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Neurologic Effects of Cocaine

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Design, synthesis and cholinesterase inhibitory properties of new oxazole benzylamine derivatives.

Ivana Šagud, Nikolina Maček Hrvat, Ana Grgičević, Tena Čadež, Josipa Hodak, Milena Dragojević, Kornelija Lasić, Zrinka Kovarik, Irena Škorić,

The enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are primary targets in attenuating the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. Their inhibition results in elevated concentrations of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which supports communication among nerve cells. It was previously shown for trans-4/5-arylethenyloxazole compounds to have moderate AChE and BChE inhibitory properties. A preliminary ... Read more >>

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem (Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry)
[2020, 35(1):460-467]

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Abnormal brain activity in adolescents with Internet addiction who attempt suicide: an assessment using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Yan Huang, Lu Xu, Li Kuang, Wo Wang, Jun Cao, Mu-Ni Xiao,

Internet addiction is associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior and can lead to brain dysfunction among adolescents. However, whether brain dysfunction occurs in adolescents with Internet addiction who attempt suicide remains unknown. This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 41 young Internet addicts, aged from 15 to 20 years, from ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(8):1554-1559]

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Cocaine-Induced Renal Artery Dissection as a Cause of Secondary Hypertension: A Rare Presentation.

Wallace Stwart C Padilha, Marcelo Annes, Cristina G Massant, Alexandre O Kaup, Breno B Affonso, Marcelo C Batista,

BACKGROUND Cocaine abuse is a globally recognized problem with great socioeconomic and health impacts on society. We report a case of dissection of vertebral arteries and right renal artery after cocaine abuse that clinically presented as atypical headache and hypertension. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought emergency care due to ... Read more >>

Am J Case Rep (The American journal of case reports)
[2020, 21:e921565]

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Dopamine as a growth differentiation factor in the mammalian brain.

Koji Ohira,

The catecholamine, dopamine, plays an important role in the central nervous system of mammals, including executive functions, motor control, motivation, arousal, reinforcement, and reward. Dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system lead to diseases of the brains, such as Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, and schizophrenia. In addition to its fundamental role as ... Read more >>

Neural Regen Res (Neural regeneration research)
[2020, 15(3):390-393]

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Benefits of EEG-Neurofeedback on the Modulation of Impulsivity in a Sample of Cocaine and Heroin Long-Term Abstinent Inmates: A Pilot Study.

M Corominas-Roso, I Ibern, M Capdevila, R Ramon, C Roncero, J A Ramos-Quiroga,

The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether neurofeedback (NFB) can be useful in the treatment of impulsive behavior in long-term abstinent cocaine and heroin addicts. A single-blind sham-controlled NFB protocol was carried out to assess the effects of NFB on impulsivity in 20 (10 + 10) cocaine ... Read more >>

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol (International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology)
[2020, :306624X20904704]

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Functional Language Network Connectivity in Children of Women with Epilepsy with Selective Antenatal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure.

Ruma Madhu Sreedharan, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Subramonium Aiyappan, K M Anila, Amitha C Mohan, Sanjeev V Thomas,

Purpose:Children of women with epilepsy and antenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure have increased risk of language dysfunction. Our objective was to compare language related functional MRI network connectivity (FC) of children with women with epilepsy with antenatal AED exposure (CAED) with that of healthy children (COAED) for delineating functional basis ... Read more >>

Ann Indian Acad Neurol (Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
[2020, 23(2):167-173]

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The Promise of Neuroimmune Targets for Treating Drug Addiction and Other Psychiatric Disorders: Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Exemplification.

Mehdi Farokhnia, Anthony L. Berger, Hollis C. Karoly, Lara S. Hwa, Florence P. Varodayan,

Front Psychiatry (Frontiers in Psychiatry)
[2020, 11:]

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Acute Susac Syndrome in a Recent User of Adulterated Cocaine: Levamisole as a Triggering Factor?

Klara De Baerdemaeker, Chiara Mabiglia, Philippe Hantson, Vincent Di Fazio, Thierry Duprez, Alexandra Kozyreff, Vincent van Pesch, Amina Sellimi,

Susac syndrome (SS) is a central nervous system vasculitis characterized by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and visual disturbance caused by branch retinal artery occlusion. It is considered as an inflammatory disorder, and an autoimmune etiology is suggested. A 29-year-old man with a history of recent cocaine ... Read more >>

Case Rep Neurol (Case reports in neurology)
[2020, 12(1):78-83]

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Dual Effect of 5-HT1B/1D Receptors on Dopamine Neurons in Ventral Tegmental Area: Implication for the Functional Switch After Chronic Cocaine Exposure.

Ming Gao, Taleen S Der-Ghazarian, Shuangtao Li, Shenfeng Qiu, Janet L Neisewander, Jie Wu,

BACKGROUND:Serotonin (5-HT) 1B/1D receptor (5-HT1B/1DR) agonists undergo an abstinence-induced switch in their effects on cocaine-related behaviors, which may involve changes in modulation of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, it is unclear how 5-HT1B/1DRs affect VTA DA neuronal function and whether modulation of these neurons mediates ... Read more >>

Biol. Psychiatry (Biological psychiatry)
[2020, :]

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Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protects synaptic structures in neurons after ischemic cerebral injury.

Zhi Zhang, Xiang Cao, Xinyu Bao, Yan Zhang, Yun Xu, Dujuan Sha,

Cocaine-regulated and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide with reported neuroprotective effects in ischemic cerebral injury. However, its mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we investigated the role and mechanism of CART in synaptic plasticity in neurons after ischemic cerebral stroke. We found that the survival rate of the ... Read more >>

Neuropeptides (Neuropeptides)
[2020, :102023]

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Toward automated classification of pathological transcranial Doppler waveform morphology via spectral clustering.

Samuel G Thorpe, Corey M Thibeault, Nicolas Canac, Kian Jalaleddini, Amber Dorn, Seth J Wilk, Thomas Devlin, Fabien Scalzo, Robert B Hamilton,

Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity waveforms acquired via Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can provide evidence for cerebrovascular occlusion and stenosis. Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia (TIBI) flow grades are widely used for this purpose, but require subjective assessment by expert evaluators to be reliable. In this work we seek to determine whether TCD ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2020, 15(2):e0228642]

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New guidelines for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric hypertension.

Nilüfer Göknar, Salim Çalışkan,

Childhood hypertension has become a significant public health problem due to increased prevalence in recent decades. High blood pressure causes increased mortality and morbidity in childhood, precedes adult hypertension, and causes increased cardiovascular events in adulthood. These concerns have led to an update of guidelines about childhood hypertension by the ... Read more >>

(Turkish Archives of Pediatrics/Türk Pediatri Arşivi)
[2020, 55(1):11-22]

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Carbonyl-protein content increases in brain and blood of female rats after chronic oxycodone treatment.

Ruping Fan, Lisa M Schrott, Stephen Snelling, John Felty, Derrel Graham, Patrick L McGauly, Thomas Arnold, Nadejda L Korneeva,

BACKGROUND:Opioids are the most effective drugs commonly prescribed to treat pain. Due to their addictive nature, opioid pain relievers are now second to marijuana, ahead of cocaine with respect to dependence. Ours and other studies suggest potential toxic effects of chronic opioid administration leading to neuronal degeneration. It has been ... Read more >>

BMC Neurosci (BMC neuroscience)
[2020, 21(1):4]

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rTMS-Induced Changes in Glutamatergic and Dopaminergic Systems: Relevance to Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Disorders.

Jessica Moretti, Eugenia Z Poh, Jennifer Rodger,

Cocaine use disorder and methamphetamine use disorder are chronic, relapsing disorders with no US Food and Drug Administration-approved interventions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that has been increasingly investigated as a possible therapeutic intervention for substance use disorders. rTMS may have the ability to ... Read more >>

Front Neurosci (Frontiers in Neuroscience)
[2020, 14:137]

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Nitrous oxide recreational abuse presenting with myeloneuropathy and mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Nawal Abdelghaffar, Osamah Abuhawi, Abdulrahman Alqahtani,

The recreational use of nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasing in festivals, university parties, clubs, private residences, and parks. The abuse of N2O has serious complications of the central and peripheral nervous system. In this article, we report a case of a 28-year-old previously healthy man who presented with a three-day ... Read more >>

Intractable Rare Dis Res (Intractable & rare diseases research)
[2020, 9(1):54-57]

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Current Advances in Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Receptors.

Jan Jakubik, Esam E El-Fakahany,

Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to a site on the receptor that is spatially separated from the orthosteric binding site for the endogenous neurotransmitter. Allosteric modulators modulate the binding affinity, potency, and efficacy of orthosteric ligands. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical allosterically-modulated G-protein-coupled receptors. They are a potential therapeutic ... Read more >>

Biomolecules (Biomolecules)
[2020, 10(2):]

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The Dopamine D5 receptor contributes to activation of cholinergic interneurons during L-DOPA induced dyskinesia.

Julia Castello, Marisol Cortés, Lauren Malave, Andreas Kottmann, David R Sibley, Eitan Friedman, Heike Rebholz,

The dopamine D5 receptor (D5R) is a Gαs-coupled dopamine receptor belonging to the dopamine D1-like receptor family. Together with the dopamine D2 receptor it is highly expressed in striatal cholinergic interneurons and therefore is poised to be a positive regulator of cholinergic activity in response to L-DOPA in the dopamine-depleted ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):2542]

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MicroRNA134 of Ventral Hippocampus Is Involved in Cocaine Extinction-Induced Anxiety-like and Depression-like Behaviors in Mice.

Yuehan Li, Xue Lu, Jiaxun Nie, Panpan Hu, Feifei Ge, Ti-Fei Yuan, Xiaowei Guan,

We previously found that cocaine abuse could increase microRNA134 (miR134) levels in the hippocampus; yet the roles of miR134 in cocaine-related abnormal psychiatric outcomes remain unknown. In this study, using the cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) mice model, we found that mice exhibit enhanced anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors during the ... Read more >>

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids (Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids)
[2020, 19:937-950]

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Modulation of AMPA Receptors by Nitric Oxide in Nerve Cells.

Violetta O Ivanova, Pavel M Balaban, Natalia V Bal,

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous molecule with a large number of functions in living tissue. In the brain, NO participates in numerous intracellular mechanisms, including synaptic plasticity and cell homeostasis. NO elicits synaptic changes both through various multi-chain cascades and through direct nitrosylation of targeted proteins. Along with the ... Read more >>

Int J Mol Sci (International journal of molecular sciences)
[2020, 21(3):]

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Prostaglandins as the Agents That Modulate the Course of Brain Disorders.

Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian,

Neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases are associated with great morbidity and mortality. Prostaglandins (PGs) are formed by sequential oxygenation of arachidonic acid in physiologic and pathologic conditions. For the production of PGs cyclooxygenase is a necessary enzyme that has two isoforms, that are named COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 produces type 1 ... Read more >>

Degener Neurol Neuromuscul Dis (Degenerative neurological and neuromuscular disease)
[2020, 10:1-13]

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Dynamic interaction of genetic risk factors and cocaine abuse in the background of Parkinsonism - a case report.

Anett Illés, Péter Balicza, Viktor Molnár, Renáta Bencsik, István Szilvási, Maria Judit Molnar,

BACKGROUND:Parkinsonism is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, in which genetic and environmental risk factors may both play a role. Among environmental risk factors cocaine was earlier ambiguously linked to Parkinsonism. Former single case reports described Parkinsonism in chronic cocaine users, but an epidemiological study did not confirm an increased risk ... Read more >>

BMC Neurol (BMC neurology)
[2019, 19(1):260]

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Educational Case: Ethylene Glycol Poisoning.

Matthew D Krasowski,

The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and ... Read more >>

Acad Pathol (Academic pathology)
[2020, 7:2374289519900330]

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Leptin and psychiatric illnesses: does leptin play a role in antipsychotic-induced weight gain?

Francky Teddy Endomba, Aurel T Tankeu, Jan René Nkeck, Joel Noutakdie Tochie,

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is the most prevalent somatic adverse event occurring in patients treated by antipsychotics, especially atypical antipsychotics. It is of particular interest because of its repercussion on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially now that the use of second-generation antipsychotics has been extended to other mental health illnesses such ... Read more >>

Lipids Health Dis (Lipids in health and disease)
[2020, 19(1):22]

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Effects of tenuifolin on rest/wake behaviour in zebrafish.

Zi-Wen Chen, Chao-Bao Peng, Zhong Pei, Meng-Ruo Zhang, Tian-Chan Yun, Zhi-Min Yang, Fu-Ping Xu,

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder with a high prevalence and substantial adverse consequences. There is growing interest in identifying novel therapeutics from herbal medicine. Tenuifolin is a major constituent of the well-known anti-insomnia herb Radix Polygala. The present study investigated the neural activity in response to tenuifolin during rest/wake ... Read more >>

Exp Ther Med (Experimental and therapeutic medicine)
[2020, 19(3):2326-2334]

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Neural substrates of smoking and reward cue reactivity in smokers: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

Xiao Lin, Jiahui Deng, Le Shi, Qiandong Wang, Peng Li, Hui Li, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Suhua Chang, Yanping Bao, Jie Shi, Daniel R Weinberger, Ping Wu, Lin Lu,

Smoking is partly attributed to alterations of reward processing. However, findings on the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie smoking-related and smoking-unrelated reward processing in smokers have been inconsistent. Neuroimaging experiments that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reported brain responses to smoking-related cues and nonsmoking reward-related cues in smokers and ... Read more >>

Transl Psychiatry (Translational psychiatry)
[2020, 10(1):97]

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