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Naegleria Infection

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Identification of differential protein recognition pattern between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis.

Mara Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Maria Maricela Carrasco-Yepez, Jorge Herrera-Díaz, Saul Rojas-Hernández,

Many pathogenicity factors are involved in the development of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by N. fowleri. However, most of them are not exclusive for N. fowleri and they have not even been described in other non-pathogenic Naegleria species. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify differential proteins ... Read more >>

Parasite Immunol. (Parasite immunology)
[2020, :e12715]

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Repurposing of Drugs Is a Viable Approach to Develop Therapeutic Strategies against Central Nervous System Related Pathogenic Amoebae.

Ayaz Anwar, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui,

Brain-eating amoebae including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris cause rare infections of the central nervous system that almost always result in death. The high mortality rate, lack of interest for drug development from pharmaceutical industries, and no available effective drugs present an alarming challenge. The current drugs employed ... Read more >>

ACS Chem Neurosci (ACS chemical neuroscience)
[2020, :]

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Identification of anisomycin, prodigiosin and obatoclax as compounds with broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity.

Gretchen Ehrenkaufer, Pengyang Li, Erin E Stebbins, Monica M Kangussu-Marcolino, Anjan Debnath, Corin V White, Matthew S Moser, Joseph DeRisi, Jolyn Gisselberg, Ellen Yeh, Steven C Wang, Ana Hervella Company, Ludovica Monti, Conor R Caffrey, Christopher D Huston, Bo Wang, Upinder Singh,

Parasitic infections are a major source of human suffering, mortality, and economic loss, but drug development for these diseases has been stymied by the significant expense involved in bringing a drug though clinical trials and to market. Identification of single compounds active against multiple parasitic pathogens could improve the economic ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(3):e0008150]

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Isolation of Naegleria spp. from a Brazilian Water Source.

Natália Karla Bellini, Ana Letícia Moreira da Fonseca, María Reyes-Batlle, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Odete Rocha, Otavio Henrique Thiemann,

The genus Naegleria, of the free-living amoeba (FLA) group, has been investigated mainly due to its human health impact, resulting in deadly infections and their worldwide distribution on freshwater systems. Naegleria fowleri, colloquially known as the "brain-eating amoeba," is the most studied Naegleria species because it causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis ... Read more >>

Pathogens (Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 9(2):]

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A comparative ‘omics approach to candidate pathogenicity factor discovery in the brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri

Emily Herman, Alex Greninger, Mark van der Giezen, Michael Ginger, Inmaculada Ramirez-Macias, Haylea Miller, Matthew Morgan, Anastasios Tsaousis, Katrina Velle, Romana Vargová, Sebastian Rodrigo Najle, Georgina MacIntyre, Norbert Muller, Mattias Wittwer, Denise Zysset-Burri, Marek Elias, Claudio Slamovits, Matthew Weirauch, Lillian Fritz-Laylin, Francine Marciano-Cabral, Geoffrey Puzon, Tom Walsh, Charles Chiu, Joel Dacks,

Abstract Of the 40 described Naegleria species, only N. fowleri can establish infection in humans, killing almost invariably within two weeks. In the brain, the amoeba performs piece-meal ingestion, or trogocytosis, of brain material causing massive inflammation. Conversely, its close relative Naegleria gruberi , which is used as a laboratory ... Read more >>

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Molecular detection of free-living amoebae from Namhangang (southern Han River) in Korea.

Heekyoung Kang, Hae-Jin Sohn, Ga-Eun Seo, Gi-Sang Seong, A-Jeong Ham, A-Young Park, Suk-Yul Jung, Sang-Eun Lee, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Ho-Joon Shin,

The free-living amoebae Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. exist in the natural environment and are sometimes causal agents of lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), amoebic keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in humans, respectively. To ascertain the existence of free-living amoebae in Korea, water samples were collected from the ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2020, 10(1):335]

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Fulminant Acanthamoeba castellanii Encephalitis in an Ibrutinib-Treated Patient.

Jessica W Crothers, Liangge Hsu, Francisco M Marty,

We report a case of fulminant Acanthamoeba castellanii encephalitis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib. The unusually rapid neurologic decline and fatal outcome observed are probably related to alterations in immunologic function associated with inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase. ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open Forum Infectious Diseases)
[2020, 7(2):ofaa025]

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A rare case of Blastomyces dermatitidis brain abscess in an immunocompetent host.

Magdalena Slomka, James Doub,

Here we present a case of a 41-year old immunocompetent female from central Maryland, who presented with new onset seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed a solitary ring-enhancing lesion. Stereotactic brain biopsy confirmed Blastomyces dermatitidis brain abscess. Patient's clinical course was complicated by voriconazole-induced pancytopenia that prompted surgical resection ... Read more >>

Med Mycol Case Rep (Medical mycology case reports)
[2020, 28:8-11]

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Fowlerstefin, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Naegleria fowleri, induces inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro.

Thị Lam Thái, Jung-Mi Kang, Hương Giang Lê, Jinyoung Lee, Won Gi Yoo, Ho-Joon Shin, Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na,

BACKGROUND:Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that causes an opportunistic fatal infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. Cysteine proteases produced by the amoeba may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of infection. In this study, a novel cysteine protease inhibitor of N. fowleri (fowlerstefin) was characterized to ... Read more >>

Parasit Vectors (Parasites & vectors)
[2020, 13(1):41]

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Isolation of Naegleria spp. from a Brazilian Water Source

Natália Karla Bellini, Ana Letícia Moreira da Fonseca, María Reyes-Batlle, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Odete Rocha, Otavio Henrique Thiemann,

The genus Naegleria, of free-living amoeba (FLA) group, has been investigated mainly due to its human health impact resulting in deadly infections and their worldwide distribution on freshwater systems. Naegleria fowleri, colloquially known as the “brain-eating amoeba”, is the most studied Naegleria species because it causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) ... Read more >>

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Metagenomic analysis of viruses, bacteria and protozoa in irrigation water.

Marta Rusiñol, Sandra Martínez-Puchol, Natalia Timoneda, Xavier Fernández-Cassi, Alba Pérez-Cataluña, Ana Fernández-Bravo, Laura Moreno-Mesonero, Yolanda Moreno, Jose Luís Alonso, Maria José Figueras, Josep Francesc Abril, Sílvia Bofill-Mas, Rosina Girones,

Viruses (e.g., noroviruses and hepatitis A and E virus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli) and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis) are well-known contributors to food-borne illnesses linked to contaminated fresh produce. As agricultural irrigation increases the total amount of water used annually, reclaimed water is ... Read more >>

Int J Hyg Environ Health (International journal of hygiene and environmental health)
[2020, 224:113440]

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Targeting CNS Related Protist Pathogens: Calcium Ion Dependency in the Brain-Eating Amoebae.

Abdul Mannan Baig, Areeba Khaleeq, Fizza Nazim,

Of the free-living amoebae (FLA) Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp. are known to cause encephalitis. Coined with the term "brain-eating amoebae" (BEA), infection of the central nervous system with FLA has a high mortality rate. A combination of diagnostic delay, lack of new drug development, and incomplete understanding ... Read more >>

ACS Chem Neurosci (ACS chemical neuroscience)
[2019, :]

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A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Bangladesh.

Hossain M S Sazzad, Stephen P Luby, James Sejvar, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Vincent Hill, Jennifer L Murphy, Shantanu Roy, Jennifer R Cope, Ibne K M Ali,

We present the first recognized case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri in a 15-year-old male from Bangladesh. He performed daily nasal rinsing with untreated ground water and bathed in untreated ground water or river water, which likely exposed him to N. fowleri. ... Read more >>

Parasitol. Res. (Parasitology research)
[2020, 119(1):339-344]

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Is Naegleria fowleri an Emerging Parasite?

Sutherland K Maciver, Jose E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales,

Naegleria fowleri causes an uncommon but deadly disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). There has been an increase of reported PAM cases, particularly since 2000. Although water is the dominant route of transmission of PAM, infection through soil/dust is a possible alternative route. We have observed differences in epidemiology between the ... Read more >>

Trends Parasitol. (Trends in parasitology)
[2020, 36(1):19-28]

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Investigation of potential pathogenicity of Willaertia magna by investigating the transfer of bacteria pathogenicity genes into its genome.

Issam Hasni, Nisrine Chelkha, Emeline Baptiste, Mouh Rayane Mameri, Joel Lachuer, Fabrice Plasson, Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola,

Willaertia magna c2c maky is a thermophilic amoeba closely related to the genus Naegleria. This free-living amoeba has the ability to eliminate Legionella pneumophila, which is an amoeba-resisting bacterium living in an aquatic environment. To prevent the proliferation of L. pneumophila in cooling towers, the use of W. magna as ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2019, 9(1):18318]

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Naegleria fowleri: Sources of infection, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management; a review.

Muhammad Jahangeer, Zahed Mahmood, Naveed Munir, Umm-E-Amara Waraich, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Muhammad Akram, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Ayesha Zulfqar, Rida Zainab,

Naegleria fowleri, a thermophilic flagellate amoeba known as a "brain-eating" amoeba, is the aetiological agent of a perilous and devastating waterborne disease known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), both in humans as well as in animals. PAM is a rare but fatal disease affecting young adults all around the world, ... Read more >>

Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology)
[2020, 47(2):199-212]

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Repositioning of Guanabenz in Conjugation with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles against Pathogenic Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria fowleri.

Areeba Anwar, Mohammad Ridwane Mungroo, Ayaz Anwar, William J Sullivan, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui,

Brain-eating amoebae cause devastating infections in the central nervous system of humans, resulting in a mortality rate of 95%. There are limited effective therapeutic options available clinically for treating granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) and Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri), respectively. Here, we report for ... Read more >>

ACS Infect Dis (ACS infectious diseases)
[2019, 5(12):2039-2046]

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Molecular detection of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens in rural Louisiana's drinking water distribution system.

Tanya S Isaac, Samendra P Sherchan,

Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in drinking water distribution systems are responsible for causing numerous infections such as Legionnaires' disease and pneumonia through the consumption of contaminated drinking water. The incidence of opportunistic pathogens and the number of individuals at risk of contracting infections caused by these OPPPs in drinking ... Read more >>

Environ. Res. (Environmental research)
[2020, 181:108847]

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Detection of Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp, and Balamuthia mandrillaris in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Real-Time Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Andrew P Norgan, Lynne M Sloan, Bobbi S Pritt,

OBJECTIVES:Pathogenic free-living amebae (FLAs) cause skin, ocular, and central nervous system (CNS) infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of FLA infections by pathologic examination of tissue sections can be aided using molecular assays. This study investigated the performance characteristics of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (FLA-PCR) ... Read more >>

Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (American journal of clinical pathology)
[2019, 152(6):799-807]

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Identification of plicamycin, TG02, panobinostat, lestaurtinib, and GDC-0084 as promising compounds for the treatment of central nervous system infections caused by the free-living amebae Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia.

Monica M Kangussu-Marcolino, Gretchen M Ehrenkaufer, Emily Chen, Anjan Debnath, Upinder Singh,

The free-living amebae Naegleria, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia cause rare but life-threatening infections. All three parasites can cause meningoencephalitis. Acanthamoeba can also cause chronic keratitis and both Balamuthia and Acanthamoeba can cause skin and systemic infections. There are minimal drug development pipelines for these pathogens despite a lack of available treatment ... Read more >>

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist (International journal for parasitology. Drugs and drug resistance)
[2019, 11:80-94]

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Nanopore sequencing improves the draft genome of the human pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

Nicole Liechti, Nadia Schürch, Rémy Bruggmann, Matthias Wittwer,

Naegleria fowleri is an environmental protist found in soil and warm freshwater sources worldwide and is known for its ability to infect humans and causing a rapid and mostly fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. When contaminated water enters the nose, the facultative parasite follows the olfactory nerve and enters the brain ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2019, 9(1):16040]

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1626. A Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Case Associated with Surfing in an Inland Surf Park.

Jennifer R Cope, Mia Mattioli, Vaidehi Shah, Rebecca Greeley, Michele Hlavsa, Vincent Hill,

AbstractBackground Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic ameba that is found in freshwater and causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM; 0–8 infections per year in the United States) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ... Read more >>

Open Forum Infect Dis (Open forum infectious diseases)
[2019, 6(Suppl 2):S593-S593]

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Response and remediation actions following the detection of Naegleria fowleri in two treated drinking water distribution systems, Louisiana, 2013-2014.

Jennifer R Cope, Amy M Kahler, Jake Causey, John G Williams, Jennifer Kihlken, Caryn Benjamin, Amanda P Ames, Johan Forsman, Yuanda Zhu, Jonathan S Yoder, Chad J Seidel, Vincent R Hill,

Naegleria fowleri causes the usually fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), typically in people who have been swimming in warm, untreated freshwater. Recently, some cases in the United States were associated with exposure to treated drinking water. In 2013, a case of PAM was reported for the first time in ... Read more >>

J Water Health (Journal of water and health)
[2019, 17(5):777-787]

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Molecular Identification of Free-Living Amoebae (Naegleria spp., Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba spp.) Isolated from Un-improved Hot Springs, Guilan Province, Northern Iran.

Mohammad Hossein Feiz Haddad, Saeed Khoshnood, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi, Habib Habibpour, Selman A Ali, Habibollah Mirzaei, Rezvan Feiz Haddad, Kambiz Ahmadiangali,

Background:This study was conducted to determine the presence and molecular identify of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba in unimproved hot springs. Methods:From Jul to Aug 2017, 54 water samples were collected from hot springs in different parts of the Guilan Province, North Iran. For the isolation of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba ... Read more >>

Iran J Parasitol (Iranian journal of parasitology)
[2019, 14(4):584-591]

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Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Free-Living Amoebae (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba) in the Farmland Soils and Recreational Places in Iran.

Hossein Pazoki, Maryam Niyyati, Ehsan Javanmard, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Adel Spotin, Hamed Mirjalali, Mahmood Reza Behravan,

PURPOSE:Free-living amoeba (FLA) including Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria are among the soil-born parasites. There are reports of FLA-related keratitis with a history of contact with soil and dust sources, particularly among the farmers. Due to lack of the previous studies on the farmland soils and a limited number ... Read more >>

Acta Parasitol. (Acta parasitologica)
[2020, 65(1):36-43]

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