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Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Patients

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Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

Sadatomo Tasaka,

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a wellk-nown opportunistic infection and its management has been established. However, PCP is an emerging threat to immunocompromised patients without HIV infection, such as those receiving novel immunosuppressive therapeutics for malignancy, organ transplantation, or connective tissue diseases. Clinical manifestations ... Read more >>

Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) (Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases)
[2020, :]

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Reversed halo sign: Uncommon presentation of a common disease.

Bijay Pattnaik, P B Sryma, Saurabh Mittal, Karan Madan,

Lung India (Lung India : official organ of Indian Chest Society)
[2020, 37(2):182-183]

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Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients with Blastomycosis.

Joseph A McBride, Alana K Sterkel, Eduard Matkovic, Aimee T Broman, Suzanne N Gibbons-Burgener, Gregory M Gauthier,

BACKGROUND:Blastomyces is a dimorphic fungus that infects persons with or without underlying immunocompromise. To date, no study has compared the clinical features and outcomes of blastomycosis between immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons. METHODS:A retrospective study of adult patients with proven blastomycosis from 2004 - 2016 was conducted at the University of ... Read more >>

Clin. Infect. Dis. (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2020, :]

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Diagnosis of severe respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients.

Elie Azoulay, Lene Russell, Andry Van de Louw, Victoria Metaxa, Philippe Bauer, Pedro Povoa, José Garnacho Montero, Ignacio Martin Loeches, Sangeeta Mehta, Kathryn Puxty, Peter Schellongowski, Jordi Rello, Djamel Mokart, Virginie Lemiale, Adrien Mirouse, ,

An increasing number of critically ill patients are immunocompromised. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), chiefly due to pulmonary infection, is the leading reason for ICU admission. Identifying the cause of ARF increases the chances of survival, but may be extremely challenging, as the underlying disease, treatments, and infection combine to ... Read more >>

Intensive Care Med (Intensive care medicine)
[2020, 46(2):298-314]

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Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Severe Neutropenia Not Responding to Standard Therapy.

Hajar AlQahtani, Saeed Baloch, Deanne Tabb,

One of the most effective strategies in reducing the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). However, several adverse events have been reported post FMT, and data on the efficacy and safety of FMT in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies are rare. This report presents ... Read more >>

Case Rep Infect Dis (Case reports in infectious diseases)
[2020, 2020:3089023]

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Acute Pancreatitis Due to Disseminated Varicella Zoster Infection in an Individual with Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Sasmit Roy, Subhasish Bose, Ramesh K Pandey, Srikanth Naramala, Muhammad Rajib Hossain,

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is generally considered as a benign and self-limiting disease. However, individuals with VZV infection can have disseminated to various organs leading to serious complications, particularly in adults. This pattern is more prevalent in immunosuppressed individuals. Disseminated varicella is historically known to involve the central nervous system ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(2):e7027]

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[Clinical Management of Lung Cancer Patients during the Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)].

Yan Xu, Hongsheng Liu, Ke Hu, Mengzhao Wang,

Since late December 2019, an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly nationwide. With the spread of COVID-19, the routine clinical diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer patients has been disturbed. Due to the systemic immunosuppressive of lung cancer patients caused by the malignancy ... Read more >>

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi (Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer)
[2020, 23(3):136-141]

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Fatal Disseminated Aspergillosis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Rochelle Hardie, Tracian James-Goulbourne, Monsoon Rashid, Jeremy Sullivan, Yamen Homsi,

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk for infection including opportunistic infections. Fungal infection in particular can be difficult to diagnose and treat and often can be life-threatening in the immunocompromised patient. We present a case in which a patient with SLE presented to the hospital with ... Read more >>

Case Rep Infect Dis (Case reports in infectious diseases)
[2020, 2020:9623198]

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Respiratory adenovirus infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised adult patients.

S Cederwall, L I Påhlman,

Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe respiratory infections in children and immunocompromised patients, but less is known about severe AdV pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. In this retrospective study, we compared respiratory tract infections and pneumonia caused by AdV in immunocompromised and immunocompetent adult patients regarding clinical presentation and severity of infection. ... Read more >>

Epidemiol. Infect. (Epidemiology and infection)
[2020, 147:e328]

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A co-infection of varicella-zoster virus and Pneumocystis jirovecii in a non-HIV immunocompromised patient: a case report.

Hirotada Muramatsu, Akira Kuriyama, Yoshiaki Anzai, Tetsunori Ikegami,

BACKGROUND:Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes herpes zoster. Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) also causes pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Although both cause opportunistic infections, it is rare to have a co-infection in a non-human immunodeficiency virus carrier. CASE PRESENTATION:An 84-year-old woman with hemolytic anemia referred because of acute respiratory failure. She had received prednisolone ... Read more >>

BMC Infect. Dis. (BMC infectious diseases)
[2019, 19(1):1092]

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Toxoplasmosis in a patient receiving ixekizumab for psoriasis.

Yolanka Lobo, Teagan Holland, Lynda Spelman,

JAAD Case Rep (JAAD case reports)
[2020, 6(3):204-206]

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Chryseobacterium gleum Isolation from Respiratory Culture Following Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Charles P Tsouvalas, George Mousa, Anna H Lee, Jane A Philip, Diane Levine,

BACKGROUND Chryseobacterium gleum (C. gleum) is a rare but concerning device-associated infection that can cause urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It produces a biofilm and has intrinsic resistance to a wide array of broad-spectrum agents. Risk factors include neonate or immunocompromised states, intensive care unit admission for more than 21 ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2020, 21:e921172]

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Predicting the microbial cause of community-acquired pneumonia: can physicians or a data-driven method differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia at patient presentation?

Claire Lhommet, Denis Garot, Leslie Grammatico-Guillon, Cassandra Jourdannaud, Pierre Asfar, Christophe Faisy, Grégoire Muller, Kimberly A Barker, Emmanuelle Mercier, Sylvie Robert, Philippe Lanotte, Alain Goudeau, Helene Blasco, Antoine Guillon,

BACKGROUND:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requires urgent and specific antimicrobial therapy. However, the causal pathogen is typically unknown at the point when anti-infective therapeutics must be initiated. Physicians synthesize information from diverse data streams to make appropriate decisions. Artificial intelligence (AI) excels at finding complex relationships in large volumes of data. We ... Read more >>

BMC Pulm Med (BMC pulmonary medicine)
[2020, 20(1):62]

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Intussusception in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Charles-Henri Wassmer, Ziad Abbassi, Frédéric Ris, Thierry Berney,

BACKGROUND Intussusception in adults (AI) accounts for 1% of all cases of bowel obstruction. While pediatric intussusception is well known and almost always idiopathic, an underlying cause is usually found in adults. Indication for surgical treatment and intussusception reduction before resection remain controversial in AI. Here, we present an uncommon ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2020, 21:e919974]

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Histoplasma capsulatum Infection in an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patient Receiving Voriconazole Prophylaxis.

Vaibhav Agrawal, Bryan J Brinda, Sherif S Farag,

Histoplasma capsulatum infection is a rare complication in the allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. Minimal guidance exists on how to appropriately manage histoplasmosis in these patients. We report a patient who developed Histoplasma pneumonia while receiving voriconazole prophylaxis at a therapeutic trough level. The patient experienced significant clinical improvement after ... Read more >>

Case Rep Hematol (Case reports in hematology)
[2020, 2020:8124137]

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Pulmonary Toxoplasmosis Diagnosed on Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in a Mechanically Ventilated Patient.

Delyse Garg, Nikhil Madan, Omar Qaqish, Sandhya Nagarakanti, Vipul Patel,

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world's population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or consuming undercooked meat containing tissue cysts. Primary infection is subclinical in immunocompetent hosts. Invasive toxoplasmosis ... Read more >>

Case Rep Infect Dis (Case reports in infectious diseases)
[2020, 2020:9710182]

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Oral Infection Caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A Rare Presentation of an Emerging Opportunistic Pathogen.

Marcelo Prates, Fernando Fernandes, Francisco Proença, Yashad Mussá, Ana Tavares, André Pereira,

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen with an increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired infection cases, mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Oral cavity infections are rare. To learn more about this infection, a case of oral cavity infection caused by S. maltophilia in an immunosuppressed patient under ventilatory therapy ... Read more >>

Case Rep Infect Dis (Case reports in infectious diseases)
[2020, 2020:6346120]

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Gomori Methenamine Silver Stain on Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Is Poorly Sensitive for Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia in HIV-Negative Immunocompromised Patients and May Lead to Missed or Delayed Diagnoses.

Marwan M Azar, Rebecca Slotkin, Rita Abi-Raad, Yuehong Liu, Matthew H Grant, Maricar F Malinis,

CONTEXT.—:Direct visualization of Pneumocystis jiroveci organisms, using Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) staining in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), is a historical gold standard that has been widely used for the diagnosis of P jiroveci pneumonia (PJP). However, the stain may be less sensitive in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative immunocompromised patients owing ... Read more >>

Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine)
[2020, :]

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Rhodococcus hoagii bloodstream infection in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patient: Case report and review of literature.

Pedro da Silva Campana, Lorena Zaine Matos Martinho, Marjorie Vieira Batista, Hermes Higashino, Camila Rizek, Flavia Rossi, Fernando Nivaldo Oliveira, Vanderson Rocha, Silvia Figueiredo Costa,

We report a case of bloodstream infection caused by R. hoagii in a woman with acute myeloid leukemia, 37-years-old, who received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. She developed cutaneous and gastrointestinal tract graft versus host disease, respectively on day 29 and day 69. On day 157 she developed to ... Read more >>

IDCases (IDCases)
[2020, 20:e00724]

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Next-generation sequencing of microbial cell-free DNA for rapid noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases in immunocompromised hosts

Jose Camargo, Asim Ahmed, Martin Lindner, Michele Morris, Shweta Anjan, Anthony Anderson, Clara Prado, Sudeb Dalai, Octavio Martinez, Krishna Komanduri,

Background: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing has emerged as an effective laboratory method for rapid and noninvasive diagnosis in prenatal screening testing, organ transplant rejection screening, and oncology liquid biopsies but clinical experience for use of this technology in diagnostic evaluation of infections in immunocompromised hosts is limited.  Methods: We conducted ... Read more >>

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Cryptococcal Antigen Testing in an Integrated Medical System: Eastern Wisconsin.

Marianne Klumph, Brian Hoeynck, Dennis J Baumgardner,

Cryptococcosis is a serious environmentally acquired endemic fungal infection commonly associated with immunocompromised hosts. Little is known regarding frequency or distribution in Wisconsin. We explored the geodemographic and clinical features of patients tested with cryptococcal antigen tests (CrAg) - previously shown to be >90% sensitive and >90% specific - within ... Read more >>

J Patient Cent Res Rev (Journal of patient-centered research and reviews)
[2020, 7(1):57-62]

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[Immunodeficiency diseases with interstitial lung disease as major clinical manifestations: report of six cases].

J H Chen, Y M Bao, Z C Li, H L Ma, W J Wang, Y J Zheng,

Objective: To summarize the clinical features of immunodeficiency diseases with interstitial lung disease (ILD) as major clinical manifestations and to improve understanding etiology of ILD. Methods: The clinical features and clinical clues for diagnosis of six cases with immunodeficiency presented with ILD in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2014 to ... Read more >>

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi (Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics)
[2020, 58(3):228-232]

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Successful treatment of anti-MDA5 antibody-positive refractory interstitial lung disease with plasma exchange therapy.

Yoshiyuki Abe, Makio Kusaoi, Kurisu Tada, Ken Yamaji, Naoto Tamura,

OBJECTIVES:We examined the effectiveness of plasma exchange (PE) therapy to reduce the mortality of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) in patients positive for anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibodies. METHODS:Among 142 patients newly diagnosed with PM/DM or clinically amyopathic DM from 2008 to 2019 at our hospital, 10 were ... Read more >>

Rheumatology (Oxford) (Rheumatology (Oxford, England))
[2020, 59(4):767-771]

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Bilateral acute retinal necrosis caused by two separate viral etiologies.

Andrew M Williams, Vincent Q Nguyen, Benjamin W Botsford, Andrew W Eller,

Purpose:To describe an unusual case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) that was caused by varicella zoster virus in one eye and Epstein-Barr virus in the fellow eye. Observations:A 67-year-old immunocompromised man presented with ARN in the left eye following a dermatomal vesicular rash, with an aqueous sample positive for ... Read more >>

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep (American journal of ophthalmology case reports)
[2020, 18:100636]

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Pulmonary Presentation of Kaposi-Sarcoma in a Renal Transplant Recipient.

Seth Scheetz, Deepali Pandey, Todd E Pesavento, Priyamvada Singh,

Renal transplant patients on immunosuppression are at risk for malignancy. One form of malignancy that commonly affects this population is Kaposi-sarcoma. Kaposi-sarcoma is a human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-driven process classically associated with skin lesions in immunocompromised patients. The pulmonary system may be involved in disseminated disease. In this case, a renal transplant ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(1):e6719]

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