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Journal eNeuro

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RPE Cells Engulf Microvesicles Secreted by Degenerating Rod Photoreceptors.

Philip Ropelewski, Yoshikazu Imanishi,

Rhodopsin is mislocalized to the inner segment plasma membrane (IS PM) in various blinding disorders including autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by class I rhodopsin mutations. In these disorders, rhodopsin-laden microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular milieu by afflicted photoreceptor cells. Using a Xenopus laevis model expressing class I mutant rhodopsin ... Read more >>

eNeuro (eNeuro)
[2020, 7(3):]

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Inflammation induced by natural neuronal death and LPS regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation in the healthy adult brain.

Tracy A Larson, Yekaterina Tokareva, Marianne Meritt Cole, Eliot A Brenowitz,

Inflammation is typically considered a negative response to injury or insult, however, recent advances demonstrate that inflammatory cells regulate development, plasticity, and homeostasis through anti-cytotoxic, pro-generative responses. Here, we extend analyses of neuroinflammation to natural neurodegenerative and homeostatic states by exploiting seasonal plasticity in cytoarchitecture of the avian telencephalic song ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Many paths to the same goal: balancing exploration and exploitation during probabilistic route planning.

Brian J Jackson, Gusti Lulu Fatima, Sujean Oh, David H Gire,

During self-guided behaviors animals identify constraints of the problems they face and adaptively employ appropriate strategies (Marsh, 2002). In the case of foraging, animals must balance sensory-guided exploration of an environment with memory- guided exploitation of known resource locations. Here we show that animals adaptively shift cognitive resources between sensory ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Spontaneous Local Calcium Transients Regulate Oligodendrocyte Development in Culture through Store Operated Ca2+ Entry and Release.

Yanfang Rui, Stephanie L Pollitt, Kenneth R Myers, Yue Feng, James Q Zheng,

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) insulate axonal fibers for fast conduction of nerve impulses by wrapping axons of the central nervous system (CNS) with compact myelin membranes. Differentiating OLs undergo drastic chances in cell morphology. Bipolar oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) transform into highly ramified multipolar OLs, which then expand myelin membranes that enwrap ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Topological Data Analysis Reveals Robust Alterations in the Whole-Brain and Frontal Lobe Functional Connectomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Juan Carlos Díaz-Patiño, Isaac Arelio, Sarael Alcauter,

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulty to control the own behavior. Neuroimaging studies have related ADHD with the interplay of fronto-parietal attention systems with the default mode network (DMN; Castellanos and Aoki, 2016). However, some results have been inconsistent, potentially due to methodological differences in the ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Chronic alpha-synuclein accumulation in rat hippocampus induces Lewy Bodies formation and specific cognitive impairments.

Danielle Walu Kasongo, Gioacchino de Leo, Nunzio Vicario, Giampiero Leanza, Giuseppe Legname,

Occurrence of Lewy bodies/Lewy neurites (LBs/LNs) containing misfolded fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is one of the pathological hallmarks of memory impairment-linked synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). While it has been shown that brainstem LBs may contribute to motor symptoms, the neuropathological substrates for cognitive ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Neural Differentiation is Moderated by Age in Scene-Selective, But Not Face-Selective, Cortical Regions.

Sabina Srokova, Paul F Hill, Joshua D Koen, Danielle R King, Michael D Rugg,

The aging brain is characterized by neural dedifferentiation, an apparent decrease in the functional selectivity of category-selective cortical regions. Age-related reductions in neural differentiation have been proposed to play a causal role in cognitive aging. Recent findings suggest, however, that age-related dedifferentiation is not equally evident for all stimulus categories ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Age-Related Changes in Synaptic Plasticity Associated with Mossy Fiber Terminal Integration during Adult Neurogenesis.

Karl D Murray, Xiao-Bo Liu, Anna N King, Julie D Luu, Hwai-Jong Cheng,

Mouse hippocampus retains the capacity for neurogenesis throughout lifetime, but such plasticity decreases with age. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) involves the birth, maturation, and synaptic integration of newborn granule cells (GCs) into preexisting hippocampal circuitry. While functional integration onto adult-born GCs has been extensively studied, maturation of efferent projections onto ... Read more >>

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Resting State BOLD Variability of the Posterior Medial Temporal Lobe Correlates with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults with and without Risk for Cognitive Decline.

Tyler J Good, Joshua Villafuerte, Jennifer D Ryan, Cheryl L Grady, Morgan D Barense,

Local brain signal variability [SD of the BOLD signal (SDBOLD]] correlates with age and cognitive performance, and recently differentiated Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from healthy controls. However, it is unknown whether changes to SDBOLD precede diagnosis of AD or mild cognitive impairment. We compared ostensibly healthy older adult humans who ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Distinct region- and time-dependent functional cortical adaptations in C57BL/6J mice after short and prolonged alcohol drinking.

Reginald Cannady, Sudarat Nimitvilai-Roberts, Sarah D Jennings, John J Woodward, Patrick J Mulholland,

Alcohol (ethanol) use disorder is associated with changes in frontal cortical areas including the anterior cingulate (ACC) and orbitofrontal cortex that contribute to cognitive deficits, uncontrolled drinking, and relapse. Acute ethanol exposure reduces intrinsic excitability of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) neurons, while chronic exposure and long-term drinking influence plasticity of ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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ErbB4 Null Mice Display Altered Mesocorticolimbic and Nigrostriatal Dopamine Levels as well as Deficits in Cognitive and Motivational Behaviors.

Miguel Skirzewski, Marie E Cronin, Ricardo Murphy, Wambura Fobbs, Alexxai V Kravitz, Andres Buonanno,

Natural genetic variants of Neuregulin1 (NRG1) and its cognate receptor ErbB4 are associated with a risk for schizophrenia. Whereas most studies on NRG1-ErbB4 signaling have focused on GABAergic interneurons, ErbB4 is also expressed by midbrain dopaminergic neurons where it modulates extracellular dopamine (DA) levels. Here, we report that extracellular steady-state ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Response-Related Signals Increase Confidence But Not Metacognitive Performance.

Elisa Filevich, Christina Koß, Nathan Faivre,

Confidence judgments are a central tool in metacognition research. In a typical task, participants first perform perceptual (first-order) decisions and then rate their confidence in these decisions. The relationship between confidence and first-order accuracy is taken as a measure of metacognitive performance. Confidence is often assumed to stem from decision-monitoring ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Modulate Intrinsic Properties and Synaptic Transmission of Parvalbumin Interneurons in the Mouse Primary Motor Cortex.

Jérémy Cousineau, Léa Lescouzères, Anne Taupignon, Lorena Delgado-Zabalza, Emmanuel Valjent, Jérôme Baufreton, Morgane Le Bon-Jégo,

Dopamine (DA) plays a crucial role in the control of motor and higher cognitive functions such as learning, working memory, and decision making. The primary motor cortex (M1), which is essential for motor control and the acquisition of motor skills, receives dopaminergic inputs in its superficial and deep layers from ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Human face-selective cortex does not distinguish between members of a racial outgroup.

Niv Reggev, Kirstan Brodie, Mina Cikara, Jason P Mitchell,

People often fail to individuate members of social outgroups, a phenomenon known as the outgroup homogeneity effect. Here, we used fMRI repetition suppression to investigate the neural representation underlying this effect. In a pre-registered study, White human perceivers (N = 29) responded to pairs of faces depicting White or Black ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Predicting neural response latency of the human early visual cortex from MRI-based tissue measurements of the optic radiation.

Hiromasa Takemura, Kenichi Yuasa, Kaoru Amano,

Although the non-invasive measurement of visually evoked responses has been extensively studied, the structural basis of variabilities in latency in healthy humans is not well understood. We investigated how tissue properties of optic radiation could predict inter-individual variability in the latency of the initial visually evoked component (C1), which may ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Behavioral Characterization of dmrt3a Mutant Zebrafish Reveals Crucial Aspects of Vertebrate Locomotion through Phenotypes Related to Acceleration.

Ana Del Pozo, Remy Manuel, Ana Belen Iglesias Gonzalez, Harmen Kornelis Koning, Judith Habicher, Hanqing Zhang, Amin Allalou, Klas Kullander, Henrik Boije,

Vertebrate locomotion is orchestrated by spinal interneurons making up a central pattern generator. Proper coordination of activity, both within and between segments, is required to generate the desired locomotor output. This coordination is altered during acceleration to ensure the correct recruitment of muscles for the chosen speed. The transcription factor ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Dissociable behavioral and neural correlates for target-changing and conforming behaviors in interpersonal aggression.

Kyosuke Takami, Masahiko Haruno,

Actors in interpersonal aggression such as bullies change their targets frequently, but the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms are unknown. Here, using the catch-ball task we recently developed to examine human interpersonal aggression, we found target-changing and conforming to other participants' aggression are major driving forces of increased aggression (i.e., ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Differential rapid plasticity in auditory and visual responses in the primarily multisensory orbitofrontal cortex.

Sudha Sharma, Sharba Bandyopadhyay,

Given the connectivity of Orbitofrontal Cortex(OFC) with the sensory areas and areas involved in goal execution, it is likely that OFC, along with it's function in reward processing, also has a role to play in perception based multisensory decision making. To understand mechanisms involved in multisensory decision making, it is ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Hippocampal Synaptic Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Huntington Disease Is Not Alleviated by Ceftriaxone Treatment.

Crystal M Wilkie, Jocelyn R Barnes, Cherry-Lynn M Benson, Kyle J Brymer, Firoozeh Nafar, Matthew P Parsons,

Glutamate transporters, particularly glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), help to prevent the adverse effects associated with glutamate toxicity by rapidly clearing glutamate from the extracellular space. Since GLT-1 expression and/or function are reduced in many neurodegenerative diseases, upregulation of GLT-1 is a favorable approach to treat the symptoms of these diseases. ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Action Video Gaming Does Not Influence Short-Term Ocular Dominance Plasticity in Visually Normal Adults.

Xiaoxin Chen, Shijia Chen, Deying Kong, Junhan Wei, Yu Mao, Wenman Lin, Yiya Chen, Zhimo Yao, Seung Hyun Min, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Robert F Hess, Jiawei Zhou,

Action video gaming can promote neural plasticity. Short-term monocular patching drives neural plasticity in the visual system of human adults. For instance, short-term monocular patching of 0.5-5 h briefly enhances the patched eye's contribution in binocular vision (i.e., short-term ocular dominance plasticity). In this study, we investigate whether action video ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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A SINGLE INTRAVENTRICULAR INJECTION OF VEGF LEADS TO LONG-TERM NEUROTROPHIC EFFECTS IN AXOTOMIZED MOTONEURONS.

Paula M Calvo, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor,

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been recently demonstrated to induce neuroprotective and synaptotrophic effects on lesioned neurons. Hitherto, the administration of VEGF in different animal models of lesion or disease has been carried out following a chronic protocol of administration. We questioned whether a single dose of VEGF, administered ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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GAD2 Expression Defines a Class of Excitatory Lateral Habenula Neurons in Mice that Project to the Raphe and Pontine Tegmentum.

Lely A Quina, Andrew Walker, Glenn Morton, Victor Han, Eric E Turner,

The lateral habenula (LHb) sends complex projections to several areas of the mesopontine tegmentum, the raphe, and the hypothalamus. However, few markers have been available to distinguish subsets of LHb neurons that may serve these pathways. In order to address this complexity, we examined the mouse and rat LHb for ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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First-Person Virtual Embodiment Modulates the Cortical Network that Encodes the Bodily Self and Its Surrounding Space during the Experience of Domestic Violence.

Aline W de Borst, Maria V Sanchez-Vives, Mel Slater, Beatrice de Gelder,

Social aggression, such as domestic violence, has been associated with a reduced ability to take on others' perspectives. In this naturalistic imaging study, we investigated whether training human participants to take on a first-person embodied perspective during the experience of domestic violence enhances the identification with the victim and elicits ... Read more >>

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[2020, 7(3):]

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Real-time selective markerless tracking of forepaws of head fixed mice using deep neural networks.

Brandon J Forys, Dongsheng Xiao, Pankaj Gupta, Timothy H Murphy,

Here, we describe a system capable of tracking specific mouse paw movements at high frame rates (70.17 Hz) with a high level of accuracy (M = 0.95, SD = 0.01). Short-latency markerless tracking of specific body parts opens up the possibility of manipulating motor feedback. We present a software and ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Ablation of TRPV1+ afferent terminals by capsaicin mediates long-lasting analgesia for trigeminal neuropathic pain.

Sheng Wang, Chao Bian, Jiale Yang, Vipin Arora, Yiwei Gao, Feng Wei, Man-Kyo Chung,

Trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP) is often resistant to current pharmacotherapy and there is a pressing need to develop more efficacious treatments. Capsaicin is a pungent ingredient of chili peppers and specifically activates transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), a Ca2+-permeable ion channel. Topical capsaicin invariably induces burning pain. Paradoxically, ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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