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Viral Encephalitis

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Tick-borne encephalitis virus NS4A ubiquitination antagonizes type I interferon-stimulated STAT1/2 signalling pathway.

Qi Yang, Jia You, Yuan Zhou, Yun Wang, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen, Min Yang, Jizheng Chen,

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) accounts for approximately 10,000 annual cases of severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia and causes encephalitis in humans. In this study, we demonstrate TBEV appears to activate the interferon (IFN)-β dependent on RIG-I/MDA5. Both the IFN-β accumulation and the IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) transcription greatly delay. ... Read more >>

Emerg Microbes Infect (Emerging microbes & infections)
[2020, 9(1):714-726]

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Symposium report: emerging threats for human health - impact of socioeconomic and climate change on zooanthroponosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

Irene Huber, Katerina Potapova, Elena Ammosova, Wolfgang Beyer, Sergey Blagodatskiy, Roman Desyatkin, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Margarita Ignateva, Ludmila Kokolova, Stefanie Lemke, Mikhail Neustroev, Ayan Nyukkanov, Galina Protodyakonova, Alexander Reshetnikov, Thomas Romig, Vyacheslav Shadrin, Izabella Samoilova, Sergey Semenov, Konstantin Stepanov, Nadezhda Tarabukina, Liliia Vinokurova, Raisa Zakharova, Konstantin Nifontov,

Population growth, socio-cultural and economic changes as well as technological progress have an immediate impact on the environment and human health in particular. Our steadily rising needs of resources increase the pressure on the environment and narrow down untainted habitats for plants and wild animals. Balance and resilience of ecosystems ... Read more >>

Int J Circumpolar Health (International journal of circumpolar health)
[2020, 79(1):1715698]

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Double Crossed: A Case of La Crosse Encephalitis.

Ann Ding, Burton Shen, Sarah Elliott, Khushbu Joshi, Daniel Coghlin, Suzanne McLaughlin,

CASE REPORT:A 10-year-old male with T1DM and recent travel to North Carolina presented to an ED with 1 day of fever, vomiting, and headaches. He was discharged home with the presumptive diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis but returned nine hours later, agitated, and unable to speak. CSF showed pleocytosis. MRI brain ... Read more >>

R I Med J (2013) (Rhode Island medical journal (2013))
[2020, 103(3):59-62]

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Transcriptomic Analysis Suggests the M1 Polarization and Launch of Diverse Programmed Cell Death Pathways in Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Infected Macrophages.

Zhao-Yang Wang, Zi-Da Zhen, Dong-Ying Fan, Pei-Gang Wang, Jing An,

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a Culex mosquito-borne flavivirus and is the pathogenic agent of Japanese encephalitis, which is the most important type of viral encephalitis in the world. Macrophages are a type of pivotal innate immunocyte that serve as sentinels and respond quickly to pathogen invasions. However, some ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(3):]

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Viral encephalitis followed by anti-NMDAR encephalitis with concomitant MOG antibody-positive central nervous system demyelination in a child.

Jiannan Ma, Li Jiang,

Neurol. Sci. (Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology)
[2020, :]

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Study of the association of seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotypes in the TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 genes with the antibody response to inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

Yufeng Yao, Xiuwen Xu, Yaheng Li, Xiaona Wang, Huijuan Yang, Jun Chen, Shuyuan Liu, Yan Deng, Zhimei Zhao, Qiongzhou Yin, Mingbo Sun, Li Shi,

To investigate whether the TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 genes contribute to variations in vaccine-induced immune responses after immunization with the inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (IJEV), a total of 369 individuals who received the IJEV were enrolled. Based on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) neutralization antibodies (NAbs), the individuals were divided ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-7]

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CD8 T Cells and STAT1 Signaling Are Essential Codeterminants in Protection from Polyomavirus Encephalopathy.

Taryn E Mockus, Colleen S Netherby-Winslow, Hannah M Atkins, Matthew D Lauver, Ge Jin, Heather M Ren, Aron E Lukacher,

JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), a human-specific virus, causes the aggressive brain-demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in individuals with depressed immune status. The increasing incidence of PML in patients receiving immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic agents creates a pressing clinical need to define biomarkers to stratify PML risk and develop anti-JCPyV interventions. Mouse ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, 94(8):]

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Polio vaccination campaign in Pakistan: a step towards eradication or still a challenge in hand?

Tauseef Ahmad, Muhammad Khan, Taha Hussein Musa, Jin Hui,

Polio is an acute viral disease that is still endemic in Pakistan. The polio vaccination program is facing many challenges that result in an increased number of new cases. The success of polio vaccination has been threatened in different parts of Pakistan. In the past, the immunization program was affected ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-2]

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Herpes simplex encephalitis: A new type of “ICU-acquired infection”?

Fabien Hauw, Vera Dinkelacker, Pierre Jaquet, Hervé Vespignani, Charles Grégoire, Mathilde Perrin, Nicolas Engrand,

Electrophysiology; Infectious disease; Neurology; Neurosurgery; Intensive care medicine; Herpes simplex Encephalitis; Intensive care; Immunosuppression; ICU acquired Infection; Herpes simplex reactivation ... Read more >>

Heliyon (Heliyon)
[2020, 6(3):]

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Comparative economic analysis of strategies for Japanese encephalitis vaccination of U.S. travelers.

Cristina Carias, Susan L Hills, Emily B Kahn, Bishwa B Adhikari, Marc Fischer, Martin I Meltzer,

BACKGROUND:Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in Asia. For most travelers, JE risk is very low but varies based on several factors, including travel duration, location, and activities. To aid public health officials, health care providers, and travelers evaluate the worth of administering/ receiving pre-travel ... Read more >>

Vaccine (Vaccine)
[2020, 38(17):3351-3357]

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Just for Chinese people's stood up-Prof. Fangzhou Gu, father of "sugar pills".

Jun Wu, Dexiang Dong, Ying Li,

Protein Cell (Protein & cell)
[2020, 11(4):231-234]

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Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of Infectious Encephalitis and Meningitis: A Large, Prospective Case Series of 213 Patients.

Xiao-Wei Xing, Jia-Tang Zhang, Yu-Bao Ma, Mian-Wang He, Guo-En Yao, Wei Wang, Xiao-Kun Qi, Xiao-Yan Chen, Lei Wu, Xiao-Lin Wang, Yong-Hua Huang, Juan Du, Hong-Fen Wang, Rong-Fei Wang, Fei Yang, Sheng-Yuan Yu,

Purpose: We assessed the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in the diagnosis of infectious encephalitis and meningitis. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with viral encephalitis and/or meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, bacterial meningitis, fungal meningitis, and non-central nervous system (CNS) infections were subjected to ... Read more >>

Front Cell Infect Microbiol (Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology)
[2020, 10:88]

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Self-remitting cerebral cortical encephalitis associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody mimicking acute viral encephalitis: A case report.

Tai Otani, Takashi Irioka, Susumu Igarashi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Takanori Yokota,

A 22-year-old woman acutely developed recurrent convulsive seizures followed by fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid study showed leukocytosis without hypoglycorrhachia. These clinical features suggested acute viral or aseptic encephalitis. The patient was treated only with an antiviral agent and improved immediately with good prognosis. Afterwards, the characteristic brain MRI findings ... Read more >>

Mult Scler Relat Disord (Multiple sclerosis and related disorders)
[2020, 41:102033]

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Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of Regulatory T Cells in Neurotropic Virus Infections.

Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Andreas Beineke,

Neurotropic viruses infect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause acute or chronic neurologic disabilities. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role for immune homeostasis, but may inhibit pathogen-specific immunity in infectious disorders. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about Treg in human CNS infections and their animal ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(5):]

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Differential alphavirus defective RNA diversity between intracellular and encapsidated compartments is driven by subgenomic recombination events

RM Langsjoen, AE Muruato, SR Kunkel, Jaworski, Routh,

ABSTRACT Alphaviruses are positive-sense RNA arboviruses that can cause either a chronic arthritis or a potentially lethal encephalitis. Like other RNA viruses, alphaviruses produce truncated, defective genomes featuring large deletions during replication. Defective RNAs (D-RNAs) have primarily been isolated from virions after high-multiplicity of infection passaging. Here, we aimed to ... Read more >>

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A need to raise the bar - A systematic review of temporal trends in diagnostics for Japanese encephalitis virus infection, and perspectives for future research.

Tehmina Bharucha, Freya M Shearer, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Mayfong Mayxay, Xavier de Lamballerie, Paul N Newton, Nicole Zitzmann, Ernest Gould, Audrey Dubot-Pérès,

OBJECTIVE:Japanese encephalitis virus infection (JEV) remains a leading cause of neurological infection in Asia, largely involving individuals living in remote areas with limited access to treatment centres and diagnostic facilities. Laboratory confirmation is fundamental for the justification and implementation of vaccination programmes. We sought to review the literature on historical ... Read more >>

Int. J. Infect. Dis. (International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases)
[2020, :]

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Cryo-EM structure of eastern equine encephalitis virus in complex with heparan sulfate analogues.

Chun-Liang Chen, S Saif Hasan, Thomas Klose, Yingyuan Sun, Geeta Buda, Chengqun Sun, William B Klimstra, Michael G Rossmann,

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), a mosquito-borne icosahedral alphavirus found mainly in North America, causes human and equine neurotropic infections. EEEV neurovirulence is influenced by the interaction of the viral envelope protein E2 with heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans from the host's plasma membrane during virus entry. Here, we present a ... Read more >>

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
[2020, :]

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Forty years with coronaviruses.

Susan R Weiss,

I have been researching coronaviruses for more than forty years. This viewpoint summarizes some of the major findings in coronavirus research made before the SARS epidemic and how they inform current research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2. ... Read more >>

J. Exp. Med. (The Journal of experimental medicine)
[2020, 217(5):]

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Neutralizing antibody persistence in pediatric travelers from non-JE-endemic countries following vaccination with IXIARO® Japanese encephalitis vaccine: An uncontrolled, open-label phase 3 follow-up study.

Christian Taucher, Elizabeth D Barnett, Jakob P Cramer, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Tomas Jelinek, Vera Kadlecek, Sigrid Kiermayr, Deborah J Mills, Duellyn Pandis, Daniela Reiner, Katrin L Dubischar,

BACKGROUND:In an initial study among children from non-Japanese encephalitis (JE)-endemic countries, seroprotection rates remained high 6 months after completion of the primary series with IXIARO®. METHODS:In this open-label follow-up study, a subset of 23 children who received a 2-dose primary series of IXIARO® in the parent study, were evaluated for ... Read more >>

Travel Med Infect Dis (Travel medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, :101616]

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The burden of Japanese encephalitis, the catch-up vaccination campaign, and health service providers' perceptions in Myanmar: 2012-2017.

Aung Ye Naung Win, Khin Thet Wai, Anthony D Harries, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Tin Oo, Wint Phyo Than, Htar Htar Lin, Zaw Lin,

Background:Myanmar is endemic for Japanese encephalitis (JE) and has experienced several outbreaks in recent years. The vector-borne disease control (VBDC) program has collected hospital-based surveillance data since 1974. There is an urgent need to collate, analyze, and interpret the most recent information. The study aimed to describe (i) hospital-based JE ... Read more >>

Trop Med Health (Tropical medicine and health)
[2020, 48:13]

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Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis with IC51: systematic review on immunogenicity, duration of protection and safety.

Kerstin Kling, Thomas Harder, Zane Younger, Gerd Burchard, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Ole Wichmann,

Japanese encephalitis is a disease caused by a flavivirus which is transmitted by mosquitos in endemic countries. Considering the potentially severe outcomes of the disease, vaccination is recommended for those at risk of exposure. During recent years, IC51 (IXIARO®, JESPECT®, JEVAL®) has increasingly been used to protect travellers from Europe ... Read more >>

J Travel Med (Journal of travel medicine)
[2020, 27(2):]

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Feedback inhibition of bovine herpesvirus 5 replication by dual-copy bhv5-miR-B10-3p.

Jie Liu, Xian-Rong Song, Ke Zheng, Wen-Jing Zhang, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu,

Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is a pathogen of cattle responsible for fatal meningoencephalitis. Like alpha herpesvirus subfamily members, BoHV-5 also encodes microRNA in lytic infections of epithelial cells. BoHV-5-miR-B10 was the most abundant miRNA detected in a high-throughput sequencing study. Here, we evaluated the kinetics of miR-B10 expression after BoHV-5 ... Read more >>

J. Gen. Virol. (The Journal of general virology)
[2020, 101(3):290-298]

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The Effects of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine and Accelerated Dosing Scheduling on the Immunogenicity of the Chimeric Yellow Fever Derived Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: A Phase II, Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Center Trial in Adults Aged 18 to 45 Years in the United States.

Aaron Glass, Mark Polhemus, Dongliang Wang, Richard G Jarman, Stephen J Thomas, Heather Friberg, Jeffrey R Currier, Matthew Bonaparte, Rafael De La Barra, Michael F Princiotta, Mark Abbott, Brian Cuzzo, Tifany Machabert, Saranya Sridhar, Timothy P Endy,

BACKGROUND:Dengue is a global health problem requiring an effective, safe dengue vaccine. METHODS:We report the results of a phase II, randomized, open-label, single-center trial in adults aged 18 to 45 years in the United States designed to explore the effects of the Chimeric Yellow Fever Derived Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV, ... Read more >>

J. Infect. Dis. (The Journal of infectious diseases)
[2020, 221(7):1057-1069]

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Advanced Safety and Genetic Stability in Mice of a Novel DNA-Launched Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine with Rearranged Structural Genes.

Dylan M Johnson, Kevin J Sokoloski, Jenny D Jokinen, Tia L Pfeffer, Yong-Kyu Chu, Robert S Adcock, Donghoon Chung, Irina Tretyakova, Peter Pushko, Igor S Lukashevich,

The safety and genetic stability of V4020, a novel Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) vaccine based on the investigational VEEV TC-83 strain, was evaluated in mice. V4020 was generated from infectious DNA, contains a stabilizing mutation in the E2-120 glycoprotein, and includes rearrangement of structural genes. After intracranial inoculation (IC), ... Read more >>

Vaccines (Basel) (Vaccines)
[2020, 8(1):]

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Japanese encephalitis in the Western Pacific Region: Implication from the Republic of Korea.

Young June Choe, Youngmee Jee, Yoshihiro Takashima, Jong-Koo Lee,

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in the Western Pacific Region. We aim to describe the regional status of control of JE, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance data, and to share the experience from the Republic of Korea. Substantial progress has been made in the region to date; ... Read more >>

Vaccine (Vaccine)
[2020, 38(13):2760-2763]

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