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Coverage rates of the children vaccination programme in Greenland.

Nadja Albertsen, Anna Rask Lynge, Nils Skovgaard, Jesper Søndergaard Olesen, Michael Lynge Pedersen,

In order to estimate the current coverage rate among all children in Greenland, we conducted an observational cross-sectional study identifying all children in Greenland eligible for a vaccination between 1 March 2018 and 16 June 2019. we found an overall national coverage of 85.4%. The national coverage for the vaccinations ... Read more >>

Int J Circumpolar Health (International journal of circumpolar health)
[2020, 79(1):1721983]

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The Prevalence and Case-Fatality Rates of Post-Neonatal Tetanus in a Population of Hospitalized Nigerian Children: An 8-Year Retrospective Review.

Clifford Onuorah Okike, Uzoamaka Vivian Muoneke, Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke, Emmanuel Nkemjika Mbagwu, Ezinne Onyeka-Okite,

BACKGROUND:Although tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease, reports indicate that it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both neonatal and post-neonatal periods especially in most developing countries. AIM:This study aimed to determine the prevalence and case fatality rates of post-neonatal tetanus among children managed at the Federal Medical ... Read more >>

J. Trop. Pediatr. (Journal of tropical pediatrics)
[2020, 66(2):201-209]

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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT) in healthy toddlers: a Phase II randomized study.

Timo Vesikari, Ray Borrow, Aino Forsten, Helen Findlow, Mandeep S Dhingra, Emilia Jordanov,

Neisseria meningitidis can lead to invasive meningococcal disease to which young children are particularly vulnerable. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of Sanofi Pasteur's investigational quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, Y, and W) meningococcal tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine, MenACYW-TT, as a single dose, in healthy meningococcal vaccine-naïve toddlers versus a licensed conjugate ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-7]

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Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT) in adolescents and adults: a Phase III randomized study.

Germán Áñez, James Hedrick, Michael W Simon, Shane Christensen, Robert Jeanfreau, Eddy Yau, Judy Pan, Emilia Jordanov, Mandeep S Dhingra,

The quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT) was assessed as a booster in this Phase III trial (NCT02752906). Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4)-primed individuals aged ≥15 y (n = 810) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single booster dose of MenACYW-TT (n = 403) or a licensed MCV4 (Menactra®; MCV4-DT [n = 407]). Serum bactericidal antibody assay ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-7]

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Malaria exposure drives both cognate and bystander human B cells to adopt an atypical phenotype.

Racheal Aye, Henry J Sutton, Eunice W Nduati, Oscar Kai, Jedida Mwacharo, Jennifer Musyoki, Edward Otieno, Juliana Wambua, Philip Bejon, Ian A Cockburn, Francis M Ndungu,

Atypical memory B cells (aMBCs) are found in elevated numbers in individuals exposed to malaria. A key question is whether malaria induces aMBCs as a result of exposure to antigen, or non-antigen specific mechanisms. We identified Plasmodium and bystander tetanus toxoid (TT) specific B cells in individuals from areas of ... Read more >>

Eur. J. Immunol. (European journal of immunology)
[2020, :]

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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT) in adults 56 years of age and older: a Phase II randomized study.

Judith Kirstein, Miriam Pina, Judy Pan, Emilia Jordanov, Mandeep S Dhingra,

MenACYW-TT is an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine intended for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y in individuals aged 6 weeks and above. This Phase II, randomized, open-label, multicenter, exploratory study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MenACYW-TT compared with a quadrivalent ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-7]

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Higher education associated with better national tetanus vaccination coverage: A population-based assessment.

Camerin A Rencken, Shira Dunsiger, Annie Gjelsvik, Siraj Amanullah,

Vaccination coverage among United States (U.S.) adults for tetanus continues to be lower than the national goals. Education has demonstrated a positive impact on vaccination coverage. However, recently there have been outbreaks of vaccine preventable conditions in areas with high college completion rates. This study assessed the relationship between education ... Read more >>

Prev Med (Preventive medicine)
[2020, :106063]

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Cardiac effects of repeated focal seizures in rats induced by intrahippocampal tetanus toxin: Bradyarrhythmias, tachycardias, and prolonged interictal QT interval.

John G R Jefferys, Alexander Ashby-Lumsden, Thelma A Lovick,

OBJECTIVE:To determine electrical changes in the heart in a chronic, nonstatus model of epilepsy. METHODS:Electrocorticography (ECoG) and electrocardiography (ECG) of nine animals (five made epileptic by intrahippocampal injection of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and four controls), are monitored continuously by radiotelemetry for up to 7 weeks. RESULTS:Epileptic animals develop a median of ... Read more >>

Epilepsia (Epilepsia)
[2020, :]

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Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine for prevention of pertussis among adults aged 19 years and older in the United States: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

Bo-Hyun Cho, Anna M Acosta, Andrew J Leidner, Amanda E Faulkner, Fangjun Zhou,

Currently, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends one-time tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for all adults 19 years and older. This study is designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Tdap vaccination for Tdap-eligible adults aged 19 through 85 in the United States. A cost-effectiveness ... Read more >>

Prev Med (Preventive medicine)
[2020, 134:106066]

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History, extensive characterization and challenge of anti-tetanus serum from World War I: exciting remnants and deceived hopes : Centenarian IgGs lost their neutralization capacity.

Nicolas Aubert, Marie Brachet-Botineau, Giulia Emi de Olivera Preto, Isabelle Benz-de Bretagne, Hervé Watier, Guillaume Brachet,

During World War I (WWI), infectious diseases including tetanus were among the most important causes of death. Even though its efficacy was somewhat controversial before the war, tetanus antiserum played a key role in reducing the mortality of this disease. A vial of tetanus antiserum dating back from WWI, left ... Read more >>

Immunol. Res. (Immunologic research)
[2020, :]

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Increasing Frequency of Antenatal Care Visits May Improve Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Coverage in Pregnant Women in Pakistan.

Sehar Iqbal, Inayat Ali, Cem Ekmekcioglu, Michael Kundi,

Objective: Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) elimination in low-income countries is a major aim of public health endeavors, due to poor vaccination status, lack of antenatal care, and unhygienic birth practices. The objective of this study, thus, was to assess the present state and factors associated with maternal tetanus toxoid ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2020, :1-4]

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Vaccination coverage survey and seroprevalence among forcibly displaced Rohingya children, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 2018: A cross-sectional study.

Leora R Feldstein, Sarah D Bennett, Concepcion F Estivariz, Gretchen M Cooley, Lauren Weil, Mallick Masum Billah, M Salim Uzzaman, Rajendra Bohara, Maya Vandenent, Jucy Merina Adhikari, Eva Leidman, Mainul Hasan, Saifuddin Akhtar, Andreas Hasman, Laura Conklin, Daniel Ehlman, A Alamgir, Meerjady Sabrina Flora,

BACKGROUND:During August 2017-January 2018, more than 700,000 forcibly displaced Rohingyas crossed into Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. In response to measles and diphtheria cases, first documented in September and November 2017, respectively, vaccination campaigns targeting children <15 years old were mobilized during September 2017-March 2018. However, in a rapidly evolving emergency situation, ... Read more >>

PLoS Med. (PLoS medicine)
[2020, 17(3):e1003071]

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Exposure but Not Early Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Associated With Increased Hospitalization and Decreased Memory T-Cell Responses to Tetanus Vaccine.

Christiana Smith, Natasha O Moraka, Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Gloria Mayondi, Betsy Kammerer, Jean Leidner, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Shaobing Li, Roger Shapiro, Shahin Lockman, Adriana Weinberg,

BACKGROUND:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants experience high rates of infectious morbidity. We hypothesized that early cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was associated with increased hospitalization rates and decreased vaccine responses in HEU compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants. METHODS:Among infants enrolled in the Tshipidi study in Botswana, we determined CMV infection ... Read more >>

J. Infect. Dis. (The Journal of infectious diseases)
[2020, 221(7):1167-1175]

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Determinants of Noncompletion of the Third Dose of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine in Pregnant Women in Dschang Health District, Cameroon.

Florent Ymele Fouelifack, Bruno Kenfack, Skinner Lekelem Nguefack, Jackson Jr Nforbewing Ndenkeh, Jeanne Hortence Fouedjio, Loic Dongmo Fouelifa, Pierre Marie Tebeu,

Introduction. Tetanus vaccination plays an important role in the fight against neonatal mortality. Our study aimed to determine the noncompletion rate of the 3rd dose of tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTV) and to analyze the associated factors in pregnant women. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2 hospitals of Dschang ... Read more >>

Adv Prev Med (Advances in preventive medicine)
[2020, 2020:1603518]

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Immune interference (blunting) in the context of maternal immunization with Tdap-containing vaccines: is it a class effect?

Walid Kandeil, Miloje Savic, Maria Angeles Ceregido, Adrienne Guignard, Anastasia Kuznetsova, Piyali Mukherjee,

INTRODUCTION:Maternal immunization with reduced antigen content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap)-containing vaccines has been recommended to prevent infant pertussis. However, maternal antibodies may interfere with infant responses to routine immunization with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccines, raising concerns of suboptimal protection after infant vaccination. We performed a narrative literature review to assess whether ... Read more >>

Expert Rev Vaccines (Expert review of vaccines)
[2020, :]

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Tetanus in animals.

Michel R Popoff,

Tetanus is a neurologic disease of humans and animals characterized by spastic paralysis. Tetanus is caused by tetanus toxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani, an environmental soilborne, gram-positive, sporulating bacterium. The disease most often results from wound contamination by soil containing C. tetani spores. Horses, sheep, and humans are highly ... Read more >>

J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc)
[2020, 32(2):184-191]

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Effectiveness of fusion peptide-based vaccine TT-P0 on the dynamics of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

Jaya Kumari Swain, Yamila Carpio, Lill-Heidi Johansen, Janet Velazquez, Liz Hernandez, Yeny Leal, Ajey Kumar, Mario Pablo Estrada,

Abstract Infection with parasitic copepod salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis , represents one of the most important limitations to sustainable Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) farming today in the North Atlantic region. The parasite exerts negative impact on health, growth and welfare of farmed fish as well as impact on ... Read more >>

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Out-of-sequence vaccinations with measles vaccine and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. A re-analysis of demographic surveillance data from rural Bangladesh.

Clara Clipet-Jensen, Andreas Andersen, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Peter Aaby, K Zaman,

BACKGROUND:Due to delays in vaccinations, diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell-pertussis (DTP) is often given with or after measles vaccine (MV) - out of sequence. We reanalysed data from Matlab, Bangladesh, to examine how administration of MV and DTP out-of-sequence was associated with child survival. METHODS:36,650 children born between 1986 and 1999 were followed with ... Read more >>

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Incidence of Tetanus and Diphtheria in Relation to Adult Vaccination Schedules.

Ariel M Slifka, Byung Park, Lina Gao, Mark K Slifka,

BACKGROUND:The World Health Organization (WHO) does not recommend routine adult booster vaccination for tetanus and diphtheria after completion of the childhood vaccination series. However, many countries continue to implement adult booster vaccinations, leading to the question of whether this is necessary to reduce the incidence of these 2 rare diseases. ... Read more >>

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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BDNF Overexpression Enhances the Preconditioning Effect of Brief Episodes of Hypoxia, Promoting Survival of GABAergic Neurons.

M V Turovskaya, S G Gaidin, M V Vedunova, A A Babaev, E A Turovsky,

Hypoxia causes depression of synaptic plasticity, hyperexcitation of neuronal networks, and the death of specific populations of neurons. However, brief episodes of hypoxia can promote the adaptation of cells. Hypoxic preconditioning is well manifested in glutamatergic neurons, while this adaptive mechanism is virtually suppressed in GABAergic neurons. Here, we show ... Read more >>

Neurosci Bull (Neuroscience bulletin)
[2020, :]

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Tetanus andDiphtheria Boosters.

Stanley A Plotkin,

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Higher mass meningococcal group C-tetanus toxoid vaccines conjugated with carbodiimide correlate with greater immunogenicity.

Kay Lockyer, Fang Gao, Robert J Francis, David Eastwood, Bhagwati Khatri, Richard Stebbings, Jeremy P Derrick, Barbara Bolgiano,

To examine the link between meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine size and immunogenic response, a panel of MenC glycoconjugate vaccines were prepared differing in chain length, molar mass and hydrodynamic volume. The preparations consisted of different lengths of MenC polysaccharide (PS) covalently linked to monomeric purified tetanus toxoid (TT) carrier protein ... Read more >>

Vaccine (Vaccine)
[2020, 38(13):2859-2869]

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Cephalic Tetanus: A Rare Case Report.

Zafer Bağcı,

INTRODUCTION:Tetanus is a preventable infectious disease with vaccination. Cephalic tetanus is the rarest form in which local tetanus can involve the cranial nerves. CASE:Herein, we report a case of cephalic tetanus in a 16-month-old girl who had never been vaccinated. The patient, who had a complaint of a wound on ... Read more >>

J. Trop. Pediatr. (Journal of tropical pediatrics)
[2020, :]

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Exploiting pre-existing immunity to enhance oncolytic cancer immunotherapy.

Siri Tähtinen, Sara Feola, Cristian Capasso, Netta Laustio, Christianne Groeneveldt, Erkko O Ylösmäki, Leena Ylösmäki, Beatriz Martins, Manlio Fusciello, Marta Medeot, Maria Tagliamonte, Jacopo Chiaro, Firas Hamdan, Karita Peltonen, Tuuli Ranki, Luigi Buonaguro, Vincenzo Cerullo,

Due to the high coverage of international vaccination programs, most people worldwide have been vaccinated against common pathogens, leading to acquired pathogen-specific immunity with a robust memory T cell repertoire. While CD8+ anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are the preferred effectors of cancer immunotherapy, CD4+ T cell help is also ... Read more >>

Cancer Res. (Cancer research)
[2020, :]

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Maintenance of antibody response to diphtheria/tetanus vaccine in patients aged 2-5 years with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis receiving subcutaneous abatacept.

Hermine I Brunner, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Gabriel Vega Cornejo, Rik Joos, Elisabeth Gervais, Rolando Cimaz, Inmaculada Calvo Penadés, Rubén Cuttica, Thomas Lutz, Pierre Quartier, Yash Gandhi, Marleen Nys, Robert Wong, Alberto Martini, Daniel J Lovell, Nicolino Ruperto, ,

BACKGROUND:Patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs with immunosuppressive effects, may be at increased risk of vaccine-preventable infections. This substudy assessed protective antibody responses to diphtheria and tetanus vaccination given prior to study enrolment in patients with pJIA. FINDINGS:This was a substudy of a 24-month, single-arm, ... Read more >>

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J (Pediatric rheumatology online journal)
[2020, 18(1):19]

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