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Motor Unit Recruitment in EMG

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Contraction level, but not force direction or wrist position, affects the spatial distribution of motor unit recruitment in the biceps brachii muscle.

Daniele Borzelli, Marco Gazzoni, Alberto Botter, Laura Gastaldi, Andrea d'Avella, Taian M Vieira,

PURPOSE:Different motor units (MUs) in the biceps brachii (BB) muscle have been shown to be preferentially recruited during either elbow flexion or supination. Whether these different units reside within different regions is an open issue. In this study, we tested wheter MUs recruited during submaximal isometric tasks of elbow flexion ... Read more >>

Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. (European journal of applied physiology)
[2020, 120(4):853-860]

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Fine-wire recordings of flexor hallucis brevis motor units up to maximal voluntary contraction reveal a flexible, non-rigid mechanism for force control.

Jeroen Aeles, Luke A Kelly, Yasuhide Yoshitake, Andrew G Cresswell,

Our current knowledge on the neurophysiological properties of intrinsic foot muscles is limited, especially at high forces. This study therefore aimed to investigate the discharge characteristics of single motor units in an intrinsic foot muscle, namely flexor hallucis brevis, during voluntary contractions up to 100% of maximal voluntary contraction. We ... Read more >>

J. Neurophysiol. (Journal of neurophysiology)
[2020, :]

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Strength Training Increases Conduction Velocity of High-Threshold Motor Units.

Andrea Casolo, Dario Farina, Deborah Falla, Ilenia Bazzucchi, Francesco Felici, Alessandro Del Vecchio,

PURPOSE:Motor unit conduction velocity (MUCV) represents the propagation velocity of action potentials along the muscle fibers innervated by individual motor neurons and indirectly reflects the electrophysiological properties of the sarcolemma. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 4-wk strength training intervention on the peripheral properties (MUCV and motor ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2020, 52(4):955-967]

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Direct Electrical Stimulation of Premotor Areas: Different Effects on Hand Muscle Activity during Object Manipulation.

Luca Fornia, Marco Rossi, Marco Rabuffetti, Antonella Leonetti, Guglielmo Puglisi, Luca Viganò, Luciano Simone, Henrietta Howells, Andrea Bellacicca, Lorenzo Bello, Gabriella Cerri,

Dorsal and ventral premotor (dPM and vPM) areas are crucial in control of hand muscles during object manipulation, although their respective role in humans is still debated. In patients undergoing awake surgery for brain tumors, we studied the effect of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the premotor cortex on the ... Read more >>

Cereb. Cortex (Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991))
[2020, 30(1):391-405]

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Divergent response of low- versus high-threshold motor units to experimental muscle pain.

Eduardo Martinez-Valdes, Francesco Negro, Dario Farina, Deborah Falla,

KEY POINTS:The neural strategies behind the control of force during muscle pain are not well understood as previous research has been limited in assessing pain responses during low-force contractions only. Here we compared, for the first time, the behaviour of motor units recruited at low and high forces in response ... Read more >>

J. Physiol. (Lond.) (The Journal of physiology)
[2020, :]

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Intramuscular Injection of Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Emilio Geijo-Barrientos, Carlos Pastore-Olmedo, Pedro De Mingo, Miguel Blanquer, Joaquín Gómez Espuch, Francisca Iniesta, Natalia García Iniesta, Ana García-Hernández, Carlos Martín-Estefanía, Laura Barrios, José M Moraleda, Salvador Martínez,

Background:Preclinical studies suggest that stem cells may be a valuable therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As it has been demonstrated that there are molecular changes at the end-plate during the early stages of motorneuron degeneration in animal models, we hypothesize that the local effect of this stem cell ... Read more >>

Front Neurosci (Frontiers in Neuroscience)
[2020, 14:195]

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During Cycling What Limits Maximum Mechanical Power Output at Cadences above 120 rpm?

Emma F Hodson-Tole, Ollie M Blake, James M Wakeling,

PURPOSE:A key determinant of muscle coordination and maximum power output during cycling is pedaling cadence. During cycling, the neuromuscular system may select from numerous solutions that solve the task demands while producing the same result. For more challenging tasks, fewer solutions will be available. Changes in the variability of individual ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2020, 52(1):214-224]

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Ghost spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

Carlo Trompetto, Antonio Currà, Luca Puce, Laura Mori, Ilaria Pallecchi, Paola Gazzola, Sabrina Fabbri, Antonio Uccelli, Giovanni Novi, Oscar Crisafulli, Carlo Serrati, Lucio Marinelli,

Spasticity is the velocity-dependent hypertonia frequently encountered in patients affected by Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome. It is due to a tonic stretch reflex, which is evoked in patients at rest. The aim of this study, performed using surface electromyography (EMG), was to investigate stretch reflex excitability in the hamstrings muscles ... Read more >>

J Electromyogr Kinesiol (Journal of electromyography and kinesiology : official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology)
[2020, 51:102408]

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Impact of parameter selection on estimates of motoneuron excitability using paired motor unit analysis.

Altamash Hassan, Christopher K Thompson, Francesco Negro, Mark Cummings, Randall K Powers, C J Heckman, Julius P A Dewald, Laura Miller McPherson,

OBJECTIVE:Noninvasive estimation of motoneuron excitability in human motoneurons is achieved through a paired motor unit analysis (ΔF) that quantifies hysteresis in the instantaneous firing rates at motor unit recruitment and de-recruitment. The ΔF technique provides insight into the magnitude of neuromodulatory synaptic input and persistent inward currents (PICs). While the ... Read more >>

J Neural Eng (Journal of neural engineering)
[2020, 17(1):016063]

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Age-specific differences in the time-frequency representation of surface electromyographic data recorded during a submaximal cyclic back extension exercise: a promising biomarker to detect early signs of sarcopenia.

R Habenicht, G Ebenbichler, P Bonato, J Kollmitzer, S Ziegelbecker, L Unterlerchner, P Mair, T Kienbacher,

PURPOSE:Motivated by the goal of developing new methods to detect early signs of sarcopenia, we investigated if surface electromyographic (SEMG) data recorded during the performance of cyclic, submaximal back extensions are marked by age-specific differences in their time and frequency characteristics. Furthermore, day-to-day retest reliability of the EMG measures was ... Read more >>

J Neuroeng Rehabil (Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation)
[2020, 17(1):8]

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Principles of Electrophysiological Assessments for Movement Disorders.

Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen, Robert Chen,

Electrophysiological studies can provide objective and quantifiable assessments of movement disorders. They are useful in the diagnosis of hyperkinetic movement disorders, particularly tremors and myoclonus. The most commonly used measures are surface electromyography (sEMG), electroencephalography (EEG) and accelerometry. Frequency and coherence analyses of sEMG signals may reveal the nature of ... Read more >>

J Mov Disord (Journal of movement disorders)
[2020, 13(1):27-38]

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A Preliminary Study of Effects of Channel Number and Location on the Repeatability of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX).

Farong Gao, Yueying Cao, Chuan Zhang, Yingchun Zhang,

Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) is a technique that provides a susceptive biomarker for monitoring innervation conditions in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. A satisfactory repeatability is essential for the interpretation of MUNIX results. This study aims to examine the effect of channel number and location on the repeatability of MUNIX. ... Read more >>

Front Neurol (Frontiers in neurology)
[2020, 11:]

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Neuromuscular responses of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles: muscle specific fatigue and inter-individual variability during severe intensity treadmill running.

Haley C Bergstrom, Terry J Housh, Taylor K Dinyer, Travis M Byrd, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Kristen C Cochrane-Snyman, Pasquale J Succi, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson, Jorge M Zuniga,

OBJECTIVES:This study examined the time course of changes and patterns of responses in electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) for the superficial quadriceps muscles during exhaustive treadmill runs within the severe exercise intensity zones (SIZ1 and SIZ2). METHODS:The EMG signals for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus ... Read more >>

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact (Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions)
[2020, 20(1):77-87]

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Isometric-based EMG threshold in girls and women.

Stacey Woods, Raffy Dotan, Nicole Jenicek, Bareket Falk,

BACKGROUND:The electromyographic threshold (EMGTh) has been suggested to indicate the onset of accelerated higher-threshold (type-II) MU recruitment. Previous research has demonstrated that boys' EMGTh occurs at higher relative exercise intensities than men's in both cycling- and isometric-based testing. Girls‒women EMGTh differences were demonstrated only in cycling, but findings were clouded ... Read more >>

Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. (European journal of applied physiology)
[2020, 120(4):907-914]

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Differential Diagnosis Of Multiple-System Atrophy With Parkinson's Disease By External Anal- And Urethral-Sphincter Electromyography.

Feng Qiu, Kunyu Wang, Tingting Li, Dandan Song, Zhiwei Wang, Hailing Zhang, Jianguo Liu, Ming Ren, Xiaokun Qi,

Background:The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) with multiple-system atrophy (MSA) is difficult because of their similarity in symptoms and signs. The objective of this study was to investigate the value of external anal-sphincter electromyography (EAS-EMG) and urethral-sphincter electromyography (US-EMG) in differentiating MSA from PD. Methods:A total of 201 patients, ... Read more >>

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment)
[2019, 15:3061-3067]

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Why do we transition from walking to running? Energy cost and lower leg muscle activity before and after gait transition under body weight support.

Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Masahiro Horiuchi,

Background:Minimization of the energetic cost of transport (CoT) has been suggested for the walk-run transition in human locomotion. More recent literature argues that lower leg muscle activities are the potential triggers of the walk-run transition. We examined both metabolic and muscular aspects for explaining walk-run transition under body weight support ... Read more >>

PeerJ (PeerJ)
[2019, 7:e8290]

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Optimizing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Pulse Width and Amplitude to Promote Central Activation in Individuals With Severe Spinal Cord Injury.

David J Arpin, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Gail Forrest, Susan J Harkema, Enrico Rejc,

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is one of the most effective treatments for counteracting the deleterious skeletal muscle adaptations that occur after spinal cord injury (SCI). Additionally, previous findings suggest that NMES can activate motor units via both peripheral and central mechanisms; however, this NMES-promoted central activation is not well understood. ... Read more >>

Front Physiol (Frontiers in Physiology)
[2019, 10:1310]

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An Unusual Case of Critical Illness Polyneuromyopathy.

Madhulika Mahashabde, Gaurav Chaudhary, Gangadharam Kanchi, Shalesh Rohatgi, Prajwal Rao, Rahul Patil, Varun Nallamothu,

Critical illness myopathy (CIM), critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), and critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM) are the group of disorders that are commonly presented as neuromuscular weakness in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. They are responsible for prolonged ICU stay and failure to wean off from mechanical ventilation. We report a case ... Read more >>

Indian J Crit Care Med (Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine)
[2020, 24(2):133-135]

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Direct electrical stimulation of the premotor cortex shuts down awareness of voluntary actions.

Luca Fornia, Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Lorenzo Bello, Anna Berti, Gabriella Cerri, Francesca Garbarini,

A challenge for neuroscience is to understand the conscious and unconscious processes underlying construction of willed actions. We investigated the neural substrate of human motor awareness during awake brain surgery. In a first experiment, awake patients performed a voluntary hand motor task and verbally monitored their real-time performance, while different ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):705]

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Muscle Activation in Middle-Distance Athletes with Compression Stockings.

Diego Moreno-Pérez, Pedro J Marín, Álvaro López-Samanes, Roberto Cejuela, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao,

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in electromyographic activity with the use of gradual compression stockings (GCSs) on middle-distance endurance athletes' performance, based on surface electromyography measurement techniques. Sixteen well-trained athletes were recruited (mean ± SD: age 33.4 ± 6.3 years, VO2max 63.7 ± 6.3 mL·kg-1·min-1, maximal ... Read more >>

Sensors (Basel) (Sensors (Basel, Switzerland))
[2020, 20(5):]

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Neuromuscular Mechanisms Underlying Changes in Force Production during an Attentional Focus Task.

Shawn Wiseman, Shahab Alizadeh, Israel Halperin, Behzad Lahouti, Nicholas J Snow, Kevin E Power, Duane C Button,

We examined the effects of attentional focus cues on maximal voluntary force output of the elbow flexors and the underlying physiological mechanisms. Eleven males participated in two randomized experimental sessions. In each session, four randomized blocks of three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed. The blocks consisted of two externally ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
[2020, 10(1):]

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Quantitative electrodiagnostic patterns of damage and recovery after spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

Elissa C Zakrasek, Jeffrey P Jaramillo, Zoia C Lateva, Vandana Punj, B Jenny Kiratli, Kevin C McGill,

Study design:Prospective observational pilot study. Objectives:To compare quantitative electromyographic (EMG), imaging and strength data at two time points in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting:SCI center, Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA. Methods:Subjects without suspected peripheral nerve injury were recruited within 3 months of injury. ... Read more >>

Spinal Cord Ser Cases (Spinal cord series and cases)
[2019, 5:101]

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Time course of changes in neuromuscular responses during rides to exhaustion above and below critical power.

Taylor K Dinyer, M Travis Byrd, Kristen C Cochrane-Snyman, Nathaniel DM Jenkins, Terry J Housh, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson, Haley C Bergstrom,

OBJECTIVES:To examine the time course of changes in electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) responses during cycle ergometry to exhaustion performed above (CP+10%) and below (CP-10%) critical power (CP) to infer motor unit activation strategies used to maintain power output. METHODS:Participants performed a 3-min ... Read more >>

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact (Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions)
[2019, 19(3):266-275]

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Aminoglycoside use and intensive care unit-acquired weakness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Tao Yang, Zhi-Qiang Li, Hong-Liang Li, Jian-Xin Zhou, Guang-Qiang Chen,

BACKGROUND:The relationship between aminoglycoside use and intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness remains controversial. In the present study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the relationship between aminoglycoside use and ICU-acquired weakness in critically ill patients. METHODS:The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials ... Read more >>

PLoS ONE (PloS one)
[2020, 15(3):e0230181]

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Paired Associative Stimulation Fails to Induce Plasticity in Freely Behaving Intact Rats.

Windsor Kwan-Chun Ting, Maxime Huot-Lavoie, Christian Ethier,

Paired associative stimulation (PAS) has been explored in humans as a noninvasive tool to drive plasticity and promote recovery after neurologic insult. A more thorough understanding of PAS-induced plasticity is needed to fully harness it as a clinical tool. Here, we tested the efficacy of PAS with multiple interstimulus intervals ... Read more >>

eNeuro (eNeuro)
[2020, 7(2):]

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