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A mutation in budding yeast BRR6 affecting nuclear envelope insertion of the spindle pole body.

Jennifer M Gardner, Eileen O'Toole, Sue L Jaspersen,

<i>BRR6</i> and <i>BRL1</i> are two paralogs that encode transmembrane proteins of the nuclear envelope (NE) involved in membrane fluidity and nuclear pore complex biogenesis in organisms that undergo a closed mitosis. We show that mutation of a conserved cysteine in the intralumenal domain of <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> Brr6p results in a ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Drosophila insulin receptor regulates diabetes-induced mechanical nociceptive hypersensitivity.

Harika Dabbara, Arielle Schultz, Seol Hee Im,

Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one of the predominant complications of diabetes that causes numbness, tingling, and extreme pain sensitivity. Understanding the mechanisms of PDN pathogenesis is important for patient treatments. Here we report <i>Drosophila</i> models of diabetes-induced mechanical nociceptive hypersensitivity. Type 2 diabetes-like conditions and loss of insulin receptor ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Meiotic H3K9me2 distribution is influenced by the ALG-3 and ALG-4 pathway and by poly(U) polymerase activity.

Yini Li, Matthew Snyder, Eleanor M Maine,

Histone modifications influence gene expression and chromosome dynamics by altering chromatin structure and recruitment of nonhistone proteins. Dimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is a conserved modification often found within heterochromatin. During first meiotic prophase when homologous chromosomes undergo pairing and synapsis, immunolabeling of <i>C. elegans</i> male germ ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Transgenic reporter analysis of ChIP-Seq-defined enhancers identifies novel target genes for the terminal selector UNC-3/Collier/Ebf.

Yinan Li, Paschalis Kratsios,

Terminal selector-type transcription factors are key regulators of neuronal identity and function (Hobert and Kratsios, 2019; Kratsios and Hobert, 2018). Mechanistically, terminal selectors are thought to act directly through binding at the <i>cis</i>-regulatory region of genes (termed "terminal identity genes") that encode, among others, neurotransmitter [NT] synthesis proteins, ion channels, ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Deletion of a putative HDA-1 binding site in the hlh-2 promoter eliminates expression in C. elegans dorsal uterine cells.

Taylor N Medwig-Kinney, Nicholas J Palmisano, David Q Matus,

The helix-loop-helix transcription factor <i>hlh-2</i> (E/Daughterless) has been shown to play an important role in regulating cell fate patterning, cell cycle, and basement membrane invasion in the context of the development of the <i>C. elegans</i> somatic gonad. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering, we generated a new <i>hlh-2</i> allele (<i>hlh-2(Δ-1303-702)</i>) in ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Improved CRISPR/Cas9 knock-in efficiency via the self-excising cassette (SEC) selection method in C. elegans.

George Huang, Bailey de Jesus, Alex Koh, Sara Blanco, Aubrie Rettmann, Ella DeMott, Melynda Sylvester, Cassie Ren, Carrie Meng, Skye Waterland, Anita Rhodes, Persephone Alicea, Abbey Flynn, Daniel J Dickinson, Ryan Doonan,

Streamlined, selection-based CRISPR knock-in protocols for <i>C. elegans</i> were first introduced six years ago (Dickinson <i>et al</i>. 2015; Schwartz and Jorgensen 2016). Though these selection-based approaches are powerful, one drawback has been the requirement to inject large numbers of P0 worms (~30-60 per gene target). We have found that a ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Suppression of him-14(it44ts) by a transgene insertion expressing GFP::COSA-1.

Chloé Girard, Chantal C Akerib, Anne M Villeneuve,

Meiotic crossover formation requires the activity of multiple pro-crossover factors, including the MutSγ complex and the cyclin-related protein COSA-1, that become concentrated together at the sites of crossover recombination intermediates. Here we show that a transgene insertion expressing GFP::COSA-1 can suppress the crossover deficit caused by a partial reduction in ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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ATG8 is conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and psychrophilic, polar-collected fungi.

Brenna J Ivory, Hannah M Smith, Elizabeth Cabrera, Meaghan R Robinson, Jackson T Sparks, Amanda Solem, Jun-Ichi Ishihara, Hiroki Takahashi, Masaharu Tsuji, Verónica A Segarra,

Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process by which eukaryotic cells respond to stress by targeting damaged or unneeded molecules or organelles for sequestration into specialized vesicles known as autophagosomes. Autophagosomes ultimately facilitate the digestion and recycling of their contents by fusing with the degradative organelle of the cell. Studies of ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Improved GAL4 and Tet OFF drivers for C. elegans bipartite expression.

Michael Nonet,

The first generation of <i>C. elegans</i> GAL4 drivers for bipartite expression function less well than <i>C. elegans</i> tet ON/OFF, QF and LexA drivers. The main difference between the GAL4 drivers and the others is the absence of a flexible linker between the DNA binding and activation domain in the GAL4 ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Reducing the expression of the Numb adaptor protein in neurons increases the searching behavior of Drosophila larvae.

Andrew Galbraith, Samuel Leone, Katherine Stuart, Josie Emery, M Katie Renkemeyer, Nicholas Pritchett, Lauren Galbraith, Haley Stuckmeyer, Brett Berke,

<i>Drosophila</i> larval crawling is easily-observable and relatively stereotyped. Crawling consists of linear locomotion interrupted by periods when the larvae pause, swing their heads, and change direction (a 'search'). Here we identify Numb, a peripheral membrane adaptor protein, as an important regulator of searching behavior. When Numb RNAi transgenes were expressed ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Annotating Putative D. discoideum Proteins Using I-TASSER.

Jacquelyn McCullough, Petra Fey, Ryan J Rahman, Morgan Wallace, Seeta Morey, Kyle Sahlberg, Ethan McGonagle, Danielle Hess, Chance Hatfield, Michaela-Romina Sarmiento, Jordi Velasquez, Richard H Gomer,

Using Gene Ontology annotation in any aspect or using any evidence code, we found that approximately 14% percent of predicted <i>D. discoideum</i> proteins have no GO annotations and no obvious similarity to any annotated protein across diverse organisms. We have been systematically examining these unannotated protein sequences using software that ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Live-cell imaging reveals square shape spindles and long mitosis duration in the silkworm holocentric cells.

Lucien Vanpoperinghe, Frederique Carlier-Grynkorn, Gaetan Cornilleau, Takahiro Kusakabe, Ines A Drinnenberg, Phong T Tran,

Proper chromosome segregation during mitosis requires both the assembly of a microtubule (MT)-based spindle and the assembly of DNA-centromere-based kinetochore structure. Kinetochore-to-MT attachment enables chromosome separation. Monocentric cells, such as found in human, have one unique kinetochore per chromosome. Holocentric cells, such as found in the silkworm, in contrast, have ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Efficient generation of a single-copy eft-3p::TIR1::F2A:: BFP::AID*::NLS allele in the C. elegans ttTi5605 insertion site through recombination-mediated cassette exchange.

An A Vo, Max T Levenson, James Matthew Ragle, Jordan D Ward,

The auxin-inducible degron (AID) system is a widely used system to conditionally deplete proteins. Using CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in <i>C. elegans</i>, we recently generated a set of single-copy, tissue-specific and pan-somatic TIR1-expressing strains carrying a BFP reporter inserted in single-copy into two commonly used, well-characterized genetic loci. However, we were ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Swimming exercise reduces native ⍺-synuclein protein species in a transgenic C. elegans model of Parkinson's disease.

Minna Y Schmidt, Manish Chamoli, Gordon J Lithgow, Julie K Andersen,

Exercise has been historically recommended to prevent many disease conditions. Intense exercise in particular, has been shown to be beneficial for Parkinson's disease (PD) - stopping and even reversing symptoms in some patients. Recent research in mammalian animal models of Parkinson's have shown that exercise affects ⍺-synuclein aggregate species, considered ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Acute exposure of Nicotine during Drosophila puncture injury activates an epidermal wound response reaction.

Chrissy Cherenfant, Michelle T Juarez,

Epidermal wound reaction after injury can be visualized in <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> embryos by transgenic fluorescent wound reporters. A "local" reaction is limited to the epidermal cells surrounding a wound site occurs in <i>wildtype</i> embryos. A "global" reaction extends beyond the wound site to all epidermal cells occurs in immune response ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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The conserved MASRPF motif in the Attractin homolog, Distracted, is required for association with Drosophila E3-ligase Mgrn1.

Vindhya Nawaratne, Sirisha Kudumala, Priyanka Prakash Kakad, Tanja A Godenschwege,

In rodents, all three paralogs of the Attractin (Atrn) transmembrane protein family exhibit strong phenotypic overlap and are implicated in the regulation of the same G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) as E3-ligase Mahogunin ring finger 1 (Mgrn1). Recently it was shown that the highly conserved intracellular MASRPF motif in mammal Multiple ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Identification and bioinformatic analysis of neprilysin and neprilysin-like metalloendopeptidases in Drosophila melanogaster.

Heiko Meyer, Annika Buhr, Patrick Callaerts, Ronja Schiemann, Mariana F Wolfner, Steven J Marygold,

The neprilysin (M13) family of metalloendopeptidases comprises highly conserved ectoenzymes that cleave and thereby inactivate many physiologically relevant peptides in the extracellular space. Impaired neprilysin activity is associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we present a comprehensive list and classification of M13 family members in <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>. Seven <i>Neprilysin</i> (<i>Nep</i>) ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Effect of the protease plasmin on C. elegans hyperactive DEG/ENaC channels MEC-4(d) and UNC-8(d).

Christina K Johnson, David D Miller, Laura Bianchi,

<i>C. elegans</i> MEC-4 and UNC-8 belong to the DEG/ENaC family of voltage-independent Na<sup>+</sup> channels and have been implicated in mechanosensation and synaptic remodeling. MEC-4 and UNC-8 hyperactive mutants, designated (d) mutants, conduct enhanced currents and cause cell death due to uncontrolled influx of cations. We show here that MEC-4(d) but ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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The Joubert syndrome protein CEP41 is excluded from the distal segment of cilia in C. elegans.

Sebiha Cevik, Oktay I Kaplan,

Rare diseases are a fundamental issue in today's world, affecting more than 300 million individuals worldwide. According to data from Orphanet and OMIM, about 50-60 new conditions are added to the list of over 6,000 clinically distinct diseases each year, rendering disease diagnosis and treatment even more challenging. Ciliopathies comprise ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Novel allele elh of the UBP14 gene affects plant organ size via cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Rakesh David, Pei Qin Ng, Lisa M Smith, Iain R Searle,

Plant organ size control is an essential process of plant growth and development. The regulation of plant organ size involves a complicated network of genetic, molecular interactions, as well as the interplay of environmental factors. Here, we report a temperature-sensitive hypocotyl elongation EMS-generated mutant, hereby referred to as <i>elongated hypocotyl ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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ifas-1 is upregulated by fungal infection in a GPA-12 and STA-2-independent manner in the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermis.

Shizue Omi, Xing Zhang, Nishant Thakur, Nathalie Pujol,

Skin infection with the fungus <i>Drechmeria coniospora</i> leads to a transcriptional response in the worm epidermis. This involves an increased expression of a group of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes including those in the <i>nlp-29</i> and <i>cnc-2</i> clusters. The major pathways leading to the expression of these AMP genes have been ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Distinct spatiotemporal distribution of Hsp90 under high-heat and mild-heat stress conditions in fission yeast.

Teruaki Takasaki, Naofumi Tomimoto, Takumi Ikehata, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura,

The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is highly conserved from bacteria to mammals. In fission yeast, Hsp90 is essential in many cellular processes and its expression is known to be increased by heat stress (HS). Here, we describe the distinct spatiotemporal distribution of Hsp90 under high-heat stress (HHS: 45˚C) and mild-heat stress ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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The C. elegans pseudogene sspt-16 (F55A3.7) is required to safeguard germ cells against reprogramming.

Andreas Ofenbauer, Clara Maria Kraus, Baris Tursun,

We recently identified FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT) as a reprogramming barrier of transcription factor (TF) mediated conversion of germ cells into neurons in <i>C. elegans</i>. FACT is a conserved heterodimer consisting of SPT16 and SSRP1 in mammals. Duplication events during evolution in <i>C. elegans</i> generated two SSRP1 homologs named HMG-3 ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Genetic Mapping of a new Hippo allele, HpoN.1.2, in Drosophila melanogaster.

Jamie L Siders, Kayla L Bieser, Danielle R Hamill, Erika C Acosta, Olivia K Alexander, Humza I Ali, Micah J Anderson, Hayden R Arrasmith, Mustafa Azam, Nikki J Beeman, Hassan Beydoun, Lauren J Bishop, Morgan D Blair, Brianna Bletch, Heather R Bline, Jennifer C Brown, Kelly M Burns, Karina C Calagua, Lexie Chafin, William Ah Christy, Carlyn Ciamacco, Hannah Cizauskas, Caitlyn M Colwell, Abigail R Courtright, Lucero Diaz Alavez, Rayne Is Ecret, Fatima Edriss, Taylor G Ellerbrock, Madison M Ellis, Erica M Extine, Eric Feldman, Luke J Fickenworth, Caroline M Goeller, Alexis S Grogg, Yailine Hernandez, Abigail Hershner, Megan M Jauss, Leyre Jimenez Garcia, Katey E Franks, Ethan T Kazubski, Emily R Landis, Jon Langub, Tia N Lassek, Triet C Le, Julia M Lee, Daniel P Levine, Phoebe J Lightfoot, Natasha Love, Ali Maalhagh-Fard, Colin Maguire, Brynna E McGinnis, Bhargavi V Mehta, Veronica Melendrez, Zimri E Mena, Seth Mendell, Petra Montiel-Garcia, Autumn S Murry, Riley A Newland, Ryan M Nobles, Neha Patel, Yashodhara Patil, Cassidy L Pfister, Victoria Ramage, Mya R Ray, Joseph Rodrigues, Victoria C Rodriquez, Yara Romero, Alexandra M Scott, Nicholas Shaba, Samantha Sieg, Kayla Silva, Sahiba Singh, Aleksandria J Spargo, Savanna J Spitnale, Nicole Sweeden, Logan Tague, Breanna M Tavernini, Kathleen Tran, Liselle Tungol, Kylie A Vestal, Amber Wetherbee, Kayla M Wright, Anthony T Yeager, Rehab Zahid, Jacob D Kagey,

Genetic screens provide a mechanism to identify genes involved with different cellular and organismal processes. Using a Flp/FRT screen in the <i>Drosophila</i> eye we identified mutations that result in alterations and de-regulation of cell growth and division. From this screen a group of undergraduate researchers part of the Fly-CURE consortium ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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Differential effects on neuromuscular physiology between Sod1 loss-of-function mutation and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in Drosophila.

Atsushi Ueda, Atulya Iyengar, Chun-Fang Wu,

Oxidative stress is thought to be a major contributor to aging processes. Here, we report differential effects on neurotransmission caused by loss-of-function mutations of <i>Superoxide dismutase 1</i> (<i>Sod1</i>) and by paraquat (PQ) feeding in <i>Drosophila</i>. We demonstrated alterations in <i>Sod1</i> mutants; the larval neuromuscular junction displayed supernumerary discharges and the ... Read more >>

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[2021, 2021:]

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