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Pathophysiology and Etiology of Lead Toxicity

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A long journey for acute kidney injury biomarkers.

Dong-Jin Oh,

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening illness that continues to have an in-hospital mortality rate of patients with AKI ranges from 20% to 50% or greater, depending on underlying conditions. However, it has only marginally declined over the past 25 years. Previous authoritative publications have been pointed out that the ... Read more >>

Ren Fail (Renal failure)
[2020, 42(1):154-165]

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Autoimmunity in Acute Myocarditis: How Immunopathogenesis Steers New Directions for Diagnosis and Treatment.

Karina Bruestle, Klaus Hackner, Gudrun Kreye, Bettina Heidecker,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Over the last decade, myocarditis has been increasingly recognized as common cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults and heart failure overall. The purpose of this review is to discuss hypothesis of development of non-infectious myocarditis, to provide a description of the immunopathogenesis and the most common ... Read more >>

Curr Cardiol Rep (Current cardiology reports)
[2020, 22(5):28]

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A Clinician's Guide to Management of Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients.

Inneke E De Laet, Manu L N G Malbrain, Jan J De Waele,

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2020. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2020. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901. ... Read more >>

Crit Care (Critical care (London, England))
[2020, 24(1):97]

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Alterations in the Nervous System and Gut Microbiota after β-Hemolytic Streptococcus Group A Infection-Characteristics and Diagnostic Criteria of PANDAS Recognition.

Jacek Baj, Elżbieta Sitarz, Alicja Forma, Katarzyna Wróblewska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz,

The objective of this paper is to review and summarize conclusions from the available literature regarding Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The authors have independently reviewed articles from 1977 onwards, primarily focusing on the etiopathology, symptoms, differentiation between similar psychiatric conditions, immunological reactions, alterations in the ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(4):]

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Organ Dysfunction in Sepsis: An Ominous Trajectory From Infection To Death.

César Caraballo, Fabián Jaimes,

Sepsis is a highly complex and lethal syndrome with highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations that makes it difficult to detect and treat. It is also one of the major and most urgent global public health challenges. More than 30 million people are diagnosed with sepsis each year, with 5 million attributable ... Read more >>

Yale J Biol Med (The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
[2019, 92(4):629-640]

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Infantile Spasms: An Update on Pre-Clinical Models and EEG Mechanisms.

Remi Janicot, Li-Rong Shao, Carl E Stafstrom,

Infantile spasms (IS) is an epileptic encephalopathy with unique clinical and electrographic features, which affects children in the middle of the first year of life. The pathophysiology of IS remains incompletely understood, despite the heterogeneity of IS etiologies, more than 200 of which are known. In particular, the neurobiological basis ... Read more >>

Children (Basel) (Children)
[2020, 7(1):]

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Vasoplegic syndrome following cardiothoracic surgery-review of pathophysiology and update of treatment options.

Laurence W Busse, Nicholas Barker, Christopher Petersen,

Vasoplegic syndrome is a common occurrence following cardiothoracic surgery and is characterized as a high-output shock state with poor systemic vascular resistance. The pathophysiology is complex and includes dysregulation of vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive properties of smooth vascular muscle cells. Specific bypass machine and patient factors play key roles in occurrence. ... Read more >>

Crit Care (Critical care (London, England))
[2020, 24(1):36]

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Pericardial decompression syndrome: A comprehensive review.

Yougeesh Prabhakar, Amandeep Goyal, Nauman Khalid, Nitish Sharma, Raj Nayyar, David H Spodick, Lovely Chhabra,

Pericardial decompression syndrome (PDS) is an infrequent, life-threatening complication following pericardial drainage for cardiac tamponade physiology. PDS usually develops after initial clinical improvement following pericardiocentesis and is significantly underreported and may be overlooked in the clinical practice. Although the precise mechanisms resulting in PDS are not well understood, this seems ... Read more >>

World J Cardiol (World journal of cardiology)
[2019, 11(12):282-291]

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Treatment of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in the ICU: the therapeutic targets do not seem to be established yet.

Jean-Pierre Quenot, Auguste Dargent, Audrey Large, Jean-Baptiste Roudaut, Pascal Andreu, Saber Barbar,

Ann Transl Med (Annals of translational medicine)
[2019, 7(Suppl 6):S181]

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Hypotension in Cirrhosis.

Ravi S Vora, Ram M Subramanian,

Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) (Clinical liver disease)
[2019, 13(6):149-153]

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From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Tommaso Cassano, Rosanna Villani, Lorenzo Pace, Antonio Carbone, Vidyasagar Naik Bukke, Stanislaw Orkisz, Carlo Avolio, Gaetano Serviddio,

Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects. Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation ... Read more >>

Front Pharmacol (Frontiers in Pharmacology)
[2020, 11:124]

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Febrile Neutropenia in Acute Leukemia. Epidemiology, Etiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment.

Bent-Are Hansen, Øystein Wendelbo, Øyvind Bruserud, Anette Lodvir Hemsing, Knut Anders Mosevoll, Håkon Reikvam,

Acute leukemias are a group of aggressive malignant diseases associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. An important cause of both the latter is infectious complications. Patients with acute leukemia are highly susceptible to infectious diseases due to factors related to the disease itself, factors attributed to treatment, ... Read more >>

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis (Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases)
[2020, 12(1):e2020009]

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The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future.

Jin-Yan Li, Zhi You, Qiong Wang, Zhi-Jian Zhou, Ye Qiu, Rui Luo, Xing-Yi Ge,

At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, caused an outbreak of pneumonia spreading from Wuhan, Hubei province, to the whole country of China, which has posed great threats to public health and attracted enormous attention around the world. To date, there are no clinically approved vaccines or ... Read more >>

Microbes Infect. (Microbes and infection)
[2020, 22(2):80-85]

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Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: review article.

Thiago José Muniz Machado Mazzeo, Mario Martins Dos Santos Motta, André Luiz Land Curi,

Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is an ocular infectious disease that can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness. It usually occurs in healthy young individuals and depending on the stage of the disease, it may present as vitritis, multifocal gray-white lesions in the outer retina, and derangement of the ... Read more >>

J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect (Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection)
[2019, 9(1):23]

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Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: current knowledge and future perspectives.

Yi Ji, Siyuan Chen, Kaiying Yang, Chunchao Xia, Li Li,

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm with high morbidity and mortality. The initiating mechanism during the pathogenesis of KHE has yet to be discovered. The main pathological features of KHE are abnormal angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. KHEs are clinically heterogeneous and may develop into a life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive ... Read more >>

Orphanet J Rare Dis (Orphanet journal of rare diseases)
[2020, 15(1):39]

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Insights Into the Molecular and Cellular Underpinnings of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma.

Sara Yumeen, Michael Girardi,

Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare malignancy of skin-homing T lymphocytes. Advances in whole exome sequencing have identified a vast number of both single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and genomic copy number alterations (GCNAs) as driver mutations present in CTCL cells. These alterations cluster within several key pathways – ... Read more >>

Yale J Biol Med (The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
[2020, 93(1):111-121]

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Tuberculosis septic shock, an elusive pathophysiology and hurdles in management: A case report and review of literature.

Rashmi Mishra, Harish K Patel, Rakesh Singasani, Trupti Vakde,

BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare etiology of the septic shock. Timely administration of the anti-microbial agents has shown mortality benefit. Prompt diagnosis and a high index of suspicion are crucial to the management. We present three cases of TBSS with poor outcome in the majority despite timely and susceptible antibiotic ... Read more >>

World J Crit Care Med (World Journal of Critical Care Medicine)
[2019, 8(5):72-81]

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A Hypothesis and Evidence That Mercury May be an Etiological Factor in Alzheimer's Disease.

Robert Siblerud, Joachim Mutter, Elaine Moore, Johannes Naumann, Harald Walach,

Mercury is one of the most toxic elements and causes a multitude of health problems. It is ten times more toxic to neurons than lead. This study was created to determine if mercury could be causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) by cross referencing the effects of mercury with 70 factors associated ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2019, 16(24):]

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Recent advances in managing and understanding pyoderma gangrenosum.

Josh Fletcher, Raed Alhusayen, Afsaneh Alavi,

Pyoderma Gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis with multiple different clinical presentations and associated comorbidities. PG has historically been a challenging disorder to diagnose, leading to the development of new diagnostic criteria rather than the traditional approach of a diagnosis of exclusion. The pathophysiology is thought to involve both ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2019, 8:]

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Diagnosis and management of acute esophageal necrosis.

Emanuel Dias, João Santos-Antunes, Guilherme Macedo,

Acute esophageal necrosis is a rare syndrome classically characterized by a striking endoscopic image of diffuse and circumferential black mucosal discoloration of distal esophagus, with an abrupt transition at the gastroesophageal junction and variable proximal extension. The typical patient is an older male with general debilitation and multiple comorbidities presenting ... Read more >>

Ann Gastroenterol (Annals of gastroenterology)
[2019, 32(6):529-540]

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Acute Intermittent Porphyria: Current Perspectives And Case Presentation.

Zachary Spiritos, Shakirat Salvador, Diana Mosquera, Julius Wilder,

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency in heme biosynthesis. Heme biosynthesis occurs throughout the body, but it is most prominent in the erythroblastic system and liver. AIP is a hepatic porphyria whereby the liver is the source of toxic heme metabolites. Clinical ... Read more >>

Ther Clin Risk Manag (Therapeutics and clinical risk management)
[2019, 15:1443-1451]

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Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Patient with End-Stage Renal Disease with Normal Serum Lactate.

John Taylor, Bayarmaa Mandzhieva, Rima Shobar,

Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a life-threatening vascular emergency and a diagnostic challenge for physicians. It represents a group of pathophysiologic processes that have a common end point, that is, bowel infarction, and has a nonspecific clinical picture and a high mortality rate. The most common underlying etiologies are arterial ... Read more >>

Cureus (Cureus)
[2020, 12(1):e6708]

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Innate Immunity: A Common Denominator between Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

Fabiana Novellino, Valeria Saccà, Annalidia Donato, Paolo Zaffino, Maria Francesca Spadea, Marco Vismara, Biagio Arcidiacono, Natalia Malara, Ivan Presta, Giuseppe Donato,

The intricate relationships between innate immunity and brain diseases raise increased interest across the wide spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier, and innate immunity cells such as microglia, astrocytes, macrophages, and mast cells are involved in triggering disease events in these groups, through the ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(3):]

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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: Clinical and Radiological Considerations.

Fabio Pilato, Marisa Distefano, Rosalinda Calandrelli,

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) are relatively uncommon neurological disorders, but their detection has been increasing mainly due to clinical awareness and spreading of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because these syndromes share some common clinical and radiologic features and occasionally occur in the same ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:34]

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A Calm, Dispassionate Look at Skin Microbiota in Atopic Dermatitis: An Integrative Literature Review.

Pengjie Wan, Ji Chen,

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic common inflammatory skin disorder with clinical characteristics of pruritic, dry, and recurrent flares that involve the whole body. Recent studies have demonstrated that the skin microbiota, characterized by an overgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), plays a critical role in the manifestation of AD. There ... Read more >>

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) (Dermatology and therapy)
[2020, 10(1):53-61]

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