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Effect of sub-lethal doses of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus toxin production and biofilm formation.

Ali Shivaee, Sajad Rajabi, Hamed Eraghiye Farahani, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi,

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the commonest food-borne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis owing to having several enterotoxins. Also, biofilm formation can complicate infections caused by this microorganism. Nisin is a safe food bio preservative which is usually used as an agent to prevent pathogen growth; however, it is important ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, :]

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Two new cationic α-helical peptides identified from the venom gland of Liocheles australasiae possess antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

Zhiwen Zhao, Kaiyue Zhang, Wen Zhu, Xiangdong Ye, Li Ding, Huiwen Jiang, Fangyan Li, Zongyun Chen, Xudong Luo,

Methicillin-resistant staphylococci have become growing threats to human health, and novel antimicrobials are urgently needed. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Here, two novel cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides, Lausporin-1 and Lausporin-2, were identified from the venom gland of the scorpion L. australasiae through a cDNA library ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, :]

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Plants and zootoxins: Toxico-epidemiological investigation in domestic animals.

Alessia Bertero, Franca Davanzo, Marina Rivolta, Cristina Cortinovis, Anita Vasquez, Angelo Le Mura, Asja Masuelli, Francesca Caloni,

An epidemiological study on animal poisoning due to plants and zootoxins has been carried out by the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV) in collaboration with the University of Milan (Italy). During the period January 2015-March 2019, the CAV received 932 calls on animal poisonings, 12.66% (n = 118) of which were ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 196:25-31]

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Management of excessive gingival display using botulinum toxin type A: a descriptive study.

Fernando de Oliveira Andriola, Gabriela Sperotto Chieza, Juliano Cavagni, Angelo Luiz Freddo, Adriana Corsetti,

Botulinum toxin is a protease used by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that causes chemical denervation of skeletal muscles, producing a temporary weakening of muscle activity. Despite having a transitory effect, the application of botulinum toxin has been identified as an alternative for correcting an excessive gingival display (EGD). However, studies ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, :]

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Snakebite envenomings in the Republic of Korea from the 1970s to the 2020s: A review.

Yucheol Shin, Yikweon Jang, Amaël Borzée,

Snakebite envenomings remain a neglected disease across the globe causing severe injuries and death. An understanding of regional snakebite patterns is a necessary prerequisite for public health programs aimed at reducing snakebite risks. However, such regional knowledge is poorly documented or lacking in many countries where the risk of snakebite ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 196:8-18]

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Understanding the mechanism of action of peptide (p-BthTX-I)2 derived from C-terminal region of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-like bothropstoxin-I on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Laura Marise de Freitas, Claudia Tavares Dos Santos, Julia Pinto Piccoli, Carla Raquel Fontana, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Eduardo Maffud Cilli,

Based on the antimicrobial activity of bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I) and on the premise that a C-terminal peptide of Lys49 myotoxin can reproduce the antimicrobial activity of the parent protein, we aimed to study the mechanism of action of a peptide derived from the C-terminal region of the myotoxin BthTX-I [(p-BthTX-I)<sub>2</sub>, sequence: ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 196:44-55]

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Proteomic analysis of three medically important Nigerian Naja (Naja haje, Naja katiensis and Naja nigricollis) snake venoms.

Fatima Amin Adamude, Emeka John Dingwoke, Mujitaba Suleiman Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Gadija Mohamed, Ashwil Klein, Abdullahi Balarabe Sallau,

Proteomics technologies enable a comprehensive study of complex proteins and their functions. The venom proteomes of three medically important Nigerian Elapidae snakes Naja haje, Naja katiensis and Naja nigricollis was studied using HILIC coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis. Results revealed a total of 57, 55, and 46 proteins in the venoms ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, :]

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Taxonomy and okadaic acid production of a strain of Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Bay of Bengal, North Indian Ocean.

Oyeshina Gideon Oyeku, Subir Kumar Mandal,

Prorocentrum lima (CSIRCSMCRI005) was isolated from the coastal seawater of Thonithurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Morphology of the isolate was studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8s-ITS2), 18S rDNA, and large subunit (LSU) rDNA were also carried out. ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 196:32-43]

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Concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolites in female wild boars from woodlands and farmlands.

Jakub Pałubicki, Robert Kosicki, Magdalena Twarużek, Iwona Ałtyn, Jan Grajewski,

As a valuable food base and safe shelter, large agricultural fields create favourable living conditions for wild boars for most of the year. The occurrence of mould in these fields, causing hormonal disturbances, may lead to a lower age of sexual maturity and a prolonged breeding season, and therefore, the ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 196:19-24]

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Effects of intravenous administration of recombinant Phα1β toxin in a mouse model of fibromyalgia.

Mariana Peluci Garcia Mendes, Duana Carvalho Dos Santos, Márcio Júnior S Rezende, Luana Caroline Assis Ferreira, Flavia Karine Rigo, Célio José de Castro Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez,

This study investigated the effects of intravenous (iv) administration of recombinant Phα1β toxin, pregabalin, and diclofenac by the intrathecal route using an animal model fibromyalgia (FM). The reserpine administration (0.25 mg/kg s. c) once daily for three consecutive days significantly induced hyperalgesia, immobility time, and sucrose consumption in mice on the ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:104-110]

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The venom proteome of three common scyphozoan jellyfishes (Chrysaora caliparea, Cyanea nozakii and Lychnorhiza malayensis) (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) from the coastal waters of India.

Abdul Riyas, Aneesh Kumar, Mahesh Chandran, Abdul Jaleel, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar,

The jellyfish venom stored in nematocysts contains highly toxic compounds comprising of polypeptides, enzymes and other proteins, which form their chemical defence armoury against predators. We have characterized the proteome of crude venom extract from three bloom-forming scyphozoan jellyfish along the south-west coast of India, Chrysaora caliparea, Cyanea nozakii and ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:93-103]

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Chitosan performance during Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) depuration of Mytilus chilensis exposed to Alexandrium catenella.

Jésica Tobke, Erica Giarratano, Alejandro Ortiz, Carla Garrido, Mariana Serra, Mónica N Gil, Jorge M Navarro,

Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), generate serious socio-economic consequences for mariculture in Chile, especially for the production of Mytilus chilensis and other bivalves. Palliative strategies, such as the depuration of mussels in enriched water with chitosan offer encouraging prospects against the advance of ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:48-57]

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Phytochemistry and teratogenic potential of Mimosa tenuiflora (willd.) poir. (Fabaceae) in ruminants: A systematic review.

José Jailson Lima Bezerra, Anderson Angel Vieira Pinheiro, Ricardo Barbosa Lucena,

Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae) is a plant native to Brazil and occurs in the phytogeographic domains of Caatinga and Cerrado. Relevant studies have investigated the chemical components of this plant and others have already demonstrated its teratogenic potential. It has been proven that this plant causes congenital malformations in ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:78-85]

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Effect of carboxymethyl chitosan on the detoxification and biotransformation of paralytic shellfish toxins in oyster Ostrea rivularis.

Xihong Yang, Xiaoqun Hu, Zequn Dong, Min Li, Zuoxing Zheng, Wancui Xie,

Economic bivalve ingested toxic algae causes frequent human poisoning events. To explore new compounds that can accelerate the depuration of toxins in shellfish, we investigated the detoxification of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and the biotransformation pathway of PSTs during detoxification by the application of three treatments to a toxic ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 196:1-7]

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Cell free Microcystis aeruginosa spent medium affects Daphnia magna survival and stress response.

Gorenka Bojadzija Savic, Hervé Colinet, Myriam Bormans, Christine Edwards, Linda A Lawton, Enora Briand, Claudia Wiegand,

Primary consumers in freshwater ecosystems, such as the zooplankton organism Daphnia magna, are highly affected by cyanobacteria, both as they may use it as a food source but also by cyanobacterial metabolites present in the water. Here, we investigate the impacts of cyanobacterial metabolites focussing on the environmental realistic scenario ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:37-47]

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Research progress on the protection and detoxification of phytochemicals against aflatoxin B1-Induced liver toxicity.

Tingting Fan, Yanli Xie, Weibin Ma,

Aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> (AFB<sub>1</sub>) is a potent hepatotoxic toxin, which can cause hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver immunological damage. It has been involved in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. AFB<sub>1</sub> can cause oxidative stress in the body's metabolism process, and then cause cytotoxicity, such as apoptosis and DNA damage. Scientific research ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:58-68]

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Ricin poisoning: A review on contamination source, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and reporting of ricin poisoning.

Melissa Abbes, Marc Montana, Christophe Curti, Patrice Vanelle,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Ricin, a toxic glycoprotein derived from the castor bean plant, is one of the most potent poisons known in the world. Ricin intoxication is a fatal and uncommon medical condition and recently its use as a potential bioterrorism agent has also been reported. This study aims to identify the main ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:86-92]

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Two case reports of local envenoming by the Spotted grass snake, Psammophylax rhombeatus (Linnæus, 1758) (Serpentes, Psammophiidae).

Ivan Ineich, Francis Girard, Tyrone Ping, Jordy Reynes, Scott A Weinstein,

Two cases of bites by a South African psammophiid snake, Psammophylax rhombeatus, are described and analyzed. These are the first detailed reports of local envenoming by a Psammophylax spp. While handling a wild-collected 1 m P. rhombeatus, the snake inflicted a protracted bite proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint of digit #5, ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:24-28]

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Lipopolysaccharide influences the plasma and brain pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously-administered HsTX1[R14A], a KV1.3-blocking peptide.

Sanjeevini Babu Reddiar, Liang Jin, Dorothy C C Wai, Agota Csoti, Gyorgy Panyi, Raymond S Norton, Joseph A Nicolazzo,

K<sub>V</sub>1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel that is upregulated in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. HsTX1[R14A] is a potent and selective peptide blocker of K<sub>V</sub>1.3 with the potential to block microglial K<sub>V</sub>1.3, but its brain uptake is expected to be limited owing to the restrictive nature ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:29-36]

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In vivo treatment with a subacute low dose of 3-nitropropionic acid does not induce genotoxicity or mutagenicity in rats.

Flavia Tasmin Techera Antunes, Emanuelle Sistherenn Caminski, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada, Andrea Pereira Regner, Eliane Dallegrave, Alessandra Hubner de Souza,

3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a toxin that causes neural damage in the striatum and can lead to the development of Huntington's disease manifestations in animal models. Several studies have shown genotoxicity related to the 3-NP treatment. This study investigated potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity that was induced by a low dose ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:20-23]

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The sensitivity of multiple ecotoxicological assays for evaluating Microcystis aeruginosa cellular algal organic matter and contribution of cyanotoxins to the toxicity.

Kamila Šrédlová, Simona Šilhavecká, Lucie Linhartová, Jaroslav Semerád, Klára Michalíková, Martin Pivokonský, Tomáš Cajthaml,

Secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria and algae released during algal blooms often exhibit toxic effects, but only a small number of the metabolites are the subject of routine analytical screenings. Alternatively, ecotoxicological assays offer a better representation of the overall negative effects. The aim of this work was to compare multiple ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:69-77]

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In silico analyses of toxicity of the major constituents of essential oils from two Ipomoea L. species.

Oseias Souza da Silva Júnior, Celeste de Jesus Pereira Franco, Angelo Antonio Barbosa de Moraes, Jorddy Neves Cruz, Kauê Santana da Costa, Lidiane Diniz do Nascimento, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar Andrade,

Convolvulaceae Juss. is a family of vines and shrubs composed of species of ecological and economic importance. Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult. and I. setifera Poir. are ruderal and evergreen weeds that invade pastures and cause intoxication in cattle during the dry season. In the present study, the essential ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:111-118]

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Isolation and characterization of a Pseudomonas poae JSU-Y1 with patulin degradation ability and biocontrol potential against Penicillium expansum.

Yun Ren, Man Yao, Peipei Chang, Yemei Sun, Rui Li, Di Meng, Xiaoshuang Xia, Yun Wang,

Patulin, one of the most common mycotoxins produced primarily by the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys species, is often associated with fruits and fruit-based products. Biodegradation by microbes is an effective method to remove or detoxify mycotoxins. In this study, a bacterial strain with patulin degradation capability was selectively isolated using ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:1-6]

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Lesser weever fish (Echiichthys vipera Cuvier, 1829) venom is cardiotoxic but not haemorrhagic.

Lucy M Gorman, Sarah J Judge, John B Harris, Gary S Caldwell,

Despite comprising over half of the biodiversity of living venomous vertebrates, fish venoms are comparatively understudied. Venom from the lesser weever fish (Echiichthys vipera syn. Trachinus vipera) has received only cursory attention despite containing one of the most potent venom toxins (trachinine). Literature records are further complicated by early studies ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 194:63-69]

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Biodegradation of aflatoxin by bacterial species isolated from poultry farms.

Sabah Ali, Mariam Hassan, Tamer Essam, Marwa A Ibrahim, Khaled Al-Amry,

Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced by certain Aspergillus spp and naturally contaminate poultry rations. Exposure to low levels of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in poultry feeds is the second most threatening issue facing the poultry industry in Egypt; it can cause a reduction in growth, egg production, and compromised immune functions, ... Read more >>

Toxicon (Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology)
[2021, 195:7-16]

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