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Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

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Factors Predictive of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

Duraid Younan, Sarah J Delozier, John Adamski, Andrew Loudon, Aisha Violette, Jeffrey Ustin, Glen Tinkoff, Matthew L Moorman, Nathaniel McQuay, ,

BACKGROUND:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the development of VAP in critically ill trauma patients. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of trauma patients admitted to our trauma intensive care unit between 2016 and 2018. Patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia were ... Read more >>

World J Surg (World journal of surgery)
[2020, 44(4):1121-1125]

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S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) Impregnated Endotracheal Tubes for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

Katie H Homeyer, Priyadarshini Singha, Marcus J Goudie, Hitesh Handa,

The chances of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) increases 6- to 20-fold when an endotracheal tube is placed in a patient. VAP is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections and comprises 86% of the nosocomial pneumonia cases. This work introduces the idea of nitric oxide-releasing endotracheal tubes (NORel-ETTs) fabricated by the ... Read more >>

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (Biotechnology and bioengineering)
[2020, :]

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An overview of ceftolozane sulfate + tazobactam for treating hospital acquired pneumonia.

Ibai Los-Arcos, Joaquin Burgos, Vicenç Falcó, Benito Almirante,

Introduction: Ceftolozane-tazobactam is a combination of a new cephalosporin, with activity similar to that of ceftazidime, and a known inhibitor of beta-lactamases. This compound shows excellent activity against most gram-negative organisms causative of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP), including extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas ... Read more >>

Expert Opin Pharmacother (Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy)
[2020, :1-9]

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[Nosocomial pneumonia].

Joachim Großmann, Sebastian Schulz-Stübner,

Nosocomial pneumonia is one of the leading entities of nosocomial infections in Germany and worldwide with invasive ventilation being one of the major risk factors. However nosocomial pneumonia without ventilator support is an underappreciated complication as demonstrated by prevalence studies of the European Centre for Disease Control in 2011 and ... Read more >>

Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. (Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946))
[2020, 145(6):371-382]

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Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with cerebral hemorrhage: Impact on mortality and microbiological characterization.

Lu Yu Xue, Saren Gaowa, Wei Wang, Feng Zhao, He Chen Zhu, Xiao Yan Yu, Ye Gong,

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major complication among critically ill patients who depend on mechanical ventilation. Few reports have focused on intracerebral hemorrhage patients with VAP. Our main objective was to investigate the bacteria distribution characteristics and the impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia mortality in critical cerebral hemorrhage patients. This retrospective ... Read more >>

Med Clin (Barc) (Medicina clinica)
[2020, :]

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Ventilator-associated pneumonia: new principles guiding empiric antibiotic therapy.

Cristina Dominedò, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious event in critically ill patients. We aim to review the most recent evidences about VAP, including its cause, the main differences between the American and European guidelines in the definition of risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens, the main principles guiding empirical antibiotic ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. (Current opinion in infectious diseases)
[2020, 33(2):182-188]

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Considerations in the Selection of Renal Dosage Adjustments for Patients with Serious Infections and Lessons Learned from the Development of Ceftazidime-Avibactam.

Jianguo Li, Mark Lovern, Todd Riccobene, Timothy J Carrothers, Paul Newell, Shampa Das, Angela K Talley, Margaret Tawadrous,

An extensive clinical development program (comprising two phase 2 and five phase 3 trials) has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of adults with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). During the phase 3 clinical ... Read more >>

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy)
[2020, 64(4):]

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Impact of KPC-production and high-level meropenem resistance on all-cause mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia in association with Klebisella pneumoniae.

Francisco Rivera-Espinar, Isabel Machuca, Rocio Tejero, Jorge Rodríguez, Ana Mula, Eduardo Marfil, Ángela Cano, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Marina Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Pozo, Carmen De la Fuente, Jesús Rodriguez-Baño, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Rafael León, Julian Torre-Cisneros,

Objectives: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and specifically KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) are rapidly spreading worldwide. The prognosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is not well known. Our study tries to assess whether ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by a KPC-Kp strain is associated with higher all-cause mortality than if ... Read more >>

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy)
[2020, :]

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Optimizing aerosol delivery of antibiotics in ventilated patients.

Stephan Ehrmann, Charles-Edouard Luyt,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of the article is to review the evidence to select ventilated patients most likely to benefit from inhaled antibiotic therapy and summarize the optimal implementation setup to favor clinical success. RECENT FINDINGS:Although a large body of literature describes the optimal ventilator circuit and settings to implement ... Read more >>

Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. (Current opinion in infectious diseases)
[2020, 33(2):197-204]

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Performance and impact of a multiplex PCR in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilated hospital-acquired pneumonia

Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Lila BOUADMA, Vincent MATHY, Kahina ALLOUCHE, Juliette PATRIER, Martin REBOUL, Philippe MONTRAVERS, Jean-François TIMSIT, Laurence ARMAND-LEFEVRE,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background: Early appropriate antibiotic therapy reduces morbidity and mortality of severe pneumonia. However, the emergence of bacterial resistance requires the earliest use of antibiotics with the narrowest possible spectrum. The Unyvero Hospitalized Pneumonia (HPN, Curetis) test is a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) system detecting 21 bacteria and ... Read more >>

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Correction to: Ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: understanding nebulization of aminoglycosides and colistin.

J J Rouby, C Sole-Lleonart, J Rello, ,

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. There was a typographical error in Figure 1: "Nebulization time ≤ 30 min" (first light blue square) should be replaced by "Nebulization time ≤ 90 min". The authors apologize for the mistake. ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(4):832]

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Early Tracheostomy in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Meta-Analysis and Comparison With Late Tracheostomy.

Sabrina Araujo de Franca, Wagner M Tavares, Angela S M Salinet, Wellingson S Paiva, Manoel J Teixeira,

OBJECTIVES:To elucidate the impact of early tracheostomy on hospitalization outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. DATA SOURCES:Lilacs, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched. The close-out date was August 8, 2018. STUDY SELECTION:Studies written in English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese with traumatic brain injury as the base trauma, clearly formulated ... Read more >>

Crit. Care Med. (Critical care medicine)
[2020, 48(4):e325-e331]

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Hospital-acquired Pneumonia and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Children: A Prospective Natural History and Case-Control Study.

Jessica E Ericson, John McGuire, Marian G Michaels, Adam Schwarz, Robert Frenck, Jaime G Deville, Swati Agarwal, Adam M Bressler, Jamie Gao, Tracy Spears, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, John S Bradley, ,

BACKGROUND:Clinical trials for antibiotics designed to treat hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonias (HABP/VABP) are hampered by making these diagnoses in a way that is acceptable to the United States Food and Drug Administration and consistent with standards of care. We examined laboratory and clinical features that might improve pediatric HABP/VABP ... Read more >>

Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, :]

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Cortisol total/CRP ratio for the prediction of hospital-acquired pneumonia and initiation of corticosteroid therapy in traumatic brain-injured patients.

Linpei Jia, Hongliang Zhang,

Crit Care (Critical care (London, England))
[2020, 24(1):77]

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Ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a narrative review.

Laurent Papazian, Michael Klompas, Charles-Edouard Luyt,

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most frequent ICU-acquired infections. Reported incidences vary widely from 5 to 40% depending on the setting and diagnostic criteria. VAP is associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay. The estimated attributable mortality of VAP is around 10%, with higher mortality ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, :]

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Epidemiology and Impact of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Trauma Patients: A National Data Analysis.

Amanda J Hessels, Yen-Hong Kuo, Nasim Ahmed,

Background: Traumatic injuries are a leading cause of death and morbidity. Despite their comprising a small (<5%) segment of all hospitalizations, the length of stay (LOS) is above average; and the cost of care for the more than 20 million trauma inpatients nears $30 billion per year. Adding insult to ... Read more >>

Surg Infect (Larchmt) (Surgical infections)
[2020, :]

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Nurses' knowledge, experience and self-reported adherence to evidence-based guidelines for prevention of ventilator-associated events: A national online survey.

Auxillia Madhuvu, Ruth Endacott, Virginia Plummer, Julia Morphet,

OBJECTIVE:To explore Australian intensive care nurses' knowledge of ventilator-associated pneumonia and self-reported adherence to evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated events. DESIGN:A quantitative cross-sectional online survey was used. SETTING:The study was conducted in two Australia intensive care units, in large health services in Victoria and an Australia-wide nurses' professional ... Read more >>

Intensive Crit Care Nurs (Intensive & critical care nursing)
[2020, :102827]

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Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) Guidelines. 2019 Update.

Antoni Torres, José Barberán, Adrian Ceccato, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Miguel Ferrer, Rosario Menéndez, David Rigau,

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second leading cause of nosocomial infection, and increases morbidity and mortality. It is currently classified into three groups: HAP not requiring artificial ventilation, HAP requiring artificial ventilation, and HAP acquired during artificial ventilation, also known as ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP). The latest guidelines for the management ... Read more >>

Arch. Bronconeumol. (Archivos de bronconeumologia)
[2020, :]

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Probiotics for the Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Minmin Su, Ying Jia, Yan Li, Dianyou Zhou, Jinsheng Jia,

BACKGROUND:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious complication of mechanical ventilation. We conducted a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotics for VAP prevention in patients who received mechanical ventilation. METHODS:We searched a number of medical literature databases to identify randomized controlled ... Read more >>

Respir Care (Respiratory care)
[2020, :]

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In Vitro Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Against Isolates from Respiratory and Blood Specimens from Patients with Nosocomial Pneumonia, including Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, in a Phase 3 Clinical Trial.

Gregory G Stone, Patricia A Bradford, Margaret Tawadrous, Dianna Taylor, Mary Jane Cadatal, Zhangjing Chen, Joseph W Chow,

Nosocomial pneumonia (NP), including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), is increasingly associated with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This study describes the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftazidime, and relevant comparator agents against bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with NP, including VAP, enrolled in a ceftazidime-avibactam phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01808092). Gram-positive pathogens ... Read more >>

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy)
[2020, :]

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Trends, risk factors and outcomes of healthcare-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in Italy during 2013-2017.

Marina Silvia Scamardo, Pasquale Dolce, Eliana Pia Esposito, Francesco Raimondi, Maria Triassi, Raffaele Zarrilli,

BACKGROUND:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occur frequently in intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to analyze the results of surveillance of HAIs in a III level NICU in Naples, Italy during 2013-2017 and to compare with those obtained during 2006-2010. METHODS:The surveillance included 1265 neonates of all birth ... Read more >>

Ital J Pediatr (Italian journal of pediatrics)
[2020, 46(1):34]

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Introducing an oral care assessment tool with advanced cleaning products into a high-risk clinical setting.

Angela Chick, Ahlam Wynne,

Poor oral hygiene is an important risk factor for the development of non-ventilator hospital-associated pneumonia (NV-HAP), which imposes a significant burden on the NHS. This study aimed to establish whether the use of a 24-hour oral care kit and an oral care assessment tool can meet the needs of patients ... Read more >>

Br J Nurs (British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing))
[2020, 29(5):290-296]

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Microbiological profile of ventilator-associated pneumonia among intensive care unit patients in tertiary Egyptian hospitals.

Alaa M Farag, Mahmoud M Tawfick, Mostafa Y Abozeed, Emad A Shaban, Maha A Abo-Shadi,

INTRODUCTION:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the common serious infectious diseases encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU), which highly affects the healthcare cost and patient prognosis. VAP is caused by various antimicrobial-resistant aetiological agents and the clinical manifestations lack sensitivity and specificity, making the prompt treatment is a challenge. ... Read more >>

J Infect Dev Ctries (Journal of infection in developing countries)
[2020, 14(2):153-161]

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Postoperative Pneumonia after Craniotomy: Incidence, Risk Factor, Prediction with Nomogram.

Daming Zhang, Haoran Zhuo, Guang Yang, Huang Huang, Chunmei Li, Xiaoxiong Wang, Shiguang Zhao, Jennifer Moliterno, Yawei Zhang,

BACKGROUND:Postoperative pneumonia is the third most common complication in surgical patients. However, little is known regarding pneumonia after craniotomy, which is the most commonly performed surgery in the neurosurgery department. AIM:To investigate the incidence of pneumonia and its association with the length of hospital stay, identify risk factors, and build ... Read more >>

J. Hosp. Infect. (The Journal of hospital infection)
[2020, :]

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Response to: Comment on "Tapered Cuff versus Conventional Cuff for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Ventilated Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials".

Xu An Huang, Wei Min Huang, Yan Ping Du, Liu Xia Li, Fang Fang Wu, Shao Qing Hong, Fang Xuan Tang, Zhang Qiang Ye,

Can. Respir. J. (Canadian respiratory journal)
[2020, 2020:1601785]

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