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Journal Virulence

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Pathogenesis and virulence of flavivirus infections.

Sophie Wilhelmina van Leur, Tiaan Heunis, Deeksha Munnur, Sumana Sanyal,

The Flavivirus genus consists of >70 members including several that are considered significant human pathogens. Flaviviruses display a broad spectrum of diseases that can be roughly categorised into two phenotypes - systemic disease involving haemorrhage exemplified by dengue and yellow Fever virus, and neurological complications associated with the likes of ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2814-2838]

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Global regulator DksA modulates virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii.

Nayeong Kim, Joo Hee Son, Kyeongmin Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Yoo Jeong Kim, Minsang Shin, Je Chul Lee,

DksA with (p)ppGpp regulates a wide range of gene transcriptions during the stringent response. The aim of this study was to identify a DksA ortholog in <i>Acinetobacter baumannii</i> and clarify the roles of DksA in bacterial physiology and virulence. The ∆<i>dksA</i> mutant and its complemented strains were constructed using <i>A. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2750-2763]

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Quantitative proteomics reveals that dormancy-related proteins mediate the attenuation in mycobacterium strains.

Hong Wang, Li Wan, Jiahui Shi, Tao Zhang, Huiming Zhu, Songhao Jiang, Shuhong Meng, Shujia Wu, Jinshuai Sun, Lei Chang, Liqun Zhang, Kanglin Wan, Jiaqi Yang, Xiuqin Zhao, Haican Liu, Yao Zhang, Erhei Dai, Ping Xu,

Although members of the <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> complex (MTBC) exhibit high similarity, they are characterized by differences with respect to virulence, immune response, and transmissibility. To understand the virulence of these bacteria and identify potential novel therapeutic targets, we systemically investigated the total cell protein contents of virulent H37Rv, attenuated H37Ra, and ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2228-2246]

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Exacerbation of Mycobacterium avium pulmonary infection by comorbid allergic asthma is associated with diminished mycobacterium-specific Th17 responses.

Yeeun Bak, Sang Chul Park, Dahee Shim, Yura Ha, Jumi Lee, Hongmin Kim, Kee Woong Kwon, Joo-Heon Yoon, Sung Jae Shin,

Accumulating evidence suggests that two chronic respiratory diseases, nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM)-pulmonary disease (PD) and allergic asthma, are frequently present together and that they likely influence the disease development and progression of each other. However, their precise interactions regarding the pathogenesis of comorbid diseases versus that of individual diseases are not well ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2546-2561]

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S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase FgSah1 is required for fungal development and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

Dongya Shi, Yu Zhang, Jin Wang, Weichao Ren, Jie Zhang, Jane Ifunanya Mbadianya, Yuanye Zhu, Changjun Chen, Hongyu Ma,

The S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1) plays a crucial role in methylation and lipid metabolism in yeast and mammals, yet its function remains elusive in filamentous fungi. In this study, we characterized Sah1 in the phytopathogenic fungus <i>F. graminearum</i> by generating knockout and knockout-complemented strains of <i>FgSAH1</i>. We found that the FgSah1-GFP ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2171-2185]

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Whole genome analysis unveils genetic diversity and potential virulence determinants in Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with disease outbreak among cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) in India.

Kattapuni Suresh Prithvisagar, Ballamoole Krishna Kumar, Toshio Kodama, Praveen Rai, Tetsuya Iida, Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar,

<i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> has caused widespread mortality in Indian shrimp aquaculture in recent years. However, there are insufficient genome data for the isolates from Indian shrimp vibriosis to analyze genetic diversity and track the acquisition of genetic features that could be involved in virulence and fitness. In this study, we have ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1936-1949]

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Diversification and prevalence of the quinolone resistance crpP genes and the crpP-carrying Tn6786-related integrative and conjugative elements in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Zhichen Zhu, Huiying Yang, Zhe Yin, Ying Jing, Yuee Zhao, Hongyu Fu, Hong Du, Dongsheng Zhou,

The quinolone resistance <i>crpP</i> genes can mediate decreased susceptibility to quinolones. However, diversification and prevalence of <i>crpP</i> genes and <i>crpP</i>-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) still need to be elucidated. In this study, genome sequencing was conducted for 200 Chinese <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> isolates, 16 of which were fully sequenced. All ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2162-2170]

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Stabilin-1 plays a protective role against Listeria monocytogenes infection through the regulation of cytokine and chemokine production and immune cell recruitment.

Rita Pombinho, Jorge Pinheiro, Mariana Resende, Diana Meireles, Sirpa Jalkanen, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes,

Scavenger receptors are part of a complex surveillance system expressed by host cells to efficiently orchestrate innate immune response against bacterial infections. Stabilin-1 (STAB-1) is a scavenger receptor involved in cell trafficking, inflammation, and cancer; however, its role in infection remains to be elucidated. <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> (<i>Lm</i>) is a major ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2088-2103]

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A novel transcription factor UvCGBP1 regulates development and virulence of rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens.

Xiaoyang Chen, Pingping Li, Hao Liu, Xiaolin Chen, Junbin Huang, Chaoxi Luo, Guotian Li, Tom Hsiang, David B Collinge, Lu Zheng,

<i>Ustilaginoidea virens</i>, causing rice false smut (RFS) is an economically important ascomycetous fungal pathogen distributed in rice-growing regions worldwide. Here, we identified a novel transcription factor UvCGBP1 (<u>C</u>utinase <u>G</u>-box <u>b</u>inding <u>p</u>rotein) from this fungus, which is unique to ascomycetes. Deletion of <i>UvCGBP1</i> affected development and virulence of <i>U. virens</i>. A ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1563-1579]

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The hypermucoviscosity of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae confers the ability to evade neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis.

Qi Xu, Xuemei Yang, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen,

Hypervirulent <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> (HvKP), which causes highly fatal infections, is a new threat to human health. In an attempt to investigate the underlying mechanisms of resistance to neutrophil-mediated killing and hence expression of high-level virulence by HvKP, we tested the binding affinity of HvKP strains to various types of human ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):2050-2059]

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Development and multimodal characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema mouse disease model for the COPD frequent bacterial exacerbator phenotype.

Irene Rodríguez-Arce, Xabier Morales, Mikel Ariz, Begoña Euba, Nahikari López-López, Maider Esparza, Derek W Hood, José Leiva, Carlos Ortíz-de-Solórzano, Junkal Garmendia,

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergo infectious exacerbations whose frequency identifies a clinically meaningful phenotype. Mouse models have been mostly used to separately study both COPD and the infectious processes, but a reliable model of the COPD frequent exacerbator phenotype is still lacking. Accordingly, we first established a model ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1672-1688]

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Synergy of alanine and gentamicin to reduce nitric oxide for elevating killing efficacy to antibiotic-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus.

Su-Fang Kuang, Yue-Tao Chen, Jia-Jie Chen, Xuan-Xian Peng, Zhuang-Gui Chen, Hui Li,

The present study explored the cooperative effect of both alanine (Ala) and gentamicin (Gent) on metabolic mechanisms by which exogenous Ala potentiates Gent to kill antibiotic-resistant <i>Vibrio alginolyticus</i>. To test this, GC-MS-based metabolomics was used to characterize Ala-, Gent- and both-induced metabolic profiles, identifying nitric oxide (NO) production pathway as ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1737-1753]

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The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 dephosphorylated by ALV-J via its Env efficiently promotes ALV-J replication.

Tuofan Li, Jing Xie, Xiaohui Yao, Jun Zhang, Chunping Li, Dan Ren, Luyuan Li, Quan Xie, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye,

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) generally induces hemangioma, myeloid leukosis, and immunosuppression in chickens, causing significant poultry industry economic losses worldwide. The unusual <i>env</i> gene of ALV-J, with low homology to other subgroups of ALVs, is associated with its unique pathogenesis. However, the exact molecular basis for the pathogenesis ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1721-1731]

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Deletion of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidases alters the host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Nathan Scott Kieswetter, Mumin Ozturk, Shelby-Sara Jones, Sibusiso Senzani, Melissa Dalcina Chengalroyen, Frank Brombacher, Bavesh Kana, Reto Guler,

Peptidoglycan (PG), a heteropolysaccharide component of the mycobacterial cell wall can be shed during tuberculosis infection with immunomodulatory consequences. As such, changes in PG structure are expected to have important implications on disease progression and host responses during infection with <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i>. Mycobacterial amidases have important roles in remodeling of ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1227-1238]

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Mitigating the threat of emerging infectious diseases; a coevolutionary perspective.

Cock Van Oosterhout,

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1288-1295]

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DIM5/KMT1 controls fungal insect pathogenicity and genome stability by methylation of histone H3K4, H3K9 and H3K36.

Kang Ren, Ya-Ni Mou, Sen-Miao Tong, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng,

Mono-, di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 Lys 9, Lys 4, and Lys 36 (H3K_me1/me2/me3) required for mediation of DNA-based cellular events in eukaryotes usually rely upon the activities of histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) classified to the KMT1, KMT2, and KMT3 families, respectively. Here, an H3K9-specific DIM5/KMT1 orthologue, which lacks ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1306-1322]

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Whole-genome characterization of hemolytic uremic syndrome-causing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Sweden.

Ying Hua, Milan Chromek, Anne Frykman, Cecilia Jernberg, Valya Georgieva, Sverker Hansson, Ji Zhang, Ann Katrine Marits, Chengsong Wan, Andreas Matussek, Xiangning Bai,

Shiga toxin-producing <i>Escherichia coli</i>, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, has been linked to a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic carriage to fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Here, we collected clinical data and STEC strains from HUS patients from 1994 through 2018, whole-genome sequencing was performed to molecularly characterize ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1296-1305]

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Tribolium castaneum defensin 1 kills Moraxella catarrhalisin an in vitro infection model but does not harm commensal bacteria.

Wilhelm Bertrams, Nora S Lindhauer, Marie Christin Rieke, Anne Paas, Kerstin Hoffmann, Brandon Greene, Alexander Visekruna, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kerstin Seidel, Bernd Schmeck,

<i>Moraxella catarrhalis</i> is a bacterial pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant <i>M. catarrhalis</i> strains has created a demand for alternative treatment options. We therefore tested 23 insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for their activity against <i>M. catarrhalis</i> in a human <i>in vitro</i> infection model ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):1003-1010]

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Therapeutic implications of C. albicans-S. aureus mixed biofilm in a murine subcutaneous catheter model of polymicrobial infection.

Taissa Vila, Eric F Kong, Daniel Montelongo-Jauregui, Patrick Van Dijck, Amol C Shetty, Carrie McCracken, Vincent M Bruno, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk,

Biofilm-associated polymicrobial infections tend to be challenging to treat. <i>Candida albicans</i> and <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> are leading pathogens due to their ability to form biofilms on medical devices. However, the therapeutic implications of their interactions in a host is largely unexplored. In this study, we used a mouse subcutaneous catheter model ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):835-851]

Cited: 3 times

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The role of glycosylation in the N-terminus of the hemagglutinin of a unique H4N2 with a natural polybasic cleavage site in virus fitness in vitro and in vivo.

Marcel Gischke, Ola Bagato, Angele Breithaupt, David Scheibner, Claudia Blaurock, Melina Vallbracht, Axel Karger, Beate Crossley, Jutta Veits, Eva Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab,

To date, only low pathogenic (LP) H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been observed to naturally shift to a highly pathogenic (HP) phenotype after mutation of the monobasic hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (HACS) to polybasic motifs. The LPAIV monobasic HACS is activated by tissue-restricted trypsin-like enzymes, while the ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):666-678]

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COVID-19 evolution during the pandemic - Implications of new SARS-CoV-2 variants on disease control and public health policies.

Cock van Oosterhout, Neil Hall, Hinh Ly, Kevin M Tyler,

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):507-508]

Cited: 35 times

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Verapamil inhibits efflux pumps in Candida albicans, exhibits synergism with fluconazole, and increases survival of Galleria mellonella.

Yuliana Vega-Chacón, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Pavarina, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima,

The emergence of resistance requires alternative methods to treat <i>Candida albicans</i> infections. We evaluated efficacy of the efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) verapamil (VER) with fluconazole (FLC) against FLC-resistant (CaR) and -susceptible <i>C. albicans</i> (CaS). The susceptibility of both strains to VER and FLC was determined, as well as the synergism ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):231-243]

Cited: 2 times

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Defective apoptotic cell clearance activates innate immune response to protect Caenorhabditis elegans against pathogenic bacteria.

Jinlong Wan, Lei Yuan, Huiru Jing, Qian Zheng, Hui Xiao,

Appropriate clearance of dead cells generated by apoptosis is critical to the development of multicellular organisms and tissue homeostasis. In mammals, the removal of apoptotic cell is mediated by polarized monocyte/macrophage populations of the innate immune system. The innate immune system is essential for anti-viral and anti-microbial defense. However, our ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):75-83]

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The involvement of the Candida glabrata trehalase enzymes in stress resistance and gut colonization.

Mieke Van Ende, Bea Timmermans, Giel Vanreppelen, Sofía Siscar-Lewin, Daniel Fischer, Stefanie Wijnants, Celia Lobo Romero, Saleh Yazdani, Ona Rogiers, Liesbeth Demuyser, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Yuke Cen, Karl Kuchler, Sascha Brunke, Patrick Van Dijck,

<i>Candida glabrata</i> is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and is frequently present in the human microbiome. It has a high relative resistance to environmental stresses and several antifungal drugs. An important component involved in microbial stress tolerance is trehalose. In this work, we characterized the three <i>C. glabrata</i> trehalase enzymes ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):329-345]

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from infected skin lesions present several virulence genes and are associated with the CC30 in Brazilian children with atopic dermatitis.

Fernanda Sampaio Cavalcante, Simone Saintive, Dennis Carvalho Ferreira, Adriana Barbosa Rocha Silva, Lorrayne Cardoso Guimarães, Beatriz Stofel Braga, Eliane de Dios Abad, Marcia Ribeiro, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos,

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and colonization by <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> may affect up to 100% of these patients. Virulent and resistant isolates can worsen AD patient clinical condition and jeopardize the treatment. We aimed to detect virulence genes and to evaluate the biofilm production of <i>S. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2021, 12(1):260-269]

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