIVES:Culiseta longiareolata is a cosmopolitan species and has implicated in the transmission of avian malaria, tularemia, and arboviruses. Despite the wide distribution of Cs. longiareolata in Iran, little is known about its biology and physiology. The current research was conducted to study the autogeny behavior in this potential vector. During ... Read more >>

BMC Res Notes (BMC research notes)
[2020, 13(1):81]

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Comparative Pathology of West Nile Virus in Humans and Non-Human Animals.

Alex D Byas, Gregory D Ebel,

West Nile virus (WNV) continues to be a major cause of human arboviral neuroinvasive disease. Susceptible non-human vertebrates are particularly diverse, ranging from commonly affected birds and horses to less commonly affected species such as alligators. This review summarizes the pathology caused by West Nile virus during natural infections of ... Read more >>

Pathogens (Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 9(1):]

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Cellular microRNA-155 Regulates Virus-Induced Inflammatory Response and Protects against Lethal West Nile Virus Infection.

Janhavi P Natekar, Hussin A Rothan, Komal Arora, Philip G Strate, Mukesh Kumar,

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that has disseminated globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. MircoRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates various aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses. We previously reported that WNV infection induces upregulation of miR-155 in mice brains. In the current study, we demonstrate ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2019, 12(1):]

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Serological Evidence for Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections in Domestic Birds in Cambodia.

Heidi Auerswald, Anne-Sophie Ruget, Helena Ladreyt, Saraden In, Sokthearom Mao, San Sorn, Sothyra Tum, Veasna Duong, Philippe Dussart, Julien Cappelle, Véronique Chevalier,

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses with an enzootic transmission cycle like Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are a major public health concern. The circulation of JEV in Southeast Asia is well-documented, and the important role of pigs as amplification hosts for the virus is long known. The influence of ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in Veterinary Science)
[2020, 7:15]

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West Nile or Usutu Virus? A Three-Year Follow-Up of Humoral and Cellular Response in a Group of Asymptomatic Blood Donors.

Elena Percivalle, Irene Cassaniti, Antonella Sarasini, Francesca Rovida, Kodjo Messan Guy Adzasehoun, Ilaria Colombini, Paola Isernia, Irene Cuppari, Fausto Baldanti,

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are two related arboviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae), with birds as a reservoir and mosquitoes as transmitting vectors. In recent years, WNV epidemiology changed in many European countries with increased frequency of outbreaks posing the issue of virus transmission risks by blood ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(2):]

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New avenues for therapeutic discovery against West Nile virus.

Alessandro Sinigaglia, Elektra Peta, Silvia Riccetti, Luisa Barzon,

Introduction: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus, which is endemic in many countries, especially in Europe and in North America, where the virus has increased its activity in the recent years. No vaccines nor antiviral drugs are available for the prevention and treatment of WNV infection in ... Read more >>

Expert Opin Drug Discov (Expert opinion on drug discovery)
[2020, 15(3):333-348]

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BAFF Produced by Neutrophils and Dendritic Cells Is Regulated Differently and Has Distinct Roles in Antibody Responses and Protective Immunity against West Nile Virus.

Daniela Giordano, Runa Kuley, Kevin E Draves, Kelsey Roe, Ursula Holder, Natalia V Giltiay, Edward A Clark,

B cell activating factor (BAFF) is essential for B cells to develop and respond to Ags. Dysregulation of BAFF contributes to the development of some autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Little is known about when, where, and how BAFF is produced in vivo and about which BAFF-producing cells contribute to B ... Read more >>

J. Immunol. (Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950))
[2020, 204(6):1508-1520]

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