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Vascular Malformations of the Spinal Cord

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Retroperitoneal approach for the treatment of diaphragmatic crus syndrome: technical note.

Zach Pennington, Bowen Jiang, Erick M Westbroek, Ethan Cottrill, Benjamin Greenberg, Philippe Gailloud, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ying Wei Lum, Nicholas Theodore,

OBJECTIVE:Myelopathy selectively involving the lower extremities can occur secondary to spondylotic changes, tumor, vascular malformations, or thoracolumbar cord ischemia. Vascular causes of myelopathy are rarely described. An uncommon etiology within this category is diaphragmatic crus syndrome, in which compression of an intersegmental artery supplying the cord leads to myelopathy. The ... Read more >>

J Neurosurg Spine (Journal of neurosurgery. Spine)
[2020, :1-6]

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Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring Correlates with Neurologic Outcome After Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of a Cervical Arteriovenous Malformation.

M Angeles Sánchez Roldán, Maria J Tellez, Francisco Mora, Saadi Ghatan, Chanland Roonprapunt, Sedat Ulkatan,

BACKGROUND: The treatment of spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) presents the risk of spinal cord ischemia because of the vascular nidus and their feeding arteries involving and supplying the spinal cord parenchyma. The multimodal approach includes endovascular embolization and microsurgical excision, both benefiting from intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. We present a case ... Read more >>

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg (Journal of neurological surgery. Part A, Central European neurosurgery)
[2020, :]

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The Influence of Physical Activity on Cavernous Malformation Hemorrhage.

Nycole K Joseph, Shivram Kumar, Giuseppe Lanzino, Kelly D Flemming,

BACKGROUND AND AIM:Cavernous malformations are low-flow vascular malformations of the central nervous system. Brainstem location and prior hemorrhage increase future hemorrhage risk. We sought to determine the influence of physical activity on hemorrhage risk. METHODS:Consecutive patients with radiologically confirmed cavernous malformations participated in a prospective registry with structured, baseline interviews, ... Read more >>

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis (Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association)
[2020, 29(4):104629]

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Endovascular Embolization of a Lateral Sacral Fistula: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Rudy J Rahme, Karl R Abi-Aad, Ahmad Kareem Almekkawi, Devi P Patra, Bernard R Bendok,

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas are the most common vascular malformations of the spine. They are localized in the sacral spine in 5% to 14% of the cases. They can be fed by the median or the lateral sacral arteries. These lesions present with nonspecific symptoms such as radiculopathy and/or myelopathy, ... Read more >>

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) (Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.))
[2020, :]

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Spinal epidural hematoma without significant trauma in children: two case reports and review of the literature.

Audrey Carlhan-Ledermann, Bernard Laubscher, Maja Steinlin, Christian T Ulrich, Rajeev Kumar Verma, Mattia Rizzi, Rodolfo Maduri, Sebastian Grunt,

BACKGROUND:Spinal epidural hematoma without significant trauma is a rare condition with potentially severe outcome. This case report and systematic review of the literature illustrates the clinical presentation, risk factors, evaluation, treatment and outcomes of spinal epidural hematoma without significant trauma in children. CASE PRESENTATION:We report one case of a 7-year-old ... Read more >>

BMC Pediatr (BMC Pediatrics)
[2020, 20(1):77]

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Compression of the S1 Nerve Root by an Extradural Vascular Malformation: A Case Report and Discussion of Atypical Causes of Lumbar Radiculopathy.

Jeffrey Thompson, Robert K Merrill, Sheeraz A Qureshi, Dante M Leven,

We present a case of lumbar radiculopathy due to a vascular malformation in the lumbar spine and discuss various causes of atypical lumbar radiculopathy. Lumbar radiculopathy is a condition of neurologic deficits and painful symptoms of the lower extremities due to nerve root compression, most commonly at the L5 and ... Read more >>

Int J Spine Surg (International Journal of Spine Surgery)
[2020, 14(1):96-101]

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Application of hybrid operating rooms for treating spinal dural arteriovenous fistula.

Nai Zhang, Wen-Qiang Xin,

BACKGROUNDA hybrid operating room (hybrid-OR) is a surgical space that combines a conventional operating room with advanced medical imaging devices.AIMTo explore and summarize the technical features and effectiveness of the application of a hybrid-OR in dealing with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs).METHODSEleven patients with SDAVFs were treated with the use ... Read more >>

World J Clin Cases (World Journal of Clinical Cases)
[2020, 8(6):1056-1064]

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Bone Infarct as an Indicator of Acute Spinal Ischaemia.

Laura López-Viñas, Kary Leonisa Quiñones-Coneo, Raquel Buenache-Espartosa, Juan Salvador Martínez-San-Millán, Gustavo Lorenzo-Sanz,

Acute spinal cord infarct in childhood is extremely rare, generally secondary to spinal/cardiovascular surgery or severe vertebral injuries. However, spontaneous spinal cord infarct cases have been described. We present a clinical case of a teenager who developed an acute weakness and paraesthesia in lower limbs after playing piggyback. Laboratory tests ... Read more >>

Case Rep Pediatr (Case reports in pediatrics)
[2020, 2020:9703625]

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Alternative to General Anesthesia for a Stat Cesarean Delivery in a Patient with a Large Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Cervicomedullary Junction in Active Labor.

Christiano Dos Santos E Santos, David A Joyner, Cristiane A Tuma Santos, Bernadette E Grayson, Arthur Calimaran, Douglas R Bacon,

A 20-year-old G1P0 patient at 38 weeks and 1 day of gestation was admitted for emergency cesarean delivery. Her past medical history was positive for cervicomedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) that ruptured three years before. Spontaneous vaginal delivery was contraindicated by neurosurgery. Aiming for cardiovascular stability and immediate reduction of sympathetic ... Read more >>

Case Rep Anesthesiol (Case reports in anesthesiology)
[2020, 2020:6893587]

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Clinical and angioarchitectural characteristics of spinal vascular malformations of the cervical spine.

Waleed Brinjikji, Elisa Colombo, Giuseppe Lanzino,

OBJECTIVE:Vascular malformations of the cervical spine are exceedingly rare. To date there have been no large case series describing the clinical presentation and angioarchitectural characteristics of cervical spine vascular malformations. The authors report their institutional case series on cervical spine vascular malformations diagnosed and treated at their institution. METHODS:The authors ... Read more >>

J Neurosurg Spine (Journal of neurosurgery. Spine)
[2020, :1-8]

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Clinical and Imaging Features of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Clinical Experience of 15 Years for a Major Tertiary Hospital.

Bingying Du, Meng Liang, Cunxiu Fan, Xiaoyan Lu, Hailing Zhang, Qiang Li, Yi Xu, Jianmin Liu, Xiaoying Bi,

BACKGROUND:Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare spinal vascular malformation which can cause permanent neurologic dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical and imaging characteristics of SDAF and its prognosis. METHODS:All patients diagnosed with SDAVF and hospitalized in our hospital from February ... Read more >>

World Neurosurg (World neurosurgery)
[2020, :]

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Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma following intra-arterial catheter-directed thrombolysis: A case report.

Nicholas Brian Shannon, Pradesh Kumar, Kiang Hiong Tay, Sia Yang Tan, Siew Ping Chng, Hsien Tsung Tay,

A 79-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with unilateral acute lower limb ischaemia and received intra-arterial catheter-directed thrombolysis, initially with good result and reversal of the ischaemia. However, he developed an extensive spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma within hours of the procedure and was left with permanent paraplegia after being deemed unsuitable for ... Read more >>

SAGE Open Med Case Rep (SAGE open medical case reports)
[2020, 8:2050313X20906741]

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Microanatomy of the dura mater at the craniovertebral junction and spinal region for safe and effective surgical treatment.

Kiyoshi Ito, Mitsunori Yamada, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Hongo,

OBJECTIVE:Few reports have been published regarding the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the dura mater at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), although many neurosurgeons have had the opportunity to conduct surgeries in this region, such as in cases of Chiari malformation. The authors aimed to evaluate the detailed and precise microsurgical anatomy ... Read more >>

J Neurosurg Spine (Journal of neurosurgery. Spine)
[2020, :1-7]

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Advances in 3D angiography for spinal vascular malformations.

Stephanie H Chen, Samir Sur, Marie-Christine Brunet, Jason Liounakos, David McCarthy, Dallas Sheinberg, Allan D Levi, Robert M Starke,

Spinal vascular malformations are difficult to diagnose lesions that can be associated with significant permanent morbidity. The angioarchitecture of spinal vascular anatomy and the associated pathologies have only recently been illuminated by the advent of spinal angiography. However, conventional spinal digital subtraction angiography is often limited by significant variability, overlapping ... Read more >>

J Clin Neurosci (Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia)
[2020, 72:79-83]

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A Rare Case Presentation of Apixaban-induced Nontraumatic Spinal Subdural Hematoma.

Saif Faiek, Noor Idilbi Wazzan, Sreeja Sompalli, Aditya Bansal, Partha Hota,

A spinal subdural hematoma is a rare clinical entity and an uncommon urgent complication that can be associated with the use of vitamin K and less commonly nonvitamin K oral anticoagulants. It is considered a neurological emergency requiring prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention in the majority of the cases. Herein, we ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(1):e6743]

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The Effects of Patient Positioning on the Outcome During Posterior Cranial Fossa and Pineal Region Surgery.

Ana Mavarez-Martinez, Lusine A. Israelyan, Suren Soghomonyan, Juan Fiorda-Diaz, Gurneet Sandhu, Vadim N. Shimansky, Mario Ammirati, Marilly Palettas, Andrei Yu Lubnin, Sergio D. Bergese,

Background: Surgery on posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and pineal region (PR) carries the risks of intraoperative trauma to the brainstem structures, blood loss, venous air embolism (VAE), cardiovascular instability, and other complications. Success in surgery, among other factors, depends on selecting the optimal patient position. Our objective was to find ... Read more >>

Front Surg (Frontiers in surgery)
[2020, 7:]

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Iatrogenic occlusion of bilateral jugular veins, subclavian vein, and superior vena cava after repeated jugular cannulation associated with Arnold-Chiari malformation: Successful endovascular treatment.

Przemyslaw Nowakowski, Piotr Buszman, Stefan Kiesz, Pawel Buszman,

An Arnold-Chiari malformation is a congenital central nervous system defect. Raised intracranial pressure is commonly observed, and posterior decompression neurosurgery is the treatment of choice. We describe a patient with iatrogenic occlusion of bilateral jugular veins, subclavian vein, and superior vena cava resulting from repeated central venous cannulations. Because of ... Read more >>

J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech (Journal of vascular surgery cases and innovative techniques)
[2020, 6(1):18-20]

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Gastrointestinal Emergencies.

Ashis Banerjee,

OropharyngealNeurological motility disorder: stroke; movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy); amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis; bulbar palsy; brainstem tumour; pseudobulbar palsyStriated muscle disease: myasthenia gravis; myotonic dystrophy; polymyositis; dermatomyositis; inflammatory myopathy; muscular dystrophyReduced salivary flow leading to dry mouth (xerostomia): Sjogren’s syndrome; anticholinergics; antihistamines; ACE inhibitors; alpha-adrenergic blockersStructural lesions: ... Read more >>

(Emergency Clinical Diagnosis)
[0, :235-260]

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Incidental Findings in TMJ Imaging.

Kaan Orhan, Seçil Aksoy, Ismail Hakan Avsever, Kaan Gündüz,

For years, the conventional imaging modalities are generally used in dental practice routine. They provide precious information about dentomaxillofacial region; they also have some limitations such as superimpositions, magnifications, distortions, and low-image quality. Because of these limitations, some pathologies, calcifications, and anatomical variations may be missed. Any findings on a ... Read more >>

(Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint)
[0, :205-246]

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Fracture and migration of a retained microcatheter into the cauda equina after endovascular neurointervention for dural arteriovenous fistula as a rare cause of tethered spinal cord: case report.

Gulden Demirci Otluoglu, Teyyub Hasanov, Basak Mert, Zafer Orkun Toktas, Deniz Konya, Mustafa Kemal Demir,

The evaluation of spinal cord vascular malformations in neuroradiology departments remains valid for both diagnosis and endovascular embolization, and for adjuvant as well as definitive treatment. The most commonly encountered complications of endovascular approaches are the recurrence or the incomplete embolization of the lesion and accidental damage to the medullary ... Read more >>

J Neurosurg Spine (Journal of neurosurgery. Spine)
[2019, :1-4]

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Cobb Syndrome Manifesting as Repetitive Seizures in a 10-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Lin Wan, Wen-Rong Ge, Xiu-Yu Shi, Jing Wang, Lin-Yan Hu, Li-Ping Zou, Guang Yang,

Cutaneous vertebral medullary angiomatosis, also known as Cobb syndrome, is a rare segmental neurocutaneous syndrome. This syndrome is considered to be a non-hereditary congenital disease that is usually associated with arteriovenous malformations in the skin and spine. The clinical manifestations are complex because the lesions can involve the spine, spinal ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2019, 10:1302]

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Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by atlantoaxial dislocation with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report and review of the literature.

Hiroshi Kageyama, Kousuke Kakumoto, Hiroki Yasuoka, Hirohiko Arimoto, Yukoh Ohara,

Introduction:Spinal cord injury (SCI) with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) is often fatal. We present the case of a resuscitated patient with AAD and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Case presentation:We present the case of an 84-year-old man who suffered an observed cardiopulmonary arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated ... Read more >>

Spinal Cord Ser Cases (Spinal cord series and cases)
[2019, 5:100]

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Comorbid SUNCT Syndrome and Opalski Syndrome Caused by Dorsolateral Medullary Infarction.

Qi Lei, Jianmeng Lv, Bei Kang, Hena Guo, Yulang Fei, Ruili Chen, Hui Guo, Qian Yang,

Opalski syndrome is a rare variation of lateral medullary syndrome (LMS) accompanied by ipsilateral hemiparesis. Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headaches with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) is a rare headache syndrome which belongs to the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. SUNCT syndrome has been previously described in association with LMS. We here describe ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:52]

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Successful surgical strategy for ventral thoracic spinal perimedullary spinal arteriovenous fistulas: Case report.

S Muruga Subramaniam, Kazuhiko Ishii, Chen Jui Sheng, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Keisuke Takai, Nobuhito Saito,

Background:Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are vascular lesions that often pose significant surgical challenges. This is particularly true for those located close to the anterior spinal artery. Here, we analyzed the surgical options for treating an anterior perimedullary AVF (pAVFs). Case Description:A 66-year-old male with the right lower extremity weakness was ... Read more >>

Surg Neurol Int (Surgical Neurology International)
[2019, 10:251]

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One of the First Cases with PIK3CA-related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) in Saudi Arabia: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Saleem A Alsaedi, Oday Qurashi, Mohammed Bajunaid, Abdullah A Altalhi, Aiman M Shawli,

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is an umbrella that includes a broad range of rare disorders, ranging from isolated digit enlargement to extensive overgrowth of the limbs, abdomen, or brain. One of these disorders is megalencephaly capillary malformation polymicrogyria syndrome (MCAP), which is characterized by cutaneous capillary malformations, megalencephaly, cortical brain ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(1):e6586]

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