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St. Louis Encephalitis

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Identification and characterization of long noncoding RNAs and their association with acquisition of blood meal in Culex quinquefasciatus

Azali Azlan, Mardani Abdul Halim, Faisal Mohamad, Ghows Azzam,

Abstract The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus ( Cx. quinquefasciatus ) is an important vector that transmit multiple diseases including West Nile encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involve in many biological processes such development, infection, and virus-host interaction. However, there is no ... Read more >>

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Variation in Treatment and Outcomes of Children With Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

Craig A Press, Matthew Kirschen, Kerri LaRovere, Sarah Risen, Kristin P Guilliams, Melissa Chung, Jennifer Griffith, Jennifer Erklauer, Katrina Peariso, Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Samir S Shah, Matt Hall, Mark S Wainwright,

OBJECTIVES:To characterize variation in treatments and outcomes of pediatric patients admitted to children's hospitals with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study, we used data from the Pediatric Health Information System. Children >30 days old who were hospitalized from 2010 to 2015 with ADEM were included. Variables analyzed ... Read more >>

Hosp Pediatr (Hospital pediatrics)
[2020, 10(2):159-165]

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Serological evidence of arboviruses and coccidia infecting horses in the Amazonian region of Brazil.

Fábio Alves Gomes, Ana Maria Jansen, Rosângela Zacarias Machado, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Angélica Silva, Bruna Farias Alves, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo,

BACKGROUND:Arboviruses and protozoans can cause neurologic disorders in horses. In Brazilian Amazon, several horses presenting signs compatible with disorders caused by these infectious agents have been observed. OBJECTIVE:To contribute to the knowledge of this epidemiological picture, we sought to construct a serological diagnostic panel for neurotrophic infectious agents in local ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(12):e0225895]

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Surveillance of a kdr Resistance Mutation in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus in California.

Melissa Hardstone Yoshimizu, Kerry Padgett, Vicki Kramer,

Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say are the primary vectors of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in California. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids (synthetic pyrethrins) are the most widely used insecticides to control adult stage mosquitoes to prevent disease transmission. The most abundant and widespread mutation associated with pyrethroid ... Read more >>

J. Med. Entomol. (Journal of medical entomology)
[2020, 57(2):645-648]

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Specific diagnostic method for St. Louis encephalitis virus using a non-structural protein as the antigen.

Milagros Belén Simari, Sandra Elizabeth Goñi, Victoria Celina Luppo, Cintia Marcela Fabbri, Marcelo Horacio Argüelles, Mario Enrique Lozano, Maria Alejandra Morales, Néstor Gabriel Iglesias,

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a mosquito-borne re-emerging flavivirus in Argentina. It is currently necessary to develop specific serological tests that can efficiently discriminate the flaviviruses that circulate in our country. The immunoassays to diagnose SLEV lack specificity because they are based on the detection of structural viral proteins ... Read more >>

J. Gen. Virol. (The Journal of general virology)
[2020, 101(2):168-174]

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Antiviral activity of ribavirin and favipiravir against human astroviruses.

Andrew B Janowski, Holly Dudley, David Wang,

BACKGROUND:Recent recognition of invasive astrovirus infections, including encephalitis and viremia in humans, have highlighted the need for effective anti-astrovirus therapeutics. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the in vitro activity of broad-spectrum RNA antivirals against astroviruses, including ribavirin and favipiravir. OBJECTIVES:We quantified the EC50 values for ribavirin and ... Read more >>

J. Clin. Virol. (Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology)
[2020, 123:104247]

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Mosquito Iridescent Virus: New Records from Nature and Infections Using Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae) as a Vector Under Laboratory Conditions.

E Muttis, M V Micieli, M B Bonica, P D Ghiringhelli, J J García,

Iridoviridae is a DNA virus family that affects both vertebrates and invertebrates. Immature aquatic stages of many dipteran species infected with iridovirus have been found in different places worldwide. The most represented genera of the Culicidae family are Aedes and Psorophora. To date, sixteen species of Aedes naturally infected with ... Read more >>

Neotrop. Entomol. (Neotropical entomology)
[2020, 49(2):268-274]

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A 9-month retrospective evaluation of the aetiology and management of patients presenting with encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at a South London hospital.

Tehmina Bharucha, Lina Nashef, Nick Moran, Sue Watkins, David Brown, Mark Zuckerman,

Encephalitis causes high morbidity and mortality. An incidence of 4.3 cases of encephalitis/100 000 population has been reported in the UK. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the diagnosis and management of adults admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of encephalitis/meningoencephalitis. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were collated from ... Read more >>

Epidemiol. Infect. (Epidemiology and infection)
[2020, 148:e23]

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A ten-year retrospective evaluation of acute flaccid myelitis at 5 pediatric centers in the United States, 2005-2014.

Margaret M Cortese, Anita K Kambhampati, Jennifer E Schuster, Zaid Alhinai, Gary R Nelson, Gloria J Guzman Perez-Carrillo, Arastoo Vossough, Michael A Smit, Robert C McKinstry, Timothy Zinkus, Kevin R Moore, Jeffrey M Rogg, Meghan S Candee, James J Sejvar, Sarah E Hopkins,

BACKGROUND:Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a severe illness similar to paralytic poliomyelitis. It is unclear how frequently AFM occurred in U.S. children after poliovirus elimination. In 2014, an AFM cluster was identified in Colorado, prompting passive US surveillance that yielded 120 AFM cases of unconfirmed etiology. Subsequently, increased reports were ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2020, 15(2):e0228671]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Selective Reactivity of Anti-Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS4B Antibody Towards Different Flaviviruses.

Pakieli H Kaufusi, Alanna C Tseng, James F Kelley, Vivek R Nerurkar,

Studies investigating West Nile virus (WNV) NS4B protein function are hindered by the lack of an antibody recognizing WNV NS4B protein. Few laboratories have produced WNV NS4B antibodies, and none have been shown to work consistently. In this report, we describe a NS4B antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS4B ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(2):]

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Emerging Threats to Animals in the United Kingdom by Arthropod-Borne Diseases.

Arran J Folly, Daniel Dorey-Robinson, Luis M Hernández-Triana, L Paul Phipps, Nicholas Johnson,

Worldwide, arthropod-borne disease transmission represents one of the greatest threats to public and animal health. For the British Isles, an island group on the north-western coast of continental Europe consisting of the United Kingdom (UK) and the Republic of Ireland, physical separation offers a barrier to the introduction of many ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:20]

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West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2018.

Emily McDonald, Stacey W Martin, Kimberly Landry, Carolyn V Gould, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, Nicole P Lindsey,

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, and St. Louis encephalitis ... Read more >>

MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. (MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report)
[2019, 68(31):673-678]

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Culex saltanensis and Culex interfor (Diptera: Culicidae) are susceptible and competent to transmit St. Louis encephalitis virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae) in central Argentina.

Mauricio Beranek, Agustin Quaglia, Giovana Peralta, Fernando Flores, Marina Stein, Adrian Diaz, Walter Almiron, Marta Contigiani,

Infectious diseases caused by mosquito-borne viruses constitute health and economic problems worldwide. St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is endemic and autochthonous in the American continent. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is the primary urban vector of SLEV; however, Culex interfor and Culex saltanensis have also been found naturally infected with the virus, ... Read more >>

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Specific diagnostic method for St. Louis Encephalitis Virus using a non-structural protein as antigen.

Milagros Belen Simari, Sandra Goni, Victoria Luppo, Cintia Fabbri, Marcelo Horacio Arguelles, Mario Enrique Lozano, Maria Alejandra Morales, Nestor Gabriel Iglesias,

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a mosquito-borne reemerging flavivirus in Argentina. It is currently necessary to develop specific serological tests that can efficiently discriminate the flaviviruses that circulate in our country. The immunoassays to diagnose SLEV lack specificity because they are based on the detection of structural viral proteins ... Read more >>

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Assessment of Culex pipiens bioforms in the world's southernmost distribution limit.

María Victoria Cardo, Alejandra Rubio, Darío Vezzani, Aníbal Eduardo Carbajo,

The mosquito Culex pipiens s.s. L. occurs as two bioforms that differ in physiology and behaviour affecting virus transmission cycles. To assess the occurrence of Cx. pipiens bioforms in the southernmost limit of its distribution, specimens were collected aboveground in southern Buenos Aires Province and east Patagonia, Argentina. Ten larvae ... Read more >>

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
[2020, 115:e190390]

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Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Children: An Updated Review Based on Current Diagnostic Criteria.

Jordan Cole, Emily Evans, Martin Mwangi, Soe Mar,

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Uniform diagnostic criteria for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis did not exist until publication of expert-defined consensus definitions by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Society Group in 2007, with updates in 2013. In the expanding field of pediatric neuroimmunology, consistent ... Read more >>

Pediatr. Neurol. (Pediatric neurology)
[2019, 100:26-34]

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CD8 Encephalitis in a Treatment-Naive and a Virologically Suppressed Patient with HIV.

Ali Cheema, Kristen Mathias, Christine Bui, Steven Richard Dunham, J Clay Goodman, Hana M El Sahly,

Can J Neurol Sci (The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques)
[2019, 46(6):773-775]

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Serological Evidence for Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections in Domestic Birds in Cambodia.

Heidi Auerswald, Anne-Sophie Ruget, Helena Ladreyt, Saraden In, Sokthearom Mao, San Sorn, Sothyra Tum, Veasna Duong, Philippe Dussart, Julien Cappelle, Véronique Chevalier,

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses with an enzootic transmission cycle like Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are a major public health concern. The circulation of JEV in Southeast Asia is well-documented, and the important role of pigs as amplification hosts for the virus is long known. The influence of ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in Veterinary Science)
[2020, 7:15]

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A 15 Year Evaluation of West Nile Virus in Wisconsin: Effects on Wildlife and Human Health.

Johnny A Uelmen, Charles Brokopp, Jonathan Patz,

West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important and widespread mosquito-borne virus in the United States (U.S.). WNV has the ability to spread rapidly and effectively, infecting more than 320 bird and mammalian species. An examination of environmental conditions and the health of keystone species may help predict the susceptibility ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(5):]

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Dosing interval of natalizumab in MS: Do good things come to those who wait?

David B Clifford, Kenneth L Tyler,

Neurology (Neurology)
[2019, 93(15):655-656]

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Vector Competence for West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (Flavivirus) of Three Tick Species of the Genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae).

Fernando S Flores, Camila Zanluca, Alberto A Guglielmone, Claudia N Duarte Dos Santos, Marcelo B Labruna, Adrián Diaz,

Many species of Amblyomma ticks are commonly found infesting wild birds in South America, where birds are important hosts for several arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of ... Read more >>

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene)
[2019, 100(5):1230-1235]

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Rapidly fatal encephalitis associated with atypical lymphoid proliferations of the basal ganglia subsequent to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Ayesha Kar, Evin L Guilliams, Joshua A Cuoco, Eric A Marvin,

Rapidly fatal encephalitis associated with atypical lymphoid proliferations after intracranial aneurysm rupture has not been reported. Here, we describe a 52-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a severe headache. Imaging demonstrated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, which was treated ... Read more >>

Clin Pract (Clinics and practice)
[2019, 9(4):1187]

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Perspectives Regarding the Risk of Introduction of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) in the United States.

Ana R S Oliveira, Lee W Cohnstaedt, Leela E Noronha, Dana Mitzel, D Scott McVey, Natalia Cernicchiaro,

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic, emerging disease transmitted by mosquito vectors infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Its potential for emergence into susceptible regions is high, including in the United States (US), and is a reason of economic concern among the agricultural community, and to public health due ... Read more >>

Front Vet Sci (Frontiers in veterinary science)
[2020, 7:48]

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Single-dose and Steady-state Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Critically Ill Patients Admitted to Medical Intensive Care Unit of India.

Nitin B Mali, Siddharth P Deshpande, Poorwa P Wandalkar, Vishal A Gupta, Niteen D Karnik, Nithya J Gogtay, Gita Nataraj, Preeti R Mehta, Urmila Thatte,

Rationale:Vancomycin remains the standard of care for gram-positive bacterial infections, though there are significant developments in newer antibacterial agents. Efficacy can be improved by linking pharmacokinetic with pharmacodynamic principles, thus leading to optimum antibiotic exposure. There is scarcity of pharmacokinetic data in Indian intensive care unit (ICU) population. Materials and ... Read more >>

Indian J Crit Care Med (Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine)
[2019, 23(11):513-517]

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