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Treatment of Sepsis and Septic Shock in Children

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A long journey for acute kidney injury biomarkers.

Dong-Jin Oh,

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening illness that continues to have an in-hospital mortality rate of patients with AKI ranges from 20% to 50% or greater, depending on underlying conditions. However, it has only marginally declined over the past 25 years. Previous authoritative publications have been pointed out that the ... Read more >>

Ren Fail (Renal failure)
[2020, 42(1):154-165]

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ECMO in paediatric septic shock: an urgent need for prospective trial.

Xavier Beretta-Piccoli, Dominique Biarent, David De Bels, Patrick M Honore, Sébastien Redant,

Crit Care (Critical Care)
[2020, 24(1):88]

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2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know.

Zhangkai J. Cheng, Jing Shan,

There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of ... Read more >>

Infection (Infection)
[0, :1-9]

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Shock Severity Modifies Associations Between RBC Transfusion in the First 48 Hours of Sepsis Onset and the Duration of Organ Dysfunction in Critically Ill Septic Children.

Lara S Srouji, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Josey Hensley, Lisa Steele, Kristin Greathouse, Larissa Anglim, Lisa Hanson-Huber, Jyotsna Nateri, Kathleen Nicol, Mark W Hall, Octavio Ramilo, Jennifer A Muszynski,

OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that early RBC transfusion is associated with duration of organ dysfunction in critically ill septic children. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of a single-center prospective observational study. Multivariable negative binomial regression was used to determine relationships between RBC transfusion within 48 hours of sepsis onset and number of days ... Read more >>

Pediatr Crit Care Med (Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies)
[2020, :]

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ECMO for Neonatal Sepsis in 2019.

Warwick Wolf Butt, Roberto Chiletti,

Sepsis and septic shock in newborns causes mortality and morbidity depending on the organism and primary site. ECMO provides cardiorespiratory support to allow adequate organ perfusion during the time for antibiotics and source control surgery (if needed) to occur. ECMO mode and cannulation site vary depending on support required and ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:50]

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Surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children.

Scott L Weiss, Mark J Peters, Waleed Alhazzani, Michael S D Agus, Heidi R Flori, David P Inwald, Simon Nadel, Luregn J Schlapbach, Robert C Tasker, Andrew C Argent, Joe Brierley, Joseph Carcillo, Enitan D Carrol, Christopher L Carroll, Ira M Cheifetz, Karen Choong, Jeffry J Cies, Andrea T Cruz, Daniele De Luca, Akash Deep, Saul N Faust, Claudio Flauzino De Oliveira, Mark W Hall, Paul Ishimine, Etienne Javouhey, Koen F M Joosten, Poonam Joshi, Oliver Karam, Martin C J Kneyber, Joris Lemson, Graeme MacLaren, Nilesh M Mehta, Morten Hylander Møller, Christopher J L Newth, Trung C Nguyen, Akira Nishisaki, Mark E Nunnally, Margaret M Parker, Raina M Paul, Adrienne G Randolph, Suchitra Ranjit, Lewis H Romer, Halden F Scott, Lyvonne N Tume, Judy T Verger, Eric A Williams, Joshua Wolf, Hector R Wong, Jerry J Zimmerman, Niranjan Kissoon, Pierre Tissieres,

OBJECTIVES:To develop evidence-based recommendations for clinicians caring for children (including infants, school-aged children, and adolescents) with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. DESIGN:A panel of 49 international experts, representing 12 international organizations, as well as three methodologists and three public members was convened. Panel members assembled at key international ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(Suppl 1):10-67]

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Clinical, laboratory features and prognosis of children receiving IgM-enriched immunoglobulin (3 days vs. 5 days) as adjuvant treatment for serious infectious disease in pediatric intensive care unit: a retrospective single-center experience (PIGMENT study).

Emin Abdullayev, Omer Kilic, Gurkan Bozan, Eylem Kiral, Merve Iseri Nepesov, Ener Cagri Dinleyici,

Introduction: Although there are studies about sepsis treatment in different age groups, data on immunoglobulin-M (IgM)-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin use in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and prognoses of children receiving IgM-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin to treat sepsis, septic ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-6]

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Bundle Adherence of Intravenous Antibiotic Fluid Resuscitation and Vasopressor in Children with Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock.

Clarice L Barboza, Cristina Os Valete, André Ra da Silva,

Objective:The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a bundle of interventions in children admitted with severe sepsis or septic shock in the first hour after diagnosis on mortality. Materials and methods:A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between January 2014 and ... Read more >>

Indian J Crit Care Med (Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine)
[2020, 24(2):128-132]

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Septic shock: ECMO beyond ARDS? Introducing the Simon two-stage protocol when randomisation is considered unethical.

Alexander Buia, Hans-Bernd Hopf, Eva Herrmann, Thomas Schmandra, Ernst Hanisch,

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med (Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine)
[2020, 28(1):22]

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Early Recognition and Emergency Treatment of Sepsis and Septic Shock in Children.

Kristel W E Hilarius, Peter W Skippen, Niranjan Kissoon,

Early diagnosis and treatment of sepsis and septic shock in children results in improved outcomes. However, diagnosis is hampered by lack of specific diagnostic tests and relies on the recognition of the alterations of vital signs and protean systemic manifestations associated with infections, signs that mimic many critical illnesses. As ... Read more >>

Pediatr Emerg Care (Pediatric emergency care)
[2020, 36(2):101-106]

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Defining benefit threshold for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with sepsis-a binational multicenter cohort study.

Luregn J Schlapbach, Roberto Chiletti, Lahn Straney, Marino Festa, Daniel Alexander, Warwick Butt, Graeme MacLaren, ,

BACKGROUND:The surviving sepsis campaign recommends consideration for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in refractory septic shock. We aimed to define the benefit threshold of ECMO in pediatric septic shock. METHODS:Retrospective binational multicenter cohort study of all ICUs contributing to the Australian and New Zealand Paediatric Intensive Care Registry. We included patients ... Read more >>

Crit Care (Critical care (London, England))
[2019, 23(1):429]

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Critical Illness Factors Associated With Long-Term Mortality and Health-Related Quality of Life Morbidity Following Community-Acquired Pediatric Septic Shock.

Jerry J Zimmerman, Russell Banks, Robert A Berg, Athena Zuppa, Christopher J Newth, David Wessel, Murray M Pollack, Kathleen L Meert, Mark W Hall, Michael Quasney, Anil Sapru, Joseph A Carcillo, Patrick S McQuillen, Peter M Mourani, Hector Wong, Ranjit S Chima, Richard Holubkov, Whitney Coleman, Samuel Sorenson, James W Varni, Julie McGalliard, Wren Haaland, Kathryn Whitlock, J Michael Dean, Ron W Reeder, ,

OBJECTIVES:A companion article reports the trajectory of long-term mortality and significant health-related quality of life disability among children encountering septic shock. In this article, the investigators examine critical illness factors associated with these adverse outcomes. DESIGN:Prospective, cohort-outcome study, conducted 2013-2017. SETTING:Twelve United States academic PICUs. PATIENTS:Critically ill children, 1 month ... Read more >>

Crit. Care Med. (Critical care medicine)
[2020, 48(3):319-328]

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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Group B Streptococcal Sepsis in Neonates: A Retrospective Study of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry.

Luregn J Schlapbach, Mark D Chatfield, Peter Rycus, Graeme MacLaren,

OBJECTIVES:Neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis globally and is characterized by unique epidemiologic features. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been recommended for neonatal septic shock refractory to conventional management, but data on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in group B streptococcal sepsis are scarce. We aimed to ... Read more >>

Pediatr Crit Care Med (Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies)
[2020, :]

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Long noncoding RNA and messenger RNA abnormalities in pediatric sepsis: a preliminary study.

Zhenjiang Bai, Yiping Li, Yanhong Li, Jian Pan, Jian Wang, Fang Fang,

BACKGROUND:Sepsis represents a complex disease with dysregulated inflammatory response and high mortality rate. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. However, studies evaluating the function of lncRNAs in pediatric sepsis are scarce, and current knowledge of the role of lncRNAs ... Read more >>

BMC Med Genomics (BMC medical genomics)
[2020, 13(1):36]

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Surviving Sepsis Campaign International Guidelines for the Management of Septic Shock and Sepsis-Associated Organ Dysfunction in Children.

Scott L Weiss, Mark J Peters, Waleed Alhazzani, Michael S D Agus, Heidi R Flori, David P Inwald, Simon Nadel, Luregn J Schlapbach, Robert C Tasker, Andrew C Argent, Joe Brierley, Joseph Carcillo, Enitan D Carrol, Christopher L Carroll, Ira M Cheifetz, Karen Choong, Jeffry J Cies, Andrea T Cruz, Daniele De Luca, Akash Deep, Saul N Faust, Claudio Flauzino De Oliveira, Mark W Hall, Paul Ishimine, Etienne Javouhey, Koen F M Joosten, Poonam Joshi, Oliver Karam, Martin C J Kneyber, Joris Lemson, Graeme MacLaren, Nilesh M Mehta, Morten Hylander Møller, Christopher J L Newth, Trung C Nguyen, Akira Nishisaki, Mark E Nunnally, Margaret M Parker, Raina M Paul, Adrienne G Randolph, Suchitra Ranjit, Lewis H Romer, Halden F Scott, Lyvonne N Tume, Judy T Verger, Eric A Williams, Joshua Wolf, Hector R Wong, Jerry J Zimmerman, Niranjan Kissoon, Pierre Tissieres,

OBJECTIVES:To develop evidence-based recommendations for clinicians caring for children (including infants, school-aged children, and adolescents) with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. DESIGN:A panel of 49 international experts, representing 12 international organizations, as well as three methodologists and three public members was convened. Panel members assembled at key international ... Read more >>

Pediatr Crit Care Med (Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies)
[2020, 21(2):e52-e106]

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A case of bi-ventricular extensive calcification caused by multiple factors.

Xiaoyan Tu, Zhihui Hu, Kevin Yang, Zhuoqing Hu, Yi Jiang,

BACKGROUND:Extensive myocardial calcification has a low incidence rate, but when the patients do have extensive myocardial cases, the prognosis is usually poor. Several sepsis-related extensive myocardial calcification cases have been reported, but there are cases of biventricular calcifications that are caused by multiple cases besides bacteremia and the treatment for ... Read more >>

BMC Pediatr (BMC pediatrics)
[2020, 20(1):85]

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Streptococcus pyogenes purpura fulminans and septic shock: A case highlighting the ethical considerations of high-risk extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Taylor Wheaton, Ogechukwu Menkiti, Amit Misra,

Separately, refractory septic shock and purpura fulminans have very poor outcomes. The ethics involved in offering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to very high-risk patients is complex. We report a novel case of refractory shock requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy due to Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia with purpura ... Read more >>

Int J Artif Organs (The International journal of artificial organs)
[2020, :391398820901832]

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Severe sepsis caused by serious gastrointestinal infection in sJIA patients treated with IL-6 receptor antagonist: a case report.

Meng Xu, Congcong Liu, Lishuang Guo, Sirui Yang,

BACKGROUND:Interleukin (IL)-6 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Tocilizumab (TCZ), a kind of biological agent against both membrane and soluble IL-6 receptor, is the only biological agent approved for the treatment of sJIA in China. Infections are the most common adverse events during ... Read more >>

BMC Pediatr (BMC pediatrics)
[2020, 20(1):126]

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25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III Scores in Critically Ill Children.

Hongxing Dang, Jing Li, Chengjun Liu, Feng Xu,

Aim: Investigate 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the correlation with cardiovascular sequential organ failure assessment (CV-SOFA) and pediatric risk of mortality III (PRISM-III) scores in critically ill children. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted on consecutive critical ill children aged 1 month to 14 years old in ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in Pediatrics)
[2020, 8:66]

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Prevalence and Management of Septic Shock among Children Admitted at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Longitudinal Survey.

Varsha Vekaria-Hirani, Rashmi Kumar, Rachel N Musoke, Ezekiel M Wafula, Idris N Chipkophe,

Background:Paediatric septic shock is a subset of sepsis associated with high mortality. Implementing the existing international Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012 (SSCG) have contributed to reduction of mortality in many places but these have not been adopted in our setting. The current study aimed at documenting the practice at a ... Read more >>

Int J Pediatr (International journal of pediatrics)
[2019, 2019:1502963]

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Antibiotic Therapy for Children with Diarrhea in a Low-Resource Setting: A Syndromic Approach.

Subhashchandra Daga, Achla Daga, Sameer Mhatre,

ObjectiveTo compare age and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) – the predispositions – and fever and abnormal leukocyte count (ALC) – the SIRS criteria – in hospitalized children with and without diarrhea.DesignA prospective case-control study.SettingA pediatric ward of a general hospital in a low-resource setting.ParticipantsTotally, 445 consecutive admissions to the pediatric ward of ... Read more >>

Pediatric Health Med Ther (Pediatric health, medicine and therapeutics)
[2020, 11:95-100]

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Prescription of CRRT: a pathway to optimize therapy.

Ayman Karkar, Claudio Ronco,

Severe acute kidney injury (AKI), especially when caused or accompanied by sepsis, is associated with prolonged hospitalization, progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD), financial burden, and high mortality rate. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a predominant form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) due ... Read more >>

Ann Intensive Care (Annals of intensive care)
[2020, 10(1):32]

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A Novel Coronavirus Outbreak from Wuhan City in China, Rapid Need for Emergency Departments Preparedness and Response; a Letter to Editor.

Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam,

Arch Acad Emerg Med (Archives of academic emergency medicine)
[2020, 8(1):e12]

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Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by Streptococcus constellatus-associated Lemierre syndrome presenting as an isolated abducens nerve palsy.

Landon J Rohowetz, Sean M Gratton, Daniel Dansdill, Cory J Miller, Sarah Dubin,

Purpose:To describe a patient with Streptococcus constellatus-associated Lemierre syndrome complicated by eventual cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) that manifested as an isolated abducens nerve palsy. Observations:A patient with a history of heavy alcohol use presented with Lemierre syndrome caused by an odontogenic infection due to Streptococcus constellatus. Despite initiation of intravenous ... Read more >>

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep (American journal of ophthalmology case reports)
[2020, 18:100592]

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Current Status of Septic Cardiomyopathy: Basic Science and Clinical Progress.

Huan Lin, Wenting Wang, Madeline Lee, Qinghe Meng, Hongsheng Ren,

Septic cardiomyopathy (SCM) is a complication that is sepsis-associated cardiovascular failure. In the last few decades, there is progress in diagnosis and treatment despite the lack of consistent diagnostic criteria. According to current studies, several hypotheses about pathogenic mechanisms have been revealed to elucidate the pathophysiological characteristics of SCM. The ... Read more >>

Front Pharmacol (Frontiers in Pharmacology)
[2020, 11:210]

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