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Symposium report: emerging threats for human health - impact of socioeconomic and climate change on zooanthroponosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

Irene Huber, Katerina Potapova, Elena Ammosova, Wolfgang Beyer, Sergey Blagodatskiy, Roman Desyatkin, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Margarita Ignateva, Ludmila Kokolova, Stefanie Lemke, Mikhail Neustroev, Ayan Nyukkanov, Galina Protodyakonova, Alexander Reshetnikov, Thomas Romig, Vyacheslav Shadrin, Izabella Samoilova, Sergey Semenov, Konstantin Stepanov, Nadezhda Tarabukina, Liliia Vinokurova, Raisa Zakharova, Konstantin Nifontov,

Population growth, socio-cultural and economic changes as well as technological progress have an immediate impact on the environment and human health in particular. Our steadily rising needs of resources increase the pressure on the environment and narrow down untainted habitats for plants and wild animals. Balance and resilience of ecosystems ... Read more >>

Int J Circumpolar Health (International journal of circumpolar health)
[2020, 79(1):1715698]

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Ocular and Lacrimal Gland Lesions in Naturally Occurring Rabies of Domestic and Wild Mammals.

Martha F Dalton, Chris L Siepker, Grazieli Maboni, Susan Sanchez, Daniel R Rissi,

Investigations describing the ocular and lacrimal gland lesions associated with rabies are sparse. Here we characterize the pathological changes and distribution of rabies viral antigen in the eye, optic nerve, and lacrimal gland of 18 rabies cases from different mammalian species. Histology and immunohistochemistry for rabies virus, CD3, CD20, and ... Read more >>

Vet. Pathol. (Veterinary pathology)
[2020, :300985820911458]

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Recombinant Rabies Virus Overexpressing OX40-Ligand Enhances Humoral Immune Responses by Increasing T Follicular Helper Cells and Germinal Center B Cells.

Yingying Li, Ling Zhao, Baokui Sui, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Yong Wang,

Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries. Development of a single-dose and efficacious rabies vaccine is the most important method to restrict rabies virus transmission. Costimulatory factor OX40-ligand (OX40L) plays a crucial role in the T cell-dependent humoral immune responses ... Read more >>

Vaccines (Basel) (Vaccines)
[2020, 8(1):]

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Modelling Lyssavirus Infections in Human Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cultures.

Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Nathan Godde, Ryan J Farr, Diane Green, John M Haynes, John Bingham, Carmel M O'Brien, Megan Dearnley,

Rabies is a zoonotic neurological infection caused by lyssavirus that continues to result in devastating loss of human life. Many aspects of rabies pathogenesis in human neurons are not well understood. Lack of appropriate ex-vivo models for studying rabies infection in human neurons has contributed to this knowledge gap. In ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(4):]

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Reviewing Solutions of Scale for Canine Rabies Elimination in India.

Andrew D Gibson, Ryan M Wallace, Abdul Rahman, Omesh K Bharti, Shrikrishna Isloor, Frederic Lohr, Luke Gamble, Richard J Mellanby, Alasdair King, Michael J Day,

Canine rabies elimination can be achieved through mass vaccination of the dog population, as advocated by the WHO, OIE and FAO under the 'United Against Rabies' initiative. Many countries in which canine rabies is endemic are exploring methods to access dogs for vaccination, campaign structures and approaches to resource mobilization. ... Read more >>

Trop Med Infect Dis (Tropical medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Rabies in Callithrix sp. in the urban area of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Flavio Fernando Batista Moutinho, Marcela Garcia Araújo de Andrade, Viviane Moura Azevedo Nunes, Eduardo Cárdenas Nogueira Rubião, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner Batista, Phyllis Catharina Romijn, Carlos Alberto Cattaneo, Fernando Guilherme de Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Nairedisa Marcanth, Leilane Gorga Gaspar Ruas Silvestre, Fábio Villas Boas Borges, Sávio Freire Bruno,

In Brazil, rabies occurs mainly within an urban cycle, in which dogs and bats are reservoirs. This paper aims to report the occurrence of rabies in Callithrix sp. in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In June 2019 a hybrid specimen was referred for diagnosis. The Direct Fluorescent Antibody, Mouse Inoculation, ... Read more >>

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. (Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
[2020, 53:e20190402]

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A long-distance translocation initiated an outbreak of raccoon rabies in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Susan Nadin-Davis, Tore Buchanan, Larissa Nituch, Christine Fehlner-Gardiner,

Despite proactive measures to prevent raccoon rabies entering Canada from the United States, several incursions of this disease have occurred. The largest outbreak, first reported in December 2015 in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, has resulted in the reporting of 449 animal cases as of December 31, 2018. Initial phylogenetic ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(3):e0008113]

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Induction of Rabies Virus Infection in Mice Brain may Up and Down Regulate Type II Interferon gamma via epigenetic modifications.

Maryam Abdulazeez, Grace S N Kia, Musa M Abarshi, Aliyu Muhammad, Comfort E Ojedapo, Joy Cecilia Atawodi, David Dantong, Jacob K P Kwaga,

As feared and deadly human diseases globally, Rabies virus contrived mechanisms to escape early immune recognition via suppression of the interferon response. This study, preliminarily investigated whether Rabies virus employs epigenetic mechanism for the suppression of the interferon using the Challenge virus standard (CVS) strain and Nigerian street Rabies virus ... Read more >>

Metab Brain Dis (Metabolic brain disease)
[2020, :]

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Evaluation of post-exposure prophylaxis practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of rabies control in human cases potentially exposed to rabies in southern Bhutan.

Kinley Penjor, Nelly Marquetoux, Chendu Dorji, Kinley Penjor, Sithar Dorjee, Chencho Dorjee, P D Jolly, R S Morris, J S McKenzie,

BACKGROUND:Rabies is endemic in southern Bhutan, associated with 1-2 human deaths and high post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) costs annually. Evaluation of clinicians' management of human cases potentially exposed to rabies could contribute to improving PEP prescribing practices to both reduce unnecessary costs associated with PEP and reach the target of ... Read more >>

BMC Infect. Dis. (BMC infectious diseases)
[2020, 20(1):203]

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Possibility of Immediate Introduction of a Single-Dose Antibody Induction Test as a Refinement of the NIH Test for Inactivated Rabies Vaccine Potency Determination.

Srđan Stankov, Nemanja Obradović, Dragana Vujin, Nenad Vranješ,

Antibody induction test (AIT) is a promising candidate as a refinement of the troublesome National institutes of Health (NIH) test in the sense of animal welfare 3R approach for determination of potency of inactivated rabies vaccines for veterinary and human use. In this study, we initially try to develop AIT ... Read more >>

Viral Immunol. (Viral immunology)
[2020, :]

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Rabies in Uganda: rabies knowledge, attitude and practice and molecular characterization of circulating virus strains.

Michael Omodo, Meriadeg Ar Gouilh, Frank Norbert Mwiine, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, Noelina Nantima, Alice Namatovu, Maria Flavia Nakanjako, Emmanuel Isingoma, Eugene Arinaitwe, Martin Esau, Simon Kyazze, Milton Bahati, Franklin Mayanja, Patrick Bagonza, Richard Akule Urri, Mary Nanfuka Lovincer, Esther Nabatta, Eugene Kidega, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Gladys Nakanjako, Joseph Sserugga, Deo Birungi Ndumu, Robert Mwebe, Kenneth Mugabi, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Musa Sekamatte,

BACKGROUND:Rabies is a deadly preventable viral disease that affects all warm-blooded animals and widespread in many regions including Africa. The disease remains of major public health importance in Uganda. The purpose of this study was to establish Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) of Rabies in Moyo and Ntoroko districts and to ... Read more >>

BMC Infect. Dis. (BMC infectious diseases)
[2020, 20(1):200]

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Purified Vero Cell Rabies Vaccine (PVRV, Verorab®): A Systematic Review of Intradermal Use Between 1985 and 2019.

Thomas Moulenat, Céline Petit, Valérie Bosch Castells, Guy Houillon,

The purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV; Verorab®, Sanofi Pasteur) has been used in rabies prevention since 1985. Evolving rabies vaccination trends, including shorter intradermal (ID) regimens with reduced volume, along with WHO recommendation for ID administration has driven recent ID PVRV regimen assessments. Thus, a consolidated review comparing immunogenicity ... Read more >>

Trop Med Infect Dis (Tropical medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Enabling animal rabies diagnostic in low-access areas: Sensitivity and specificity of a molecular diagnostic test from cerebral tissue dried on filter paper.

Felana Suzah Rasolonjatovo, Hélène Guis, Malavika Rajeev, Laurent Dacheux, Lalaina Arivony Nomenjanahary, Girard Razafitrimo, Jean Théophile Rafisandrantantsoa, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Jean-Michel Heraud, Soa Fy Andriamandimby,

Rabies is a lethal zoonotic encephalomyelitis that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths yearly worldwide. Although developing countries of Asia and Africa bear the heaviest burden, surveillance and disease detection in these countries is often hampered by the absence of local laboratories able to diagnose rabies and/or the difficulties of ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(3):e0008116]

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Economic and feasibility comparison of the dRIT and DFA for decentralized rabies diagnosis in resource-limited settings: The use of Nigerian dog meat markets as a case study.

Eze U Ukamaka, Andre Coetzer, Terence P Scott, Boniface M Anene, Romanus C Ezeokonkwo, Chika I Nwosuh, Louis H Nel, Claude T Sabeta,

BACKGROUND:Rabies lyssavirus (RABV) is the aetiologic agent of rabies, a disease that is severely underreported in Nigeria as well as elsewhere in Africa and Asia. Despite the role that rabies diagnosis plays towards elucidating the true burden of the disease, Nigeria-a country of 180 million inhabitants-has a limited number of ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(2):e0008088]

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Rabies Vaccination of 6-Week-Old Puppies Born to Immunized Mothers: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a High-Mortality Population of Owned, Free-Roaming Dogs.

Sintayehu Arega, Anne Conan, Claude T Sabeta, Jan E Crafford, Jeanette Wentzel, Bjorn Reininghaus, Louise Biggs, Andrew L Leisewitz, Melvyn Quan, Felix Toka, Darryn L Knobel,

To achieve global elimination of human rabies from dogs by 2030, evidence-based strategies for effective dog vaccination are needed. Current guidelines recommend inclusion of dogs younger than 3 months in mass rabies vaccination campaigns, although available vaccines are only recommended for use by manufacturers in older dogs, ostensibly due to ... Read more >>

Trop Med Infect Dis (Tropical medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030: perspectives from quantitative and mathematical modelling

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Dog-mediated rabies continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in low- and middle-income countries despite being an entirely vaccine-preventable disease. WHO and partners have launched a global campaign to reach zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. The primary tools for reaching this target are mass ... Read more >>

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An epidemiological study of suspected rabies exposures and adherence to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in Eastern Thailand, 2015.

Onphirul Yurachai, Soawapak Hinjoy, Ryan M Wallace,

BACKGROUND:Human rabies is a notifiable condition in Thailand, and 46 confirmed and probable cases were reported from 2010-2015; eleven were reported from Eastern Thailand. Although rabies is vaccine preventable, more than 90% of persons who died of rabies in Thailand either did not receive or inappropriately discontinued post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(2):e0007248]

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Non-specific effects of rabies vaccine on the incidence of common infectious disease episodes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Darryn Knobel, Christianah Odita, Anne Conan, Donna Barry, Marshalette Smith-Antony, Juliet Battice, Shianne England, Bradford Gessner,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Background: Vaccines may cause non-specific effects (NSEs) on morbidity and mortality through immune-mediated mechanisms that are not explained by the prevention of the targeted disease. Much of the evidence for NSEs comes from observational studies with a high risk of bias, and there is a clear ... Read more >>

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Serological Survey of Lyssaviruses in Polish Bats in the Frame of Passive Rabies Surveillance Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Anna Orłowska, Marcin Smreczak, Conrad Martin Freuling, Thomas Müller, Paweł Trębas, Jerzy Rola,

Background: Bats are known to host a number of nonpathogenic viruses, as well as highly pathogenic viruses causing fatal diseases like rabies. Serological surveys as part of active and passive bat rabies surveillance mainly use seroneutralization assays, demonstrating the presence of lyssavirus-specific antibodies in a variety of European bats, particularly ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2020, 12(3):]

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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Rabies in El Jadida Region, Morocco.

Khadija Bouaddi, Abdelali Bitar, Mohammed Bouslikhane, Abdesslam Ferssiwi, Aziz Fitani, Philip Paul Mshelbwala,

The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies in the El Jadida region, Morocco. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire among randomly selected residents across 24 study sites. In total, 407 respondents took part in the survey. The majority (367, ... Read more >>

Vet Sci (Veterinary sciences)
[2020, 7(1):]

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Risk Modeling of Bat Rabies in the Caribbean Islands.

Clint N Morgan, Ryan M Wallace, Alexandra Vokaty, Janine F R Seetahal, Yoshinori J Nakazawa,

Rabies surveillance and control measures vary significantly between Caribbean islands. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends certain groups of U.S. travelers to any Caribbean island receive pre-exposure rabies immunization. However, most islands self-declare as "rabies free", and have never publicly released data to support rabies-free claims. We ... Read more >>

Trop Med Infect Dis (Tropical medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Clinical Presentation and Serologic Response during a Rabies Epizootic in Captive Common Vampire Bats (Desmodus rotundus).

Elsa M Cárdenas-Canales, Crystal M Gigante, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, James A Ellison, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Lex G Medina-Magües, Richard Griesser, Elizabeth Falendysz, Ignacio Amezcua, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke,

We report mortality events in a group of 123 common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) captured in México and housed for a rabies vaccine efficacy study in Madison, Wisconsin. Bat mortalities occurred in México and Wisconsin, but rabies cases reported herein are only those that occurred after arrival in Madison (n ... Read more >>

Trop Med Infect Dis (Tropical medicine and infectious disease)
[2020, 5(1):]

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Molecular characterization and diagnostic investigations of rabies encephalitis in camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Oman: a retrospective study.

Mohamed S Ahmed, Mohammad H Body, Mahmoud S El-Neweshy, Abdulmajeed H ALrawahi, Mohsin Al-Abdawani, Hatim A Eltahir, Mahir G ALmaewaly,

The accurate and early diagnosis of rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures in animals. The aim of the current study was to identify the molecular characterization of the circulating rabies virus (RABV) among camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Oman and to evaluate the efficacy of the histopathology and reverse ... Read more >>

Trop Anim Health Prod (Tropical animal health and production)
[2020, :]

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Rabies: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices in and Around South Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

Amare Bihon, Desalegn Meresa, Abraham Tesfaw,

A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2017 to April 2017 to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of the community towards rabies in south Gondar zone, Ethiopia. A structured closed ended questionnaire was used to collect the data through face to face interviews among 384 respondents. The data were then ... Read more >>

Diseases (Diseases (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 8(1):]

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Short communication on the use of a free rabies hotline service in Chad.

Nodjimbadem Mbaipago, Rolande Mindekem, Alladoumngar Madjiadinan, Ronelngar Moyengar, Assandi Oussigueré, Kemdongarti Naissengar, Jakob Zinsstag, Monique Lechenne,

As part of the activities of a project to estimate burden of rabies and vaccine demand in Chad, funded by GAVI, we set up a free hotline service to guide the population and related public services in the event of an animal bite. This short communication presents the data collected ... Read more >>

Acta Trop. (Acta tropica)
[2020, :105446]

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