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PET Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorders

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[11C]PBR28 MR-PET imaging reveals lower regional brain expression of translocator protein (TSPO) in young adult males with autism spectrum disorder.

N R Zürcher, M L Loggia, J E Mullett, C Tseng, A Bhanot, L Richey, B G Hightower, C Wu, A J Parmar, R I Butterfield, J M Dubois, D B Chonde, D Izquierdo-Garcia, H Y Wey, C Catana, N Hadjikhani, C J McDougle, J M Hooker,

Mechanisms of neuroimmune and mitochondrial dysfunction have been repeatedly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To examine these mechanisms in ASD individuals, we measured the in vivo expression of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), an activated glial marker expressed on mitochondrial membranes. Participants underwent scanning on a simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron ... Read more >>

Mol. Psychiatry (Molecular psychiatry)
[2020, :]

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Genetic landscape of autism spectrum disorder in Vietnamese children.

Kien Trung Tran, Vinh Sy Le, Hoa Thi Phuong Bui, Duong Huy Do, Ha Thi Thanh Ly, Hieu Thi Nguyen, Lan Thi Mai Dao, Thanh Hong Nguyen, Duc Minh Vu, Lien Thi Ha, Huong Thi Thanh Le, Arijit Mukhopadhyay, Liem Thanh Nguyen,

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder with an unclear aetiology and an estimated global prevalence of 1%. However, studies of ASD in the Vietnamese population are limited. Here, we first conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) of 100 children with ASD and their unaffected parents. Our stringent analysis pipeline ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):5034]

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Potential role of genomic imprinted genes and brain developmental related genes in autism.

Jian Li, Xue Lin, Mingya Wang, Yunyun Hu, Kaiyu Xue, Shuanglin Gu, Li Lv, Saijun Huang, Wei Xie,

BACKGROUND:Autism is a complex disease involving both environmental and genetic factors. Recent efforts have implicated the correlation of genomic imprinting and brain development in autism, however the pathogenesis of autism is not completely clear. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to provide a comprehensive analysis of the autism-related genes, genomic imprinted ... Read more >>

BMC Med Genomics (BMC Medical Genomics)
[2020, 13(1):54]

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Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic System Using HOS Bispectrum with EEG Signals.

The-Hanh Pham, Jahmunah Vicnesh, Joel Koh En Wei, Shu Lih Oh, N Arunkumar, Enas W Abdulhay, Edward J Ciaccio, U Rajendra Acharya,

Autistic individuals often have difficulties expressing or controlling emotions and have poor eye contact, among other symptoms. The prevalence of autism is increasing globally, posing a need to address this concern. Current diagnostic systems have particular limitations; hence, some individuals go undiagnosed or the diagnosis is delayed. In this study, ... Read more >>

Int J Environ Res Public Health (International journal of environmental research and public health)
[2020, 17(3):]

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Innate Immunity: A Common Denominator between Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

Fabiana Novellino, Valeria Saccà, Annalidia Donato, Paolo Zaffino, Maria Francesca Spadea, Marco Vismara, Biagio Arcidiacono, Natalia Malara, Ivan Presta, Giuseppe Donato,

The intricate relationships between innate immunity and brain diseases raise increased interest across the wide spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier, and innate immunity cells such as microglia, astrocytes, macrophages, and mast cells are involved in triggering disease events in these groups, through the ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(3):]

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Effect of Zolpidem in the Aftermath of Traumatic Brain Injury: An MEG Study.

Praveen Sripad, Jessica Rosenberg, Frank Boers, Christian P Filss, Norbert Galldiks, Karl-Josef Langen, Ralf Clauss, N Jon Shah, Jürgen Dammers,

In the past two decades, many studies have shown the paradoxical efficacy of zolpidem, a hypnotic used to induce sleep, in transiently alleviating various disorders of consciousness such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), dystonia, and Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of action of this effect of zolpidem is of great research ... Read more >>

Case Rep Neurol Med (Case reports in neurological medicine)
[2020, 2020:8597062]

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Prevalence and Characteristics of Sensory Processing Abnormalities and its Correlation with FDG-PET Findings in Children with Autism.

Razia Adam Kadwa, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Pratibha Singhi, Prahbhjot Malhi, B R Mittal,

OBJECTIVE:To study the prevalence and characteristics of Sensory processing abnormalities (SPAs) in children with autism and to study if there is any correlation between sensory processing abnormalities with FDG-PET findings in children with severe autism. METHODS:One hundred children, aged 3-12 y, diagnosed as Autistic spectrum disorder; ASD (DSM-V) and 100 ... Read more >>

Indian J Pediatr (Indian journal of pediatrics)
[2019, 86(11):1036-1042]

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Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Meta-analysis.

Ashley Ansel, Yehudit Posen, Ronald Ellis, Lisa Deutsch, Philip D Zisman, Benjamin Gesundheit,

OBJECTIVE:To compare the reported accuracy and sensitivity of the various modalities used to diagnose autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in efforts to help focus further biomarker research on the most promising methods for early diagnosis. METHODS:The Medline scientific literature database was searched to identify publications assessing potential clinical ASD biomarkers. Reports ... Read more >>

Rambam Maimonides Med J (Rambam Maimonides medical journal)
[2019, 10(4):]

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Heterozygous STUB1 missense variants cause ataxia, cognitive decline, and STUB1 mislocalization.

Dong-Hui Chen, Caitlin Latimer, Mayumi Yagi, Mesaki Kenneth Ndugga-Kabuye, Elyana Heigham, Suman Jayadev, James S Meabon, Christopher M Gomez, C Dirk Keene, David G Cook, Wendy H Raskind, Thomas D Bird,

Objective:To identify the genetic cause of autosomal dominant ataxia complicated by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and autism in 2 families and to characterize brain neuropathologic signatures of dominant STUB1-related ataxia and investigate the effects of pathogenic variants on STUB1 localization. Methods:Clinical and research-based exome sequencing was used to identify the ... Read more >>

Neurol Genet (Neurology. Genetics)
[2020, 6(2):1-13]

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Differential serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and 5-HT2 receptor density in limbic and neocortical areas of adults and children with autism spectrum disorders: implications for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy.

Cheryl Brandenburg, Gene J Blatt,

As selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are among the most commonly prescribed medications in autism, we aimed to determine whether targets for SSRIs are differentially affected in three cortical areas in children and adults with autism compared to neurotypical individuals. Utilizing a large cohort of postmortem brain tissue (n = 14-19 per ... Read more >>

J. Neurochem. (Journal of neurochemistry)
[2019, 151(5):642-655]

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Prediction in Autism by Deep Learning Short-Time Spontaneous Hemodynamic Fluctuations.

Lingyu Xu, Xiulin Geng, Xiaoyu He, Jun Li, Jie Yu,

This study aims to explore the possibility of using a multilayer artificial neural network for the classification between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children based on short-time spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. Spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations were collected by a functional near-infrared spectroscopy setup from bilateral inferior frontal ... Read more >>

Front Neurosci (Frontiers in neuroscience)
[2019, 13:1120]

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Superior temporal sulcus hypoperfusion in children with autism spectrum disorder: an arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance study

Ana Saitovitch, Elza Rechtman, Hervé Lemaitre, Jean-Marc Tacchella, Alice Vinçon-Leite, Elise Douard, Raphael Calmon, David Grévent, Anne Philippe, Nadia Chabane, Francis Brunelle, Nathalie Boddaert, Monica Zilbovicius,

Abstract Advances in neuroimaging techniques have significantly improved our understanding of the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Several attempts have been made to label the main neuroimaging phenotype of ASD, mostly by anatomical and functional activation studies, but none of the frameworks have been without controversy. Over the ... Read more >>

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A Protocol for Sedation Free MRI and PET Imaging in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

C J Smith, A Bhanot, E Norman, J E Mullett, S D Bilbo, C J McDougle, N R Zürcher, J M Hooker,

Imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present unparalleled opportunities to investigate the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, challenges such as deficits in social interaction, anxiety around new experiences, impaired language abilities, and hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli make participating in neuroimaging ... Read more >>

J Autism Dev Disord (Journal of autism and developmental disorders)
[2019, 49(7):3036-3044]

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Synapse diversity and synaptome architecture in human genetic disorders.

Seth G N Grant,

Over 130 brain diseases are caused by mutations that disrupt genes encoding the proteome of excitatory synapses. These include neurological and psychiatric disorders with early and late onset such as autism, schizophrenia and depression and many other rarer conditions. The proteome of synapses is highly complex with over 1000 conserved ... Read more >>

Hum. Mol. Genet. (Human molecular genetics)
[2019, 28(R2):R219-R225]

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Frontocingulate Dysfunction Is Associated with Depression and Decreased Serum PON1 in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients.

Nooshin Ghavidel, Fariba Khodagholi, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Reza Khosrowabadi, Sareh Asadi, Jamal Shams,

Introduction:Studies have been reported that frequent use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with brain function impairment, mood disorders and excessive free radical production accompanied by the decreased level of the antioxidant response elements, but no study investigated their correlations simultaneously. In the current study, the correlation of brain function, depression ... Read more >>

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment)
[2020, 16:489-499]

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The Endocannabinoid System as a Window Into Microglial Biology and Its Relationship to Autism.

Daniel John Araujo, Karensa Tjoa, Kaoru Saijo,

Microglia are the resident, innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and are critical in managing CNS injuries and infections. Microglia also maintain CNS homeostasis by influencing neuronal development, viability, and function. However, aberrant microglial activity and phenotypes are associated with CNS pathology, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ... Read more >>

Front Cell Neurosci (Frontiers in cellular neuroscience)
[2019, 13:424]

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A comparison of sLASER and MEGA-sLASER using simultaneous interleaved acquisition for measuring GABA in the human brain at 7T.

Donghyun Hong, Seyedmorteza Rohani Rankouhi, Jan-Willem Thielen, Jack J A van Asten, David G Norris,

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, is challenging to measure using proton spectroscopy due to its relatively low concentration, J-coupling and overlapping signals from other metabolites. Currently, the prevalent methods for detecting GABA at ultrahigh field strengths (≥ 7 T) are GABA-editing and model fitting of non-editing single voxel ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2019, 14(10):e0223702]

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Anti-inflammatory Strategies for Schizophrenia: A Review of Evidence for Therapeutic Applications and Drug Repurposing.

Jonghee Hong, Minji Bang,

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a substantial socioeconomic and humanistic burden. Currently available treatment strategies mostly rely on antipsychotic drugs, which block dopaminergic effects in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain. Although antipsychotic drugs help relieve psychotic symptoms, a definitive cure for schizophrenia has yet to be achieved. ... Read more >>

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci (Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology)
[2020, 18(1):10-24]

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BrainSpace: a toolbox for the analysis of macroscale gradients in neuroimaging and connectomics datasets.

Reinder Vos de Wael, Oualid Benkarim, Casey Paquola, Sara Lariviere, Jessica Royer, Shahin Tavakol, Ting Xu, Seok-Jun Hong, Georg Langs, Sofie Valk, Bratislav Misic, Michael Milham, Daniel Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood, Boris C Bernhardt,

Understanding how cognitive functions emerge from brain structure depends on quantifying how discrete regions are integrated within the broader cortical landscape. Recent work established that macroscale brain organization and function can be described in a compact manner with multivariate machine learning approaches that identify manifolds often described as cortical gradients. ... Read more >>

Commun Biol (Communications biology)
[2020, 3(1):103]

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Primary functional brain connections associated with melancholic major depressive disorder and modulation by antidepressants.

Naho Ichikawa, Giuseppe Lisi, Noriaki Yahata, Go Okada, Masahiro Takamura, Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Yamada, Makiko Yamada, Tetsuya Suhara, Sho Moriguchi, Masaru Mimura, Yujiro Yoshihara, Hidehiko Takahashi, Kiyoto Kasai, Nobumasa Kato, Shigeto Yamawaki, Ben Seymour, Mitsuo Kawato, Jun Morimoto, Yasumasa Okamoto,

The limited efficacy of available antidepressant therapies may be due to how they affect the underlying brain network. The purpose of this study was to develop a melancholic MDD biomarker to identify critically important functional connections (FCs), and explore their association to treatments. Resting state fMRI data of 130 individuals ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):3542]

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Psychiatric Presentation of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

Dominique Endres, Sebastian Rauer, Winfried Kern, Nils Venhoff, Simon J Maier, Kimon Runge, Patrick Süß, Bernd Feige, Kathrin Nickel, Timo Heidt, Katharina Domschke, Karl Egger, Harald Prüss, Philipp T Meyer, Ludger Tebartz van Elst,

Background: Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune condition characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms, including epileptic seizures, movement disorders, autonomic instability, disturbances of consciousness, paranoia, delusions, and catatonia. Ovarian teratomas and viral infections, typically Herpes simplex viruses, have previously been demonstrated to precipitate anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, but in many cases, ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2019, 10:1086]

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Retinal correlates of psychiatric disorders.

Melanie T Almonte, Pamela Capellàn, Timothy E Yap, Maria Francesca Cordeiro,

Diagnosis and monitoring of psychiatric disorders rely heavily on subjective self-reports of clinical symptoms, which are complicated by the varying consistency of accounts reported by patients with an impaired mental state. Hence, more objective and quantifiable measures have been sought to provide clinicians with more robust methods to evaluate symptomology ... Read more >>

Ther Adv Chronic Dis (Therapeutic advances in chronic disease)
[2020, 11:2040622320905215]

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Reduced prefrontal hemodynamic response in pediatric autism spectrum disorder measured with near-infrared spectroscopy.

Mitsuhiro Uratani, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Kosuke Okazaki, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Yoko Nakanishi, Naoko Kishimoto, Toshifumi Kishimoto,

Background:Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that prefrontal cortex dysfunction is present in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical tool for examining oxygenation and hemodynamic changes in the cerebral cortex by measuring changes in oxygenated hemoglobin. Methods:Twelve drug-naïve male participants, aged 7-15 years and diagnosed with ASD ... Read more >>

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health (Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health)
[2019, 13:29]

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Segmented Iba1-Positive Processes of Microglia in Autism Model Marmosets.

Tomomi Sanagi, Tetsuya Sasaki, Keiko Nakagaki, Takafumi Minamimoto, Shinichi Kohsaka, Noritaka Ichinohe,

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most widespread neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by impairment in social interactions, and restricted stereotyped behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET), several studies have provided evidence of the existence of activated microglia in ASD patients. Recently, we developed an animal model of ... Read more >>

Front Cell Neurosci (Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience)
[2019, 13:344]

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Music-Evoked Reward and Emotion: Relative Strengths and Response to Intervention of People With ASD.

Eve-Marie Quintin,

This review presents research findings showing that music is a unique domain to assess perception, reward, emotion, and associated physiological reactions and neural circuitry of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is growing evidence, reported in several studies in this review article, indicating that music is a relative strength ... Read more >>

Front Neural Circuits (Frontiers in neural circuits)
[2019, 13:49]

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