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Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

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Advanced Safety and Genetic Stability in Mice of a Novel DNA-Launched Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine with Rearranged Structural Genes.

Dylan M Johnson, Kevin J Sokoloski, Jenny D Jokinen, Tia L Pfeffer, Yong-Kyu Chu, Robert S Adcock, Donghoon Chung, Irina Tretyakova, Peter Pushko, Igor S Lukashevich,

The safety and genetic stability of V4020, a novel Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) vaccine based on the investigational VEEV TC-83 strain, was evaluated in mice. V4020 was generated from infectious DNA, contains a stabilizing mutation in the E2-120 glycoprotein, and includes rearrangement of structural genes. After intracranial inoculation (IC), ... Read more >>

Vaccines (Basel) (Vaccines)
[2020, 8(1):]

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Antibodies for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Protect Embryoid Bodies from Chikungunya Virus.

Emily M Schultz, TyAnthony J Jones, Kelli L Barr,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses, and whether ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(3):]

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The transcriptional landscape of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection

Zhiyuan Yao, Fabio Zanini, Sathish Kumar, Nuttada Panpradist, Avery Muniz, Stephen Quake, Shirit Einav,

Abstract No vaccines or antivirals are approved against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infection in humans. To improve our understanding of VEEV-host interactions, we simultaneously profiled host transcriptome and viral RNA (vRNA) in thousands of single cells during infection of human astrocytes. Host transcription was suppressed, and “superproducer cells” with ... Read more >>

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis vaccine with rearranged genome resists reversion and protects non-human primates from viremia after aerosol challenge.

Irina Tretyakova, Kenneth S Plante, Shannan L Rossi, William S Lawrence, Jennifer E Peel, Sif Gudjohnsen, Eryu Wang, Divya Mirchandani, Alexander Tibbens, Tek N Lamichhane, Igor S Lukashevich, Jason E Comer, Scott C Weaver, Peter Pushko,

Live-attenuated V4020 vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) containing attenuating rearrangement of the virus structural genes was evaluated in a non-human primate model for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against aerosol challenge with wild-type VEEV. The genomic RNA of V4020 vaccine virus was encoded in the pMG4020 plasmid under control ... Read more >>

Vaccine (Vaccine)
[2020, 38(17):3378-3386]

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Influence of climatic variables on the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus populations in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Lucinéia Claudia De Toni Aquino da Cruz, Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães, Emerson Marques de Souza, Raquel da Silva Ferreira, Raphael de Souza Rosa Gomes, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko, Marina Atanaka,

INTRODUCTION:Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector species responsible for the transmission of important arboviruses. METHODS:Adult mosquitoes were collected in the urban areas of four municipalities in Mato Grosso within 1 year. RESULTS:A total of 19,110 mosquitoes were collected. Among them, 16,578 (86,8%) were C. quinquefasciatus (44% female and 56% ... Read more >>

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. (Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
[2020, 53:e20190185]

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Mutations in Hypervariable Domain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 Protein Differentially Affect Viral Replication.

Chetan D Meshram, Aaron T Phillips, Tetyana Lukash, Nikita Shiliaev, Elena I Frolova, Ilya Frolov,

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is one of the important human and animal pathogens. It forms replication enzyme complexes (RCs) containing viral nonstructural proteins (nsPs) that mediate the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs. The assembly and associated functions of RC also depend on the presence of a specific set of host ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2020, 94(3):]

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Endemic and epidemic human alphavirus infections in Eastern Panama; An Analysis of Population-based Cross-Sectional Surveys

Jean-Paul Carrera, Zulma Cucunubá, Karen Neira, Ben Lambert, Yaneth Pittí, Carmela Jackman, Jesus Liscano, Jorge Garzón, Davis Beltran, Luisa Collado-Mariscal, Lisseth Saenz, Néstor Sosa, Luis Rodriguez-Guzman, Publio González, Andrés Lezcano, Reneé Pereyra-Elías, Anayansi Valderrama, Scott Weaver, Amy Vittor, Blas Armién, Juan-Miguel Pascale, Christl Donnelly,

Abstract Background Madariaga virus (MADV), has recently been associated with severe human disease in Panama, where the closely related Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) also circulates. In June, 2017, a fatal MADV infection was confirmed in a community of Darien province. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional outbreak investigation with human ... Read more >>

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Special Issue "Equine Viruses": Old "Friends" and New Foes?

Romain Paillot,

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million (FAOSTAT 2017).[...]. ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(2):]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Antibodies for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Protect Embryoid Bodies from Chikungunya Virus

Emily Schultz, TyAnthony Jones, Hannah Clamp, Kelli Barr,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses and whether ... Read more >>

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Mayaro virus in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Niloofar Ganjian, Ana Riviere-Cinnamond,

Objectives:To assess the distribution of Mayaro virus (MAYV) in Latin America and the Caribbean and evaluate existing country-level MAYV surveillance mechanisms. Methods:Research was conducted from May 2018 through May 2019 to collect data from academic literature on Mayaro fever in Latin America and the Caribbean. PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, ... Read more >>

Rev. Panam. Salud Publica (Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública)
[2020, 44:e14]

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Evaluation of altered environmental conditions as a decontamination approach for nonspore-forming biological agents.

W R Richter, M M Sunderman, M Q S Wendling, S Serre, L Mickelsen, R Rupert, J Wood, Y Choi, Z Willenberg, M W Calfee,

AIMS:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of altered environmental conditions on the persistence of Francisella tularensis bacteria and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), on two material types. METHODS AND RESULTS:Francisella tularensis (F.t.) and VEEV were inoculated (c. 1 × 108 colony-forming units or PFU), dried onto porous and nonporous ... Read more >>

J. Appl. Microbiol. (Journal of applied microbiology)
[2020, 128(4):1050-1059]

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Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?

Sylvie Lecollinet, Stéphane Pronost, Muriel Coulpier, Cécile Beck, Gaelle Gonzalez, Agnès Leblond, Pierre Tritz,

Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2019, 12(1):]

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Benzamidine ML336 inhibits plus and minus strand RNA synthesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus without affecting host RNA production.

Andrew M Skidmore, Robert S Adcock, Colleen B Jonsson, Jennifer E Golden, Dong-Hoon Chung,

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that is endemic to the Americas. VEEV outbreaks occur periodically and cause encephalitis in both humans and equids. There are currently no therapeutics or vaccines for treatment of VEEV in humans. Our group has previously reported on the development of a benzamidine ... Read more >>

Antiviral Res. (Antiviral research)
[2020, 174:104674]

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Robustness of Serologic Investigations for Chikungunya and Mayaro Viruses following Coemergence.

Carlo Fischer, Fernando Bozza, Xiomara Jeanleny Merino Merino, Celia Pedroso, Edmilson F de Oliveira Filho, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Alvaro Schwalb, Xavier de Lamballerie, Eduardo Martins Netto, Patrícia T Bozza, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Michael Talledo, Jan Felix Drexler,

Since 2013, the arthropod-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has cocirculated with the autochthonous Mayaro virus (MAYV) in Latin America. Both belong to the same alphavirus serocomplex, termed the Semliki Forest serocomplex. The extent of antibody cross-reactivity due to the antigenic relatedness of CHIKV and MAYV in commonly used serologic tests remains ... Read more >>

mSphere (mSphere)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Perspectives Regarding the Risk of Introduction of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) in the United States.

Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Leela E Noronha, Dana Mitzel, D Scott McVey, Natalia Cernicchiaro,

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic, emerging disease transmitted by mosquito vectors infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Its potential for emergence into susceptible regions is high, including in the United States (US), and is a reason of economic concern among the agricultural community, and to public health due ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:48]

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Discriminating Tonate Virus from Dengue Virus Infection: A Matched Case-Control Study in French Guiana, 2003-2016.

Rémi Mutricy, Félix Djossou, Séverine Matheus, Enguerrane Lorenzi-Martinez, Franck De Laval, Magalie Demar, Mathieu Nacher, Dominique Rousset, Loïc Epelboin,

Tonate virus (TONV) is an arbovirus discovered in 1973 in French Guiana (FG) belonging to the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex, Alphavirus genus. Only few publications and cases have been reported in FG. The objectives of the present study were to describe the clinical picture of TONV and to compare ... Read more >>

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2020, 102(1):195-201]

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Macromolecular Synthesis Shutoff Resistance by Myeloid Cells Is Critical to IRF7-Dependent Systemic Interferon Alpha/Beta Induction after Alphavirus Infection.

Nishank Bhalla, Christina L Gardner, Sierra N Downs, Matthew Dunn, Chengqun Sun, William B Klimstra,

Alphavirus infection of fibroblastic cell types in vitro inhibits host cell translation and transcription, leading to suppression of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) production. However, the effect of infection upon myeloid cells, which are often the first cells encountered by alphaviruses in vivo, is unclear. Previous studies demonstrated an association of systemic ... Read more >>

J. Virol. (Journal of virology)
[2019, 93(24):]

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Emerging Threats to Animals in the United Kingdom by Arthropod-Borne Diseases.

Arran J Folly, Daniel Dorey-Robinson, Luis M Hernández-Triana, L Paul Phipps, Nicholas Johnson,

Worldwide, arthropod-borne disease transmission represents one of the greatest threats to public and animal health. For the British Isles, an island group on the north-western coast of continental Europe consisting of the United Kingdom (UK) and the Republic of Ireland, physical separation offers a barrier to the introduction of many ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:20]

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EGR1 upregulation following Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection is regulated by ERK and PERK pathways contributing to cell death.

Bibha Dahal, Shih-Chao Lin, Brian D Carey, Jonathan L Jacobs, Jonathan D Dinman, Monique L van Hoek, Andre A Adams, Kylene Kehn-Hall,

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a neurotropic virus that causes significant disease in both humans and equines. Here we characterized the impact of VEEV on signaling pathways regulating cell death in human primary astrocytes. VEEV productively infected primary astrocytes and caused an upregulation of early growth response 1 (EGR1) ... Read more >>

Virology (Virology)
[2020, 539:121-128]

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Serologic Evidence of Zoonotic Alphaviruses in Humans from an Indigenous Community in the Peruvian Amazon.

Jocelyn G Pérez, Jean-Paul Carrera, Emmanuel Serrano, Yaneth Pittí, Jorge L Maguiña, Gregorio Mentaberre, Andrés G Lescano, Anayansi Valderrama, Pedro Mayor,

Alphaviruses (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) are arthropod-borne single-stranded RNA pathogens that cause febrile and neurologic disease in much of Latin America. However, many features of Alphavirus epidemiology remain unknown. In 2011, we undertook a cross-sectional study in Nueva Esperanza, an indigenous community in the Peruvian Amazon. Here, we present the first serologic ... Read more >>

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2019, 101(6):1212-1218]

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Inhibition of Chikungunya virus by an adenosine analog targeting the SAM-dependent nsP1 methyltransferase.

Rajat Mudgal, Supreeti Mahajan, Shailly Tomar,

Alphaviruses, including Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), are among the leading causes of recurrent epidemics all over the world. Alphaviral nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) orchestrates the capping of nascent viral RNA via its S-adenosyl methionine-dependent N-7-methyltransferase (MTase) and guanylyltransferase activities. Here, we developed and validated a novel ... Read more >>

FEBS Lett. (FEBS letters)
[2020, 594(4):678-694]

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First Complete Coding Sequence of a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain Isolated from an Equine Encephalitis Case in Costa Rica.

Bernal León, Carlos Jiménez, Rocío González, Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal,

The first complete coding sequence of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus IE, isolated from a Costa Rican mare with severe encephalitis, was confirmed by histological and viral whole-genome analyses. The isolated virus grouped in the Pacific cluster. ... Read more >>

Microbiol Resour Announc (Microbiology resource announcements)
[2019, 8(36):]

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CD200 is up-regulated in R6/1 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

Andrea Comella Bolla, Tony Valente, Andres Miguez, Veronica Brito, Silvia Gines, Carme Solà, Marco Straccia, Josep M Canals,

In Huntington's disease (HD), striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. However, there are many evidences that cells from the peripheral immune system and central nervous system (CNS) immune cells, namely microglia, play an important role in ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(12):e0224901]

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The prophylactic and therapeutic activity of a broadly active ribonucleoside analog in a murine model of intranasal venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

George R Painter, Richard A Bowen, Gregory R Bluemling, John DeBergh, Vindhya Edpuganti, Prabhakar R Gruddanti, David B Guthrie, Michael Hager, Damien L Kuiper, Mark A Lockwood, Deborah G Mitchell, Michael G Natchus, Zachary M Sticher, Alexander A Kolykhalov,

The New World alphaviruses Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV and WEEV, respectively) commonly cause a febrile disease that can progress to meningoencephalitis, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. To address the need for a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alphavirus infections, we identified and pursued ... Read more >>

Antiviral Res. (Antiviral research)
[2019, 171:104597]

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