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A Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Cocktail to Prevent Pulmonary Ricin Intoxication.

Yinghui Rong, Michael Pauly, Adrian Guthals, Henry Pham, Dylan Ehrbar, Larry Zeitlin, Nicholas J Mantis,

PB10 IgG1, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against an immunodominant epitope on the enzymatic subunit (RTA) of ricin toxin (RT), has been shown to passively protect mice and non-human primates from an aerosolized lethal-dose RT challenge. However, it was recently demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of PB10 IgG1 is significantly ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2020, 12(4):]

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Equal Neutralization Potency of Antibodies Raised against Abrin Subunits.

Yoav Gal, Anita Sapoznikov, Reut Falach, Ohad Mazor, Ron Alcalay, Eytan Elhanany, Moshe Aftalion, Sharon Ehrlich, Chanoch Kronman, Tamar Sabo,

Abrin and ricin are potent AB toxins, which are considered biological threats. To date, there are no approved treatments against abrin or ricin intoxications. Previously, we showed that the administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies to mice that were intranasally exposed to abrin, even very late post-exposure, conferred an exceedingly high-level ... Read more >>

Antibodies (Basel) (Antibodies (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 9(1):]

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Introduction to the Toxins Special Issue "Ricin Toxins".

Nilgun E Tumer,

Ricin toxin isolated from the castor bean (Ricinus communis) is one of the most potent and lethal molecules known [...]. ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2019, 12(1):]

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Diagnosis of acute intoxications in critically ill patients: focus on biomarkers - part 2: markers for specific intoxications.

Alexander Reisinger, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Gerald Hackl,

In medical intensive care units, acute intoxications contribute to a large proportion of all patients. Epidemiology and a basic overview on this topic were presented in part one. The purpose of this second part regarding toxicological biomarkers in the ICU setting focuses on specific poisons and toxins. Following the introduction ... Read more >>

Biomarkers (Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals)
[2020, 25(2):112-125]

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Rats Sniff Off Toxic Air.

Haoxuan Chen, Xinyue Li, Maosheng Yao,

Breathing air is a fundamental human need, yet its safety, when challenged by various harmful or lethal substances, is often not properly guarded. For example, air toxicity is currently monitored only for a single or a limited number of known toxicants, thus failing to warn against possible hazardous air fully. ... Read more >>

Environ. Sci. Technol. (Environmental science & technology)
[2020, 54(6):3437-3446]

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An intranasally administered monoclonal antibody cocktail abrogates ricin toxin-induced pulmonary tissue damage and inflammation.

Yinghui Rong, Fernando J Torres-Velez, Dylan Ehrbar, Jennifer Doering, Renjie Song, Nicholas J Mantis,

Ricin toxin, a plant-derived, mannosylated glycoprotein, elicits an incapacitating and potentially lethal inflammatory response in the airways following inhalation. Uptake of ricin by alveolar macrophages (AM) and other pulmonary cell types occurs via two parallel pathways: one mediated by ricin's B subunit (RTB), a galactose-specific lectin, and one mediated by ... Read more >>

Hum Vaccin Immunother (Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics)
[2019, :1-15]

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Novel small molecule retrograde transport blocker confers post-exposure protection against ricin intoxication.

Xu Zhao, Haixia Li, Jia Li, Kunlu Liu, Bo Wang, Yuxia Wang, Xingzhou Li, Wu Zhong,

Ricin is a highly toxic type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) which is extracted from the seeds of castor beans. Ricin is considered a potential bioterror agent and no effective antidote for ricin exists so far. In this study, by structural modification of a retrograde transport blocker Retro-2cycl, a series of ... Read more >>

Acta Pharm Sin B (Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B)
[2020, 10(3):498-511]

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Rats Sniff off Toxic Air

Haoxuan Chen, Xinyue Li, Maosheng Yao,

Abstract Breathing air is a fundamental human need, yet its safety, when challenged by various harmful or lethal substances, is often not properly guarded. For example, air toxicity is currently monitored only for single or limited number of known toxicants, thus failing to fully warn against possible hazardous air. Here, ... Read more >>

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The roles of genes in the bitter taste.

Harem Othman Smail,

The aims of this review were to understand the roles of bitter taste genes in humans. Some of the peoples have the capacity to taste some chemical substance such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) while others cant not based on the dietary hazards and food preferences. There are two alleles responsible to ... Read more >>

AIMS Genet (AIMS genetics)
[2019, 6(4):88-97]

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Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of shark variable new antigen receptor (VNAR) single domain antibody.

Wei Shien Cheong, Chiuan Yee Leow, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Chiuan Herng Leow,

Conventional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been widely used in research and diagnostic applications due to their high affinity and specificity. However, multiple limitations, such as large size, complex structure and sensitivity to extreme ambient temperature potentially weaken the performance of mAbs in certain applications. To address this problem, the exploration ... Read more >>

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (International journal of biological macromolecules)
[2020, 147:369-375]

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Microfluidic opportunities in printed electrolyte-gated transistor biosensors.

Kevin D Dorfman, Demetra Z Adrahtas, Mathew S Thomas, C Daniel Frisbie,

Printed electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) are an emerging biosensor platform that leverage the facile fabrication engendered by printed electronics with the low voltage operation enabled by ion gel dielectrics. The resulting label-free, nonoptical sensors have high gain and provide sensing operations that can be challenging for conventional chemical field effect transistor ... Read more >>

Biomicrofluidics (Biomicrofluidics)
[2020, 14(1):011301]

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Intramuscular Ricin Poisoning of Mice Leads to Widespread Damage in the Heart, Spleen, and Bone Marrow.

Anita Sapoznikov, Amir Rosner, Reut Falach, Yoav Gal, Moshe Aftalion, Yentl Evgy, Ofir Israeli, Tamar Sabo, Chanoch Kronman,

Ricin, a lethal toxin derived from castor oil beans, is a potential bio-threat due to its high availability and simplicity of preparation. Ricin is prepared according to simple recipes available on the internet, and was recently considered in terrorist, suicide, or homicide attempts involving the parenteral route of exposure. In-depth ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2019, 11(6):]

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Evaluation of Sporicidal Disinfectants for the Disinfection of Personal Protective Equipment During Biological Hazards.

Stefanie Papp, Katharina Kimmerl, Jacob Gatz, Michael Laue, Roland Grunow, Oliver Kaspari,

A fast, effective, and safe disinfection of personal protective equipment (PPE) is vitally important for emergency forces involved in biological hazards. This study aimed to investigate a broad range of disinfectants to improve the established disinfection procedure. We analyzed the efficacy of chlorine-, peracetic acid-, and oxygen-based disinfectants against Bacillus ... Read more >>

Health Secur (Health security)
[2020, 18(1):36-48]

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Public Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Herbal Remedies Used During Pregnancy and Lactation in West Bank Palestine.

Ahmad M Eid, Nidal Jaradat,

The use of herbal products by pregnant and lactating mothers without awareness of their harmful effects may expose both mother and fetus or infant to great dangers, such as abortion, premature delivery, uterine bleeding, and physical and mental retardation of the fetus. Thus, the aim of this study was to ... Read more >>

Front Pharmacol (Frontiers in Pharmacology)
[2020, 11:46]

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Sensitivity of Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells to ricin toxin and ricin toxin-Ab complexes.

Bridget Mooney, Fernando J Torres-Velez, Jennifer Doering, Dylan J Ehrbar, Nicholas J Mantis,

Ricin toxin is a plant-derived, ribosome-inactivating protein that is rapidly cleared from circulation by Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)-with fatal consequences. Rather than being inactivated, ricin evades normal degradative pathways and kills both KCs and LSECs with remarkable efficiency. Uptake of ricin by these 2 specialized ... Read more >>

J. Leukoc. Biol. (Journal of leukocyte biology)
[2019, 106(5):1161-1176]

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Characterization of MicroRNA and Gene Expression Profiles Following Ricin Intoxication.

Nir Pillar, Danielle Haguel, Meitar Grad, Guy Shapira, Liron Yoffe, Noam Shomron,

Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant, is a highly potent toxin, classified as a potential bioterror agent. Current methods for early detection of ricin poisoning are limited in selectivity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are naturally occurring, negative gene expression regulators, are known for their tissue specific pattern of expression and ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2019, 11(5):]

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Structure and properties of ricin – the toxic protein of Ricinus communis

Jolanta Małajowicz, Sabina Kuśmirek,

Ricin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of A and B subunits that can be produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant Ricinus communis. Its large quantities are accumulated in byproducts generated during the extraction of castor oil, widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Ricin is ... Read more >>

Postepy Biochem. (Postepy biochemii)
[2019, 65(2):103-108]

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Binding of the von Willebrand Factor A Domain of Capillary Morphogenesis Protein 2 to Anthrax Protective Antigen Vaccine Reduces Immunogenicity in Mice.

Fabiana Freire Mendes de Oliveira, Sireesha Mamillapalli, Srinivas Gonti, Robert N Brey, Han Li, Jarad Schiffer, Arturo Casadevall, James G Bann,

Protective antigen (PA) is a component of anthrax toxin that can elicit toxin-neutralizing antibody responses. PA is also the major antigen in the current vaccine to prevent anthrax, but stability problems with recombinant proteins have complicated the development of new vaccines containing recombinant PA. The relationship between antigen physical stability ... Read more >>

mSphere (mSphere)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Leucine 232 and hydrophobic residues at the ribosomal P stalk binding site are critical for biological activity of ricin.

Yijun Zhou, Xiao-Ping Li, Jennifer N Kahn, John E McLaughlin, Nilgun E Tumer,

Ricin interacts with the ribosomal P stalk to cleave a conserved adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the rRNA. Ricin toxin A chain (RTA) uses Arg235 as the most critical arginine for binding to the P stalk through electrostatic interactions to facilitate depurination. Structural analysis showed that a P2 ... Read more >>

Biosci. Rep. (Bioscience reports)
[2019, 39(10):]

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Development of a highly sensitive in vitro endothelial cell toxicity assay for evaluating ricin toxin A chain-based vaccines or therapeutics.

Nicholas J Machesky, Janice M Rusnak, Evan H Moore, Christopher B Dorsey, Lucy A Ward,

The ricin toxin A chain (RTA) is responsible for ricin intoxication due to inhibition of protein synthesis. RTA is also known to cause endothelial toxicity [via a 3 amino acid sequence (x)D(y) motif that acts as a natural disintegrin] resulting in vascular leak syndrome (VLS) in humans. An in vitro ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2019, 167:152-161]

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Dose dependent acute toxicity of abrin in Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal administration.

Pooja Phatak, Durga Prasad Nagar, Nandita Saxena,

Abrin toxin is one of the most potent and deadly plant toxin obtained from the seeds of Abrus precatorious. It is more toxic than ricin which is classified as Schedule 1 agent by OPCW and Category B bioterrorism agent by Centre for Disease Control (CDC). Dose dependent acute toxicity of ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2019, 167:49-59]

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Lethal Injection of a Castor Bean Extract: Ricinine Quantification as a Marker for Ricin Exposure Using a Validated LC-MS/MS Method.

Nick Verougstraete, Dries Helsloot, Christa Deprez, Olivier Heylen, Isabelle Casier, Kathleen Croes,

Ricin is a highly toxic agent derived from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). Poisoning occurs commonly by oral ingestion of the beans. Injection of ricin is believed to be more lethal. Ricin is a large glycosylated protein difficult to detect in clinical samples. Instead, ricinine, a small alkaloid found ... Read more >>

J Anal Toxicol (Journal of analytical toxicology)
[2019, 43(3):e1-e5]

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Bacterial Genotoxin-Induced DNA Damage and Modulation of the Host Immune Microenvironment.

Océane C B Martin, Teresa Frisan,

: Bacterial genotoxins (BTGX) induce DNA damage, which results in senescence or apoptosis of the target cells if not properly repaired. Three BTGXs have been identified: the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) family produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, the typhoid toxin produced by several Salmonella enterica serovars, and colibactin, a peptide-polyketide, ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2020, 12(2):]

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Whole-Cell Multiparameter Assay for Ricin and Abrin Activity-Based Digital Holographic Microscopy.

Efi Makdasi, Orly Laskar, Elad Milrot, Ofir Schuster, Shlomo Shmaya, Shmuel Yitzhaki,

Ricin and abrin are ribosome-inactivating proteins leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. These toxins are considered some of the most potent and lethal toxins against which there is no available antidote. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a time-lapse, label-free, and noninvasive imaging technique that can provide phase ... Read more >>

Toxins (Basel) (Toxins)
[2019, 11(3):]

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An Integrated Portable Multiplex Microchip Device for Fingerprinting Chemical Warfare Agents.

Karolina Petkovic, Anthony Swallow, Robert Stewart, Yuan Gao, Sheng Li, Fiona Glenn, Januar Gotama, Mel Dell'Olio, Michael Best, Justin Doward, Simon Ovendon, Yonggang Zhu,

The rapid and reliable detection of chemical and biological agents in the field is important for many applications such as national security, environmental monitoring, infectious diseases screening, and so on. Current commercially available devices may suffer from low field deployability, specificity, and reproducibility, as well as a high false alarm ... Read more >>

Micromachines (Basel) (Micromachines)
[2019, 10(9):]

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