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Journal Virulence

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Enterovirus 71 induces neural cell apoptosis and autophagy through promoting ACOX1 downregulation and ROS generation.

Lei You, Junbo Chen, Weiyong Liu, Qi Xiang, Zhen Luo, Wenbiao Wang, Wei Xu, Kailang Wu, Qi Zhang, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu,

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal neurological complications. However, the mechanisms underlying EV71 neurological pathogeneses are largely unknown. This study reveals a distinct mechanism by which EV71 induces apoptosis and autophagy in neural cells. EV71 non-structure protein 3D (also known as RNA-dependent ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):537-553]

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Host surface ectonucleotidase-CD73 and the opportunistic pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, cross-modulation underlies a new homeostatic mechanism for chronic bacterial survival in human epithelial cells.

Jaden S Lee, Nityananda Chowdhury, JoAnn S Roberts, Özlem Yilmaz,

Cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, ectonucleotidase-CD73, has emerged as a central component of the cellular homeostatic-machinery that counterbalances the danger-molecule (extracellular-ATP)-driven proinflammatory response in immune cells. While the importance of CD73 in microbial host fitness and symbiosis is gradually being unraveled, there remains a significant gap in knowledge of CD73 and ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):414-429]

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RpoS-regulated SEN1538 gene promotes resistance to stress and influences Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis virulence.

Aryashree Arunima, Sunil Kumar Swain, Shilpa Ray, Birendra Kumar Prusty, Mrutyunjay Suar,

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis; wild type (WT)) is a major cause of foodborne illness globally. The ability of this pathogen to survive stress inside and outside the host, such as encountering antimicrobial peptides and heat stress, determines the efficiency of enteric infection. These stressors concertedly trigger virulence factors ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):295-314]

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A ROD9 island encoded gene in Salmonella Enteritidis plays an important role in acid tolerance response and helps in systemic infection in mice.

Susmita Das, Shilpa Ray, Aryashree Arunima, Bikash Sahu, Mrutyunjay Suar,

Salmonella, like other pathogenic bacteria has undergone multiple genomic alterations to adapt itself into specific host environments executing varied degrees of virulence through evolution. Such variations in genome content have been assumed to lead the closely related non-typhoidal serovars, S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium to exhibit Type Three Secretion System ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):247-259]

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Predictors of outcome in childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Harsita Patel, Claire Dunican, Aubrey J Cunnington,

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is classified as either uncomplicated or severe, determining clinical management and providing a framework for understanding pathogenesis. Severe malaria in children is defined by the presence of one or more features associated with adverse outcome, but there is wide variation in the predictive value of these features. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):199-221]

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Distinct host-immune response toward species related intracellular mycobacterial killing: A transcriptomic study.

Abhilasha Madhvi, Hridesh Mishra, Novel N Chegou, Gerard Tromp, Carel J Van Heerden, R D Pietersen, Gina Leisching, Bienyameen Baker,

The comparison of the host immune response when challenged with pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of mycobacteria can provide answers to the unresolved question of how pathogens subvert or inhibit an effective response. We infected human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) with different species of mycobacteria, in increasing order of pathogenicity, i.e. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):170-182]

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Mice with humanized-lungs and immune system - an idealized model for COVID-19 and other respiratory illness.

Sujit Pujhari, Jason L Rasgon,

Lack of an appropriate animal model to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent responsible for COVID-19 pandemic disease, represents a significant hurdle in the process of understanding disease biology and evaluating therapeutic and preventive candidates. It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):486-488]

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Identification of conditionally essential genes for Streptococcus suis infection in pigs.

Jesús Arenas, Aldert Zomer, Jose Harders-Westerveen, Hester J Bootsma, Marien I De Jonge, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Hilde E Smith, Astrid De Greeff,

Streptococcus suis is a Gram-positive bacterium and zoonotic pathogen that causes meningitis and sepsis in pigs and humans. The aim of this study was to identify genes required for S. suis infection. We created Tn-Seq libraries in a virulent S. suis strain 10, which was used to inoculate pigs in ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):446-464]

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Immune priming: the secret weapon of the insect world.

Gerard Sheehan, Gemma Farrell, Kevin Kavanagh,

Insects are a highly successful group of animals that inhabit almost every habitat and environment on Earth. Part of their success is due to a rapid and highly effective immune response that identifies, inactivates, and eliminates pathogens. Insects possess an immune system that shows many similarities to the innate immune ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):238-246]

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Setting the stage: The initial immune response to blood-stage parasites.

Allison N Bucşan, Kim C Williamson,

Individuals growing up in malaria endemic areas gradually develop protection against clinical malaria and passive transfer experiments in humans have demonstrated that this protection is mediated in part by protective antibodies. However, neither the target antigens, specific effector mechanisms, nor the role of continual parasite exposure have been elucidated, which ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):88-103]

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Wza gene knockout decreases Acinetobacter baumannii virulence and affects Wzy-dependent capsular polysaccharide synthesis.

Tianshui Niu, Lihua Guo, Qixia Luo, Kai Zhou, Wei Yu, Yunbo Chen, Chen Huang, Yonghong Xiao,

To investigate the virulence of capsular polysaccharide export protein (Wza) in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its effect on capsule formation.wza gene knockout and complementation strains were constructed, and changes in bacterial virulence were observed using in vitro adhesion, antiserum complement killing, anti-oxidation experiments, and infections in Galleria mellonella and mice. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):1-13]

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A case series describing the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Jilin Province.

Na Du, Haiying Chen, Qing Zhang, Lihe Che, Lixin Lou, Xiaohua Li, Kaiyu Zhang, Wanguo Bao,

Since its outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province China, 2019-coronavirus infected disease (COVID-19) had been widely spread all over the world, the control of which calls for a better understanding of its epidemiology and clinical characteristics. We included 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University from ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):482-485]

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The essential schistosome tegumental ectoenzyme SmNPP5 can block NAD-induced T cell apoptosis.

Catherine S Nation, Akram A Da'Dara, Patrick J Skelly,

Infection with intravascular platyhelminths of the genus Schistosoma can result in the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Schistosomes (blood flukes) can survive in the host for many years. We hypothesize that proteins on their host-interactive surface modify the worm's external environment to help insure worm survival. Previously, we have shown that a ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):568-579]

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Relevance of inducible nitric oxide synthase for immune control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in mice.

Ketema Abdissa, Nanthapon Ruangkiattikul, Wiebke Ahrend, Andreas Nerlich, Andreas Beineke, Kristin Laarmann, Nina Janze, Ulrike Lobermeyer, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Christine Falk, Ulrike Schleicher, Siegfried Weiss, Christian Bogdan, Ralph Goethe,

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease (JD), an incurable chronic intestinal bowel disease in ruminants. JD occurs worldwide and causes enormous economic burden in dairy industry. Research on JD pathobiology is hampered by its complexity which cannot completely be mimicked by small animal models. As a model the ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):465-481]

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Direct interaction between RecA and a CheW-like protein is required for surface-associated motility, chemotaxis and the full virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain ATCC 17978.

Jordi Corral, María Pérez-Varela, Jordi Barbé, Jesús Aranda,

Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that causes multi-drug resistant infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. Although this gram-negative species lacks flagella, it is able to move over wet surfaces through a not well characterized type of movement known as surface-associated motility. In this study we demonstrate through the inactivation of ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):315-326]

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Bacterial membrane vesicles from Acinetobacter baumannii induced by ceftazidime are more virulent than those induced by imipenem.

Chun-Hsiang Chiu, Yi-Tzu Lee, Yu-Chun Lin, Shu-Chen Kuo, Ya-Sung Yang, Yung-Chih Wang, Yu-Han Liu, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang, Te-Li Chen,

Patients with Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia treated with antipseudomonal cephalosporins showed higher 14-day mortality than patients treated with antipseudomonal carbapenems. We hypothesized that the bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) induced by antipseudomonal cephalosporins are more virulent than BMVs induced by antipseudomonal carbapenems.To simulate the clinical condition with inadequate antimicrobial treatment, carbapenem-resistant A. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):145-158]

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Harnessing efficient multiplex PCR methods to detect the expanding Tet(X) family of tigecycline resistance genes.

Kai Ji, Yongchang Xu, Jian Sun, Man Huang, Xu Jia, Chengjian Jiang, Youjun Feng,

A growing number of tet(X)-type tigecycline resistance determinants [tet(X1) to tet(X5)] constitutes an expanding family of tetracycline-inactivating enzymes, posing a potential risk to global public health. Here, we report the development of an efficient multiplex PCR method to detect the family of tet(X) variants. This method is successfully applied in ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):49-56]

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Determination of antiviral action of long non-coding RNA loc107051710 during infectious bursal disease virus infection due to enhancement of interferon production.

Xuewei Huang, Yigang Xu, Qingyu Lin, Weilong Guo, Dongfang Zhao, Chunmei Wang, Li Wang, Han Zhou, Yanping Jiang, Wen Cui, Xinyuan Qiao, Yijing Li, Guangpeng Ma, Lijie Tang,

The functions and profiles of lncRNAs during infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection have not been determined, yet. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral action of loc107051710 lncRNA during IBDV infection by investigating the relationship between loc107051710 and IRF8, Type I IFN, STATs, and ISGs. DF-1 ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):68-79]

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Contribution of NKT cells to the immune response and pathogenesis triggered by respiratory viruses.

Emma Rey-Jurado, Karen Bohmwald, Nicolás M S Gálvez, Daniela Becerra, Steven A Porcelli, Leandro J Carreño, Alexis M Kalergis,

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) cause acute respiratory tract infections in children worldwide. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are unconventional T lymphocytes, and their TCRs recognize glycolipids bound to the MHC-I-like molecule, CD1d. These cells modulate the inflammatory response in viral infections. Here, we evaluated the ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):580-593]

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Putative determinants of virulence in Melissococcus plutonius, the bacterial agent causing European foulbrood in honey bees.

Daniela Grossar, Verena Kilchenmann, Eva Forsgren, Jean-Daniel Charrière, Laurent Gauthier, Michel Chapuisat, Vincent Dietemann,

MELISSOCOCCUS PLUTONIUS:is a bacterial pathogen that causes epidemic outbreaks of European foulbrood (EFB) in honey bee populations. The pathogenicity of a bacterium depends on its virulence, and understanding the mechanisms influencing virulence may allow for improved disease control and containment. Using a standardized in vitro assay, we demonstrate that virulence ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):554-567]

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PepO is a target of the two-component systems VicRK and CovR required for systemic virulence of Streptococcus mutans.

Lívia A Alves, Tridib Ganguly, Érika N Harth-Chú, Jessica Kajfasz, José A Lemos, Jacqueline Abranches, Renata O Mattos-Graner,

Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic species, is often associated with cardiovascular infections. Systemic virulence of specific S. mutans serotypes has been associated with the expression of the collagen- and laminin-binding protein Cnm, which is transcriptionally regulated by VicRK and CovR. In this study, we characterized a VicRK- and CovR-regulated gene, pepO, ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):521-536]

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The regulation of hyphae growth in Candida albicans.

Hui Chen, Xuedong Zhou, Biao Ren, Lei Cheng,

In the last decades, Candida albicans has served as the leading causal agent of life-threatening invasive infections with mortality rates approaching 40% despite treatment. Candida albicans (C. albicans) exists in three biological phases: yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae. Hyphae, which represent an important phase in the disease process, can cause tissue ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):337-348]

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Molecularly defined extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli status predicts virulence in a murine sepsis model better than does virotype, individual virulence genes, or clonal subset among E. coli ST131 isolates.

Irene Merino, Stephen B Porter, Brian Johnston, Connie Clabots, Paul Thuras, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón, James R Johnson,

BACKGROUND:Escherichia coli ST131, mainly its H30 clade, is the leading cause of extraintestinal E. coli infections but its correlates of virulence are undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We tested in a murine sepsis model 84 ST131 isolates that differed by country of origin (Spain vs. USA), clonal subset, resistance markers, and virulence ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):327-336]

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Streptococcus pneumoniae PepO promotes host anti-infection defense via autophagy in a Toll-like receptor 2/4 dependent manner.

Zhaoche Shu, Jun Yuan, Hong Wang, Jinghui Zhang, Sijie Li, Hong Zhang, Yusi Liu, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang,

Macrophage is essential for host anti-bacterial defense by directly eliminating invading microbes and inducing a series of immune reactions. Here we identified a Streptococcus pneumoniae protein, PepO, as a TLR2/TLR4 bi-ligand. We found that PepO enhances macrophage unspecific phagocytosis and bactericidal activity, which is related to the induction of autophagy ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):270-282]

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Mutation on lysX from Mycobacterium avium hominissuis impacts the host-pathogen interaction and virulence phenotype.

Greana Kirubakar, Hubert Schäfer, Volker Rickerts, Carsten Schwarz, Astrid Lewin,

The lysX gene from Mycobacterium avium hominissuis (MAH) is not only involved in cationic antimicrobial resistance but also regulates metabolic activity. An MAH lysX deficient mutant was shown to exhibit a metabolic shift at the extracellular state preadapting the bacteria to the conditions inside host-cells. It further showed stronger growth ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):132-144]

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