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Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis

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Paraneoplastic Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

Jonathan Galli, John Greenlee,

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are nonmetastatic complications of malignancy secondary to immune-mediated neuronal dysfunction or death. Pathogenesis may occur from cell surface binding of antineuronal antibodies leading to dysfunction of the target protein, or from antibodies binding against intracellular antigens which ultimately leads to cell death. There are several classical neurological ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Paraneoplastic Diseases of the Central Nervous System

Jonathan Galli, John Greenlee,

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are nonmetastatic complications of malignancy secondary to immune-mediated neuronal dysfunction or death. Pathogenesis may occur from cell surface binding of antineuronal antibodies leading to dysfunction of the target protein, or from antibodies binding against intracellular antigens which ultimately leads to cell death. There are several classical neurological ... Read more >>

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Multiple intracranial lesions with lung adenocarcinoma: A rare case of MOG-IgG-associated encephalomyelitis.

Ke Li, Yajing Zhan, Xiangmin Shen,

BACKGROUND:Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an important marker on the surface of oligodendrocytes and is associated with many demyelinating diseases. Recently, MOG-IgG-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM) has been proposed as a disease entity with a preliminary diagnosis standard. Some patients with lung cancer have been reported to be seropositive for onconeural antibodies; ... Read more >>

Mult Scler Relat Disord (Multiple sclerosis and related disorders)
[2020, 42:102064]

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Worsening of anti-Hu paraneoplastic neurological syndrome related to anti-PD-1 treatment: Case report and review of literature.

Pooja Raibagkar, Doreen Ho, Krishna S Gunturu, Jayashri Srinivasan,

We present an illustrative case of a 62-year-old woman with small cell lung cancer who developed progressive worsening of pre-existing anti-Hu antibody associated sensory neuronopathy after treatment with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, nivolumab. We review the literature and identify 6 reported cases to understand the clinical outcomes of patients ... Read more >>

J. Neuroimmunol. (Journal of neuroimmunology)
[2020, 341:577184]

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An autoimmune-based, paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome following checkpoint inhibition and concurrent radiotherapy for merkel cell carcinoma: case report.

Alexander D Sherry, Michael Bezzerides, Mohamed H Khattab, Guozhen Luo, Kristin K Ancell, Austin N Kirschner,

PURPOSE:Merkel cell carcinoma is highly sensitive to both radiation and immunotherapy. Moreover, concurrent radioimmunotherapy may capitalize on anti-tumor immune activity and improve Merkel cell treatment response, although an enhanced immune system may cross-react with native tissues and lead to significant sequelae. METHODS:Here we present a case study of a patient with metastatic ... Read more >>

Strahlenther Onkol (Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al])
[2020, :]

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Clinical spectrum and diagnostic pitfalls of neurologic syndromes with Ri antibodies.

Claire Simard, Alberto Vogrig, Bastien Joubert, Sergio Muñiz-Castrillo, Géraldine Picard, Véronique Rogemond, François Ducray, Giulia Berzero, Dimitri Psimaras, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Virginie Desestret, Jérôme Honnorat,

OBJECTIVE:To describe the main syndrome and clinical course in a large cohort of patients with anti-Ri-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (Ri-PNS). METHODS:Twenty-year retrospective nationwide study and systematic review of the literature. RESULTS:Thirty-six patients with complete clinical information were identified (median age 66 years, range: 47-87 years). In this French cohort, the ... Read more >>

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(3):]

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Interplay between RNA-binding protein HuR and Nox4 as a novel therapeutic target in diabetic kidney disease.

Qian Shi, Doug-Yoon Lee, Denis Féliers, Hanna E Abboud, Manzoor A Bhat, Yves Gorin,

OBJECTIVE:Glomerular injury is a prominent pathological feature of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Constitutively active NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of reactive oxygen species that mediates hyperglycemia-induced mesangial cell (MC) fibrotic injury. However, the mechanism that Nox4 utilizes to achieve its biological outcome remains elusive, and the signaling ... Read more >>

Mol Metab (Molecular metabolism)
[2020, 36:100968]

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Pediatric autoimmune encephalitis: Recognition and diagnosis.

Marienke A A M de Bruijn, Arlette L Bruijstens, Anna E M Bastiaansen, Agnes van Sonderen, Marco W J Schreurs, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Rogier Q Hintzen, Rinze F Neuteboom, Maarten J Titulaer, ,

OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were (1) to describe the incidence of autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children, (2) to validate the currently used clinical criteria to diagnose AIE, and (3) to describe pitfalls in the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune (AI) and inflammatory neurologic disorders. METHODS:This ... Read more >>

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(3):]

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Viral encephalitis followed by anti-NMDAR encephalitis with concomitant MOG antibody-positive central nervous system demyelination in a child.

Jiannan Ma, Li Jiang,

Neurol. Sci. (Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology)
[2020, :]

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Clinical analysis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with MOG antibody in children.

Chi Hou, Wenlin Wu, Yang Tian, Yani Zhang, Haixia Zhu, Yiru Zeng, Bingwei Peng, Kelu Zheng, Xiaojing Li, Wenxiong Chen,

OBJECTIVE:To analyze the clinical features in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG ab). METHODS:Clinical data of 7 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with MOG ab(+) were collected in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from January, 2016 to June, 2019. Children with NMDAR ab(+)/MOG ab(-) ... Read more >>

Mult Scler Relat Disord (Multiple sclerosis and related disorders)
[2020, 42:102018]

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Pilomotor Seizures in a Patient With LGI1 Encephalitis.

Jinxia Yang, Qiying Sun, Guang Yang,

Limbic encephalitis (LE) with antibodies against leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) is an autoimmune disease with variable clinical features, including seizures, cognitive disorders, psychiatric disturbances, and hyponatremia. The majority of these patients present faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS), which are regarded as a characteristic symptom. A few cases have reported ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:61]

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Anti-Hu limbic encephalitis preceding the appearance of mediastinal germinoma by 9 years.

Matthew Silsby, Candice J Clarke, Kenneth Lee, David Sharpe,

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(3):]

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Cerebellar Ataxia Followed by Stiff Person Syndrome in a Patient with Anti-GAD Antibodies.

Sinali O Seneviratne, Katherine A Buzzard, Belinda Cruse, Mastura Monif,

Anti-GAD antibody syndrome is a result of the production of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the main enzyme responsible for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several neurological manifestations including cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome have been reported in association with anti-GAD antibodies. In this paper, we present ... Read more >>

Case Reports Immunol (Case reports in immunology)
[2020, 2020:8454532]

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A Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis with Normal Findings on Initial Diagnostic Tests.

Hyuk Sung Kwon, Sung Ho Jo, Yangmi Park, Hojin Choi, Young Joo Lee, Seong Ho Koh, Kyu Yong Lee,

Dement Neurocogn Disord (Dementia and neurocognitive disorders)
[2020, 19(1):28-30]

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A Case of Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome Expressing Dual Antineuronal Antibodies: Anti-Hu and Recoverin.

Ho-Sung Ryu, Shin Yup Lee, Dong Ho Park, Jong-Mok Lee,

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(1):133-135]

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Anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibody-associated hemorrhagic leukoencephalomyelitis treated with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide.

Laura Chu, Fraser Clift,

Anti-CV2 or anti-collapsing response-mediator protein-5 (CRMP5) autoantibodies (anti-CV2/CRMP5-Ab) are associated with various paraneoplastic neurological disorders. The best therapy is typically removal of the underlying cancer. We describe a previously healthy elderly male who had no known malignancy. He presented with a demyelinating encephalomyelitis and later developed hemorrhagic changes on neuroimaging. ... Read more >>

Mult Scler Relat Disord (Multiple sclerosis and related disorders)
[2020, 40:101964]

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A case of GFAP-astroglial autoimmunity presenting with reversible parkinsonism.

Anna Tomczak, Elaine Su, Madina Tugizova, Aaron M Carlson, Lucas B Kipp, Haojun Feng, May H Han,

Autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy is a newly recognized autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorder, presenting with an array of neurological symptoms in association with autoantibodies against GFAP, a hallmark protein expressed on astrocytes. Limited knowledge is available on the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Here, we ... Read more >>

Mult Scler Relat Disord (Multiple sclerosis and related disorders)
[2019, 39:101900]

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Understanding and managing acute encephalitis.

Rashmi Kumar,

Encephalitis is an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and permanent neurologic sequelae  globally. Causes are diverse and include viral and non-viral infections of the brain as well as autoimmune processes. In the West, the autoimmune encephalitides are now more common than any single infectious cause, but, in Asia, infectious causes ... Read more >>

F1000Res (F1000Research)
[2020, 9:]

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Paraneoplastic Syndromes Associated with Laryngeal Cancer.

Alessandra Rinaldo, Andrés Coca-Pelaz, Carl E Silver, Alfio Ferlito,

OBJECTIVES:Paraneoplastic syndromes occur rarely in association with laryngeal cancer. When present, the syndrome may be the first sign of the malignancy. The aim of the present study was to review and report on all published cases in the international literature. METHODS:A search of PubMed was conducted for "paraneoplastic syndromes in ... Read more >>

Adv Ther (Advances in therapy)
[2020, 37(1):140-154]

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Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-positive acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking limbic encephalitis: A case report.

Hirokazu Uchigami, Noritoshi Arai, Mariko Sekiguchi, Atsubumi Ogawa, Tsutomu Yasuda, Akiko Seto, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Sousuke Takeuchi,

Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-ab) have been detected in various disorders of the central nervous system including acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), optic neuritis, myelitis, and cortical encephalitis. We report an atypical case of MOG-ab-associated encephalomyelitis with part of the clinical manifestations resembling limbic encephalitis. Multifocal, ... Read more >>

Mult Scler Relat Disord (Multiple sclerosis and related disorders)
[2019, 38:101500]

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An expanded parenchymal CD8+ T cell clone in GABAA receptor encephalitis.

Aline Bracher, Carmen Alcalá, Jaime Ferrer, Nico Melzer, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Bonaventura Casanova, Eduardo Beltrán, Klaus Dornmair,

The role of T cells in autoimmune encephalitis syndromes with autoantibodies against cell surface antigens is still enigmatic. Here we analyzed the T cell receptor repertoires of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in a patient with "idiopathic" gamma-aminobutyric-acid-A receptor (GABAA -R) encephalitis by next-generation sequencing and single-cell analyses. We identified ... Read more >>

Ann Clin Transl Neurol (Annals of clinical and translational neurology)
[2020, 7(2):239-244]

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Clinical Analysis of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis Combined with MOG Antibody in Children

Chi Hou, Xiaojing Li, Wenxiong Chen, Wenlin Wu, Yang Tian, Yani Zhang, Haixia Zhu, Yiru Zeng, Bingwei Peng, Kelu Zheng,

<title>Abstract</title> <p> Objective: To analyze the clinical features in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG ab).Methods: Clinical data of 7 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with MOG ab were collected in Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center from January, 2016 to June, 2019.Results: ... Read more >>

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Clinical features of seronegative, but CSF antibody-positive, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

Mar Guasp, Yasmina Módena, Thaís Armangue, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus,

OBJECTIVE:To determine the frequency of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis without detectable serum NMDAR antibodies and to compare the clinical features of these patients with those with NMDAR antibodies in serum and CSF. METHODS:This is a retrospective assessment of serum antibody status and clinical features of 489 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, defined ... Read more >>

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(2):]

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Understanding Childhood Neuroimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

Sara Matricardi, Giovanni Farello, Salvatore Savasta, Alberto Verrotti,

Immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood are a heterogeneous group of rare conditions sharing the inflammatory involvement of the CNS. This review highlights the growing knowledge of childhood neuroimmune diseases that primarily affect the CNS, outlining the clinical and diagnostic features, the pathobiological mechanisms and genetics, ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2019, 7:511]

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Clinical approach to the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis in the pediatric patient.

Tania Cellucci, Heather Van Mater, Francesc Graus, Eyal Muscal, William Gallentine, Marisa S Klein-Gitelman, Susanne M Benseler, Jennifer Frankovich, Mark P Gorman, Keith Van Haren, Josep Dalmau, Russell C Dale,

OBJECTIVE:Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an important and treatable cause of acute encephalitis. Diagnosis of AE in a developing child is challenging because of overlap in clinical presentations with other diseases and complexity of normal behavior changes. Existing diagnostic criteria for adult AE require modification to be applied to children, who ... Read more >>

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (Neurology(R) neuroimmunology & neuroinflammation)
[2020, 7(2):]

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