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The role of glycosylation in the N-terminus of the hemagglutinin of a unique H4N2 with a natural polybasic cleavage site in virus fitness in vitro and in vivo.

Marcel Gischke, Ola Bagato, Angele Breithaupt, David Scheibner, Claudia Blaurock, Melina Vallbracht, Axel Karger, Beate Crossley, Jutta Veits, Eva Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab,

To date, only low pathogenic (LP) H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been observed to naturally shift to a highly pathogenic (HP) phenotype after mutation of the monobasic hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (HACS) to polybasic motifs. The LPAIV monobasic HACS is activated by tissue-restricted trypsin-like enzymes, while the ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):666-678]

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Virus Adaptation Following Experimental Infection of Chickens with a Domestic Duck Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Isolate from the 2017 USA H7N9 Outbreak Identifies Polymorphic Mutations in Multiple Gene Segments.

Klaudia Chrzastek, Karen Segovia, Mia Torchetti, Mary Lee Killian, Mary Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R Kapczynski,

In March 2017, highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7N9 were detected from poultry farms and backyard birds in several states in the southeast United States. Because interspecies transmission is a known mechanism for evolution of AIVs, we sought to characterize infection and transmission ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(6):]

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Biodetection of a specific odor signature in mallard feces associated with infection by low pathogenic avian influenza A virus.

Glen J Golden, Meredith J Grady, Hailey E McLean, Susan A Shriner, Airn Hartwig, Richard A Bowen, Bruce A Kimball,

Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infection included the spread of highly pathogenic AIV in commercial poultry and backyard flocks in the spring of 2015. This resulted in estimated losses of more than $8.5 million from federal government expenditures, $1.6 billion from direct losses to produces arising from destroyed turkey ... Read more >>

PLoS One (PloS one)
[2021, 16(5):e0251841]

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NF-кB pathway genes expression in chicken erythrocytes infected with avian influenza virus subtype H9N2.

A Khan, A R Jahejo, M L Qiao, X Y Han, Q Q Cheng, R A Mangi, M F Qadir, D Zhang, Y H Bi, Y Wang, G F Gao, W X Tian,

1. Chicken erythrocytes in blood vessels are the most abundant circulating cells, which participate in the host's immune responses. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays a vital role in the inflammatory response following viral infections. However, the expression of the NF-κB pathway, and other immune-related genes in chicken ... Read more >>

Br Poult Sci (British poultry science)
[2021, :1-6]

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A novel epitope-blocking ELISA for specific and sensitive detection of antibodies against H5-subtype influenza virus hemagglutinin.

Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska,

<h4>Background</h4>H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic potential. Due to veterinary and public health significance, these HPAIVs, as well as low pathogenicity (LP) H5-subtype AIVs having a propensity ... Read more >>

Virol J (Virology journal)
[2021, 18(1):91]

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Low-pathogenicity influenza viruses replicate differently in laughing gulls and mallards.

Miria F Criado, Kira A Moresco, David E Stallknecht, David E Swayne,

Wild aquatic birds are natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). Laughing gulls inoculated with four gull-origin LPAIVs (H7N3, H6N4, H3N8, and H2N3) had a predominate respiratory infection. By contrast, mallards inoculated with two mallard-origin LPAIVs (H5N6 and H4N8) became infected and had similar virus titers in oropharyngeal (OP) ... Read more >>

Influenza Other Respir Viruses (Influenza and other respiratory viruses)
[2021, :]

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Neuraminidase-associated plasminogen recruitment enables systemic spread of natural avian Influenza viruses H3N1.

Jacob Schön, Angele Breithaupt, Dirk Höper, Jacqueline King, Anne Pohlmann, Rokshana Parvin, Klaus-Peter Behr, Bernd-Andreas Schwarz, Martin Beer, Jürgen Stech, Timm Harder, Christian Grund,

Repeated outbreaks due to H3N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) in Belgium were associated with unusually high mortality in chicken in 2019. Those events caused considerable economic losses and prompted restriction measures normally implemented for eradicating high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Initial pathology investigations and infection studies suggested ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog (PLoS pathogens)
[2021, 17(4):e1009490]

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H7N7 Avian Influenza Virus Mutation from Low to High Pathogenicity on a Layer Chicken Farm in the UK.

Alexander M P Byrne, Scott M Reid, Amanda H Seekings, Alejandro Núñez, Ana B Obeso Prieto, Susan Ridout, Caroline J Warren, Anita Puranik, Vanessa Ceeraz, Stephen Essen, Marek J Slomka, Jill Banks, Ian H Brown, Sharon M Brookes,

Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 are capable of mutating from low to high pathogenicity strains, causing high mortality in poultry with significant economic losses globally. During 2015, two outbreaks of H7N7 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) in Germany, and one each in the United Kingdom (UK) and The ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(2):]

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Host factors drive the within-host competition between highly and low pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses

Pierre Bessière, Thomas Figueroa, Amelia Coggon, Charlotte Foret-Lucas, Alexandre Houffschmitt, Maxime Fusade-Boyer, Gabriel Dupré, Jean-Luc Guérin, Maxence Delverdier, Romain Volmer,

<h4>ABSTRACT</h4> Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) emerge from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) through the introduction of basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site. Following viral evolution, the newly formed HPAIV likely represents a minority variant within the index host, predominantly infected with the LPAIV precursor. ... Read more >>

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Genetic Characterization and Pathogenesis of Avian Influenza Virus H7N3 Isolated from Spot-Billed Ducks in South Korea, Early 2019.

Thuy-Tien Thi Trinh, Indira Tiwari, Kaliannan Durairaj, Bao Tuan Duong, Anh Thi Viet Nguyen, Hien Thi Tuong, Vui Thi Hoang, Duong Duc Than, SunJeong Nam, Seon-Ju Yeo, Hyun Park,

Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian influenza virus-A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3)-was isolated from ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(5):]

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Host Range of Influenza A Virus H1 to H16 in Eurasian Ducks Based on Tissue and Receptor Binding Studies.

Josanne H Verhagen, Per Eriksson, Lonneke Leijten, Ola Blixt, Björn Olsen, Jonas Waldenström, Patrik Ellström, Thijs Kuiken,

Dabbling and diving ducks partly occupy shared habitats but have been reported to play different roles in wildlife infectious disease dynamics. Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemiology in wild birds has been based primarily on surveillance programs focused on dabbling duck species, particularly mallard (<i>Anas platyrhynchos</i>). Surveillance in Eurasia has shown ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, 95(6):]

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A Comparative Study of the Innate Humoral Immune Response to Avian Influenza Virus in Wild and Domestic Mallards.

Jacintha G B van Dijk, Josanne H Verhagen, Arne Hegemann, Conny Tolf, Jenny Olofsson, Josef D Järhult, Jonas Waldenström,

Domestic mallards (<i>Anas platyrhynchos domesticus</i>) are traditionally used as a model to investigate infection dynamics and immune responses to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) in free-living mallards. However, it is unclear whether the immune response of domestic birds reflects the response of their free-living counterparts naturally exposed to these ... Read more >>

Front Microbiol (Frontiers in microbiology)
[2020, 11:608274]

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Quantitative risk assessment of the introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza H5 and H7 strains into Poland via legal import of live poultry.

Anna Gierak, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Clazien J de Vos,

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) caused by H5 and H7 viruses is considered a threatening disease for poultry production due to the possibility of prolonged undetected virus circulation in a poultry flock and its potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The occurrence of HPAI may have devastating ... Read more >>

Prev Vet Med (Preventive veterinary medicine)
[2021, 189:105289]

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Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (H5N2) Viruses, Dominican Republic.

David H Chung, Dejelia R Gomez, Julia M Vargas, Belkis L Amador, Mia K Torchetti, Mary L Killian, David E Swayne, Dong-Hun Lee,

Low pathogenicity avian influenza (H5N2) virus was detected in poultry in the Dominican Republic in 2007 and re-emerged in 2017. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis show introduction of an H5N2 virus lineage from Mexico into poultry in the Dominican Republic, then divergence into 3 distinct genetic subgroups during 2007-2019. ... Read more >>

Emerg Infect Dis (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2020, 26(12):3094-3096]

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Comparison of cellular immune responses to avian influenza virus in two genetically distinct, highly inbred chicken lines.

Emily J Aston, Ying Wang, Karen E Tracy, Rodrigo A Gallardo, Susan J Lamont, Huaijun Zhou,

Low pathogenicity avian influenza causes mild disease involving the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems of wild and domestic birds. Avian influenza research often emphasizes the effect of the virus genetics on disease, but the influence of host genetics on resistance to infection is not well understood. The genetic determinants of ... Read more >>

Vet Immunol Immunopathol (Veterinary immunology and immunopathology)
[2021, 235:110233]

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Biological Properties and Genetic Characterization of Novel Low Pathogenic H7N3 Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Mallard Ducks in the Caspian Region, Dagestan, Russia.

Marina Gulyaeva, Maria Alessandra De Marco, Ganna Kovalenko, Eric Bortz, Tatiana Murashkina, Kseniya Yurchenko, Marzia Facchini, Mauro Delogu, Ivan Sobolev, Alimurad Gadzhiev, Kirill Sharshov, Alexander Shestopalov,

Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are maintained in wild bird reservoirs, particularly in mallard ducks and other waterfowl. Novel evolutionary lineages of AIV that arise through genetic drift or reassortment can spread with wild bird migrations to new regions, infect a wide variety of resident bird species, and spillover to domestic ... Read more >>

Microorganisms (Microorganisms)
[2021, 9(4):]

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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Clade 2.3.4.4b, Western Siberia, Russia, 2020.

Ivan Sobolev, Kirill Sharshov, Nikita Dubovitskiy, Olga Kurskaya, Alexander Alekseev, Sergey Leonov, Yuriy Yushkov, Victor Irza, Andrey Komissarov, Artem Fadeev, Daria Danilenko, Junki Mine, Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito, Alexander Shestopalov,

Two variants of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus were detected in dead poultry in Western Siberia, Russia, during August and September 2020. One variant was represented by viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b and the other by a novel reassortant between clade 2.3.4.4b and Eurasian low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses circulating ... Read more >>

Emerg Infect Dis (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2021, 27(8):2224-2227]

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Efficacy of an automated laser for reducing wild bird visits to the free range area of a poultry farm.

Armin R W Elbers, José L Gonzales,

In the Netherlands, free-range layer farms as opposed to indoor layer farms, are at greater risk with regard to the introduction of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Wild waterfowl are the natural reservoir hosts of AIVs, and play a major role in their transmission to poultry by contaminating free-range layer areas. ... Read more >>

Sci Rep (Scientific reports)
[2021, 11(1):12779]

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Co-infection of chickens with H9N2 and H7N9 avian influenza viruses leads to emergence of reassortant H9N9 virus with increased fitness for poultry and enhanced zoonotic potential

Sushant Bhat, Joe James, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Sahar Mahmood, Holly Everest, Pengxiang Chang, Sarah Walsh, Alexander MP Byrne, Benjamin Mollett, Fabian Lean, Joshua Sealy, Holly Shelton, Marek Slomka, Sharon Brookes, Munir Iqbal,

<h4>SUMMARY</h4> An H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged through genetic reassortment between H9N2 and other LPAIVs circulating in birds in China. This virus causes inapparent clinical disease in chickens, but zoonotic transmission results in severe and fatal disease in humans. We evaluated the consequences of reassortment between the ... Read more >>

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In Vivo Models to Study the Pathogenesis of Extra-Respiratory Complications of Influenza A Virus Infection.

Edwin Veldhuis Kroeze, Lisa Bauer, Valentina Caliendo, Debby van Riel,

Animal models are an inimitable method to study the systemic pathogenesis of virus-induced disease. Extra-respiratory complications of influenza A virus infections are not extensively studied even though they are often associated with severe disease and mortality. Here we review and recommend mammalian animal models that can be used to study ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(5):]

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Isolation and Molecular Identification of Respiratory Diseases Viruses in Poultry During 2020

Nahed Yehia, Fatma Amer, Abdelhafez Samir, Mohamed Samy, Ahmed Sedeek, Neveen Rebie, Wafaa Mohammed, Salama Mostafa Aboelenin, Mohamed Soliman, Mohamed El-Saadony, Naglaa Hagag,

Poultry production has affected by multiple respiratory disease triggering serious economic losses in Egypt. In this study, the situation and genetic evolution of respiratory disease in Egypt during 2020 were studied. We collected 53 samples from infected flocks suffered from respiratory signs and variable mortality rate from nine governorates in ... Read more >>

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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N3) Virus in Poultry, United States, 2020.

Sungsu Youk, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary L Killian, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, David E Swayne, Mia K Torchetti,

An outbreak of low-pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N3) virus of North American wild bird lineage occurred on commercial turkey farms in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA, during March-April 2020. The virus mutated to the highly pathogenic form in 1 house on 1 farm via recombination with host 28S rRNA. ... Read more >>

Emerg Infect Dis (Emerging infectious diseases)
[2020, 26(12):2966-2969]

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Genetic Characteristics of Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Wild Birds in South Korea, 2019-2020.

Eun-Jee Na, Young-Sik Kim, Sook-Young Lee, Yoon-Ji Kim, Jun-Soo Park, Jae-Ku Oem,

Wild aquatic birds, a natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), transmit AIVs to poultry farms, causing huge economic losses. Therefore, the prevalence and genetic characteristics of AIVs isolated from wild birds in South Korea from October 2019 to March 2020 were investigated and analyzed. Fresh avian fecal samples (3256) ... Read more >>

Viruses (Viruses)
[2021, 13(3):]

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The Airway Pathobiome in Complex Respiratory Diseases: A Perspective in Domestic Animals.

Núria Mach, Eric Baranowski, Laurent Xavier Nouvel, Christine Citti,

Respiratory infections in domestic animals are a major issue for veterinary and livestock industry. Pathogens in the respiratory tract share their habitat with a myriad of commensal microorganisms. Increasing evidence points towards a respiratory pathobiome concept, integrating the dysbiotic bacterial communities, the host and the environment in a new understanding ... Read more >>

Front Cell Infect Microbiol (Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
[2021, 11:583600]

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Quick and improved immune responses to inactivated H9N2 avian influenza vaccine by purified active fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponins.

Hongxiang Sun, Liyan Fei, Binnian Zhu, Minghua Shi,

<h4>Background</h4>H9N2 Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) raises public health concerns and its eradication in poultry becomes even more important in preventing influenza. AJSAF is a purified active saponin fraction from the stem bark of Albizzia julibrissin. In this study, AJSAF was evaluated for the adjuvant potentials on immune responses ... Read more >>

BMC Vet Res (BMC veterinary research)
[2020, 16(1):427]

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