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Journal Virulence

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Mammalian malaria: Remembering the Alamo.

Colin J Sutherland,

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):945-946]

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Screening for phagocytosis resistance-related genes via a transposon mutant library of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

Xiaomeng Pei, Mingxing Liu, Hong Zhou, Hongjie Fan,

STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS:serotype 2 (SS2) is a serious zoonotic pathogen which causes symptoms of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and septicemia; these symptoms suggest that SS2 may have evade innate immunity. Phagocytosis is an important innate immunity process where phagocytosed pathogens are killed by lysosome enzymes, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species, ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):825-838]

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The interaction between flagellin and the glycosphingolipid Gb3 on host cells contributes to Bacillus cereus acute infection.

Song Gao, Chengpei Ni, Wenhua Huang, Huaijie Hao, Hua Jiang, Qingyu Lv, Yuling Zheng, Peng Liu, Decong Kong, Yongqiang Jiang,

BACILLUS CEREUS:is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause emetic or diarrheal foodborne illness. Previous studies have identified multiple pathogenic B. cereus strains and characterized a variety of virulence factors. Here, we demonstrate that the virulence and lethality of B. cereus for mammalian cells and host animals involve the interaction of ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):769-780]

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Measles in Romania - clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized measles cases during the first three years of the 2016-ongoing epidemic.

Daniela Pițigoi, Oana Săndulescu, Maria Dorina Crăciun, Anca Drăgănescu, Gheorghiță Jugulete, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Angelica Vișan, Claudia Rîciu, Alexandru Rafila, Victoria Aramă, Monica Luminos, Adrian Streinu-Cercel,

A large measles epidemic has been ongoing in Romania and many European countries, since 2016. We report case-based surveillance data for all patients (n = 1371) with laboratory-confirmed and epidemiologically-confirmed measles hospitalized in a major infectious diseases hospital in Bucharest Romania during the first three years of the current measles epidemic (July ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):686-694]

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TMT-based quantitative proteomics analysis reveals the attenuated replication mechanism of Newcastle disease virus caused by nuclear localization signal mutation in viral matrix protein.

Zhiqiang Duan, Chao Yuan, Yifan Han, Lei Zhou, Jiafu Zhao, Yong Ruan, Jiaqi Chen, Mengmeng Ni, Xinqin Ji,

Nuclear localization of cytoplasmic RNA virus proteins mediated by intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS) plays essential roles in successful virus replication. We previously reported that NLS mutation in the matrix (M) protein obviously attenuates the replication and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but the attenuated replication mechanism remains unclear. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):607-635]

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Host surface ectonucleotidase-CD73 and the opportunistic pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, cross-modulation underlies a new homeostatic mechanism for chronic bacterial survival in human epithelial cells.

Jaden S Lee, Nityananda Chowdhury, JoAnn S Roberts, Özlem Yilmaz,

Cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, ectonucleotidase-CD73, has emerged as a central component of the cellular homeostatic-machinery that counterbalances the danger-molecule (extracellular-ATP)-driven proinflammatory response in immune cells. While the importance of CD73 in microbial host fitness and symbiosis is gradually being unraveled, there remains a significant gap in knowledge of CD73 and ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):414-429]

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RpoS-regulated SEN1538 gene promotes resistance to stress and influences Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis virulence.

Aryashree Arunima, Sunil Kumar Swain, Shilpa Ray, Birendra Kumar Prusty, Mrutyunjay Suar,

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis; wild type (WT)) is a major cause of foodborne illness globally. The ability of this pathogen to survive stress inside and outside the host, such as encountering antimicrobial peptides and heat stress, determines the efficiency of enteric infection. These stressors concertedly trigger virulence factors ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):295-314]

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A ROD9 island encoded gene in Salmonella Enteritidis plays an important role in acid tolerance response and helps in systemic infection in mice.

Susmita Das, Shilpa Ray, Aryashree Arunima, Bikash Sahu, Mrutyunjay Suar,

Salmonella, like other pathogenic bacteria has undergone multiple genomic alterations to adapt itself into specific host environments executing varied degrees of virulence through evolution. Such variations in genome content have been assumed to lead the closely related non-typhoidal serovars, S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium to exhibit Type Three Secretion System ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):247-259]

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Predictors of outcome in childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Harsita Patel, Claire Dunican, Aubrey J Cunnington,

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is classified as either uncomplicated or severe, determining clinical management and providing a framework for understanding pathogenesis. Severe malaria in children is defined by the presence of one or more features associated with adverse outcome, but there is wide variation in the predictive value of these features. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):199-221]

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Distinct host-immune response toward species related intracellular mycobacterial killing: A transcriptomic study.

Abhilasha Madhvi, Hridesh Mishra, Novel N Chegou, Gerard Tromp, Carel J Van Heerden, R D Pietersen, Gina Leisching, Bienyameen Baker,

The comparison of the host immune response when challenged with pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of mycobacteria can provide answers to the unresolved question of how pathogens subvert or inhibit an effective response. We infected human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) with different species of mycobacteria, in increasing order of pathogenicity, i.e. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):170-182]

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Exoproteomic profiling uncovers critical determinants for virulence of livestock-associated and human-originated Staphylococcus aureus ST398 strains.

Xin Zhao, Monika A Chlebowicz-Flissikowska, Min Wang, Elias Vera Murguia, Anne de Jong, Dörte Becher, Sandra Maaß, Girbe Buist, Jan Maarten van Dijl,

Staphylococcus aureus: with the sequence type (ST) 398 was previously associated with livestock carriage. However, in recent years livestock-independent S. aureus ST398 has emerged, representing a potential health risk for humans especially in nosocomial settings. Judged by whole-genome sequencing analyses, the livestock- and human originated strains belong to two different ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):947-963]

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Development of a fully automated high throughput PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2: The need for speed.

Florian J Mayer, Franz Ratzinger, Ralf L J Schmidt, Georg Greiner, Olfert Landt, Alexander Am Ende, Victor M Corman, Nicole Perkmann-Nagele, Thomas Watkins-Riedel, Dagmar Petermann, Karoline Abadir, Josef Zweimüller-Mayer, Robert Strassl,

Currently, testing for coronavirus is performed with time and personnel consuming PCR assays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and capacity of a fully automated, random access high-throughput real-time PCR-based diagnostic platform for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The NeuMoDx N96 system displayed an equal or ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):964-967]

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Maltose promotes crucian carp survival against Aeromonas sobrial infection at high temperature.

Ming Jiang, Li-Fen Yang, Jun Zheng, Zhuang-Gui Chen, Bo Peng,

Temperature influences fish's susceptibility to infectious disease through an immune response. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we compared the susceptibility of crucian carp that were grown at 18°C and 33°C, respectively, to Aeromonas sobrial infection and found that crucian carp was ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):877-888]

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Phylogenetic and codon usage analysis of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV).

Shuonan Pan, Chunxiao Mou, Huiguang Wu, Zhenhai Chen,

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been identified as the main causative agent for congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets, which is threatening the health of the global swine herd. However, the evolution of APPV remains largely unknown. In this study, phylogenetic analysis showed that APPV could be divided into ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):916-926]

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Autophagy and SARS-CoV-2 infection: Apossible smart targeting of the autophagy pathway.

Shahla Shojaei, Madhumita Suresh, Daniel J Klionsky, Hagar Ibrahim Labouta, Saeid Ghavami,

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak resulted in 5,993,317 confirmed cases worldwide with 365,394 confirmed deaths (as of May 29th, 2020, WHO). The molecular mechanism of virus infection and spread in the body is not yet disclosed, but studies on other betacoronaviruses show that, upon cell infection, ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):805-810]

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Chemotactic invasion in deep soft tissue by Vibrio vulnificus is essential for the progression of necrotic lesions.

Kohei Yamazaki, Takashige Kashimoto, Takehiro Kado, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazuki Yoshioka, Toshio Kodama, Mai Yamamoto, Masashi Okamura, Tsutomu Kakuda, Shunji Ueno,

Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) progress to severe necrosis and result in fatal sepsis within a short time. Vibrio vulnificus is a causative agent and can spread from the initial infection site through soft tissue finally to the systemic circulation of the host. The motility and chemotaxis of this bacterium ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):840-848]

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Mice with humanized-lungs and immune system - an idealized model for COVID-19 and other respiratory illness.

Sujit Pujhari, Jason L Rasgon,

Lack of an appropriate animal model to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent responsible for COVID-19 pandemic disease, represents a significant hurdle in the process of understanding disease biology and evaluating therapeutic and preventive candidates. It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):486-488]

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Identification of conditionally essential genes for Streptococcus suis infection in pigs.

Jesús Arenas, Aldert Zomer, Jose Harders-Westerveen, Hester J Bootsma, Marien I De Jonge, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Hilde E Smith, Astrid De Greeff,

Streptococcus suis is a Gram-positive bacterium and zoonotic pathogen that causes meningitis and sepsis in pigs and humans. The aim of this study was to identify genes required for S. suis infection. We created Tn-Seq libraries in a virulent S. suis strain 10, which was used to inoculate pigs in ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):446-464]

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Immune priming: the secret weapon of the insect world.

Gerard Sheehan, Gemma Farrell, Kevin Kavanagh,

Insects are a highly successful group of animals that inhabit almost every habitat and environment on Earth. Part of their success is due to a rapid and highly effective immune response that identifies, inactivates, and eliminates pathogens. Insects possess an immune system that shows many similarities to the innate immune ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):238-246]

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Setting the stage: The initial immune response to blood-stage parasites.

Allison N Bucşan, Kim C Williamson,

Individuals growing up in malaria endemic areas gradually develop protection against clinical malaria and passive transfer experiments in humans have demonstrated that this protection is mediated in part by protective antibodies. However, neither the target antigens, specific effector mechanisms, nor the role of continual parasite exposure have been elucidated, which ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):88-103]

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Wza gene knockout decreases Acinetobacter baumannii virulence and affects Wzy-dependent capsular polysaccharide synthesis.

Tianshui Niu, Lihua Guo, Qixia Luo, Kai Zhou, Wei Yu, Yunbo Chen, Chen Huang, Yonghong Xiao,

To investigate the virulence of capsular polysaccharide export protein (Wza) in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its effect on capsule formation.wza gene knockout and complementation strains were constructed, and changes in bacterial virulence were observed using in vitro adhesion, antiserum complement killing, anti-oxidation experiments, and infections in Galleria mellonella and mice. ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):1-13]

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PE_PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A specialized molecular task force at the forefront of host-pathogen interaction.

Flavio De Maio, Rita Berisio, Riccardo Manganelli, Giovanni Delogu,

To the PE_PGRS protein subfamily belongs a group of surface-exposed mycobacterial antigens that in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv accounts to more than 65 genes, 51 of which are thought to express a functional protein. PE_PGRS proteins share a conserved structural architecture with three main domains: the N-terminal PE domain; the ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):898-915]

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miR-9875 functions in antiviral immunity by targeting PDCD6 in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

Yi Gong, Tongtong Kong, Xin Ren, Shanmeng Lin, Shengkang Li,

Programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6) is a well-known apoptosis regulator that is involved in the immunity of mammals. However, the effects of miRNA-mediated regulation of PDCD6 expression on apoptosis and virus infection in organisms, especially in marine invertebrates, have not been extensively explored. In this study, PDCD6 of mud crab ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):849-862]

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A case series describing the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Jilin Province.

Na Du, Haiying Chen, Qing Zhang, Lihe Che, Lixin Lou, Xiaohua Li, Kaiyu Zhang, Wanguo Bao,

Since its outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province China, 2019-coronavirus infected disease (COVID-19) had been widely spread all over the world, the control of which calls for a better understanding of its epidemiology and clinical characteristics. We included 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University from ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):482-485]

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The essential schistosome tegumental ectoenzyme SmNPP5 can block NAD-induced T cell apoptosis.

Catherine S Nation, Akram A Da'Dara, Patrick J Skelly,

Infection with intravascular platyhelminths of the genus Schistosoma can result in the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Schistosomes (blood flukes) can survive in the host for many years. We hypothesize that proteins on their host-interactive surface modify the worm's external environment to help insure worm survival. Previously, we have shown that a ... Read more >>

Virulence (Virulence)
[2020, 11(1):568-579]

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