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Association Between Converting Asystole From Initial Shockable ECG Rhythm Before Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Outcome.

Keisuke Maeda, Akihiko Inoue, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Fumiya Inoue, Masafumi Suga, Shinichi Ijuin, Soichiro Kai, Tokito Koga, Nobuaki Igarashi, Shigenari Matsuyama, Tetsunori Kawase, Satoshi Ishihara, Hiroshi Naitou, Shinichi Nakayama,

<h4>Background</h4>Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythm is a predictor of outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in patients receiving extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). However, ECG rhythm often changes before ECPR, and the consequence of this change remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the conversion of ECG rhythm from ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):701-708]

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FUNDC1 Regulates Autophagy by Inhibiting ROS-NLRP3 Signaling to Avoid Apoptosis in the Lung in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model.

Pan Pan, Jie Chen, Xudong Liu, Junping Fan, Dong Zhang, Weiguo Zhao, Lixin Xie, Longxiang Su,

<h4>Abstract</h4>The incidence and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high, but the relevant mechanism for this disorder remains unclear. Autophagy plays an important role in the development of ARDS. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein FUNDC1 is involved in hypoxia-mediated mitochondrial autophagy, which may contribute to ARDS development. This ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):773-781]

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Brain and Myocardial Mitochondria Follow Different Patterns of Dysfunction After Cardiac Arrest.

Matthias Kohlhauer, Mathieu Panel, Marine Vermot des Roches, Estelle Faucher, Yara Abi Zeid Daou, Emilie Boissady, Fanny Lidouren, Bijan Ghaleh, Didier Morin, Renaud Tissier,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Mitochondria is often considered as the common nexus of cardiac and cerebral dysfunction after cardiac arrest. Here, our goal was to determine whether the time course of cardiac and cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is similar after shockable versus non-shockable cardiac arrest in rabbits. Anesthetized rabbits were submitted to 10 min of no-flow ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):857-864]

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Adipocyte Browning in Response to Trauma: Some Important Methodological Considerations.

Craig Porter,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):870-871]

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Could Soluble Endothelial Protein C Receptor Levels Recognize SARS-CoV2-Positive Patients Requiring Hospitalization?

Alice G Vassiliou, Chrysi Keskinidou, Edison Jahaj, Parisis Gallos, Alexandros Zacharis, Nikolaos Athanasiou, Stamatios Tsipilis, Zafeiria Mastora, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos E Orfanos,

<h4>Introduction</h4>The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a protein that regulates the protein C anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in COVID-19 has not been explored. In this ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):733-736]

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Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and 2 Signaling Pathways Involved in Sepsis.

Mariane C G Leite-Avalca, Aleksander Zampronio, Christian Lehmann,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction, caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection and can progress to septic shock, which represents a major challenge in critical care with a high mortality rate. Currently, there is no definitive treatment available for the dysregulated immune response in sepsis. ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):673-681]

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Therapeutic Methods for Gut Microbiota Modification in Lipopolysaccharide-Associated Encephalopathy.

Suyan Li, Hui Guo, Xin Xu, Ranliang Hua, Qian Zhao, Jian Li, Jian Lv, Jianguo Li,

<h4>Objective</h4>To compare the efficacy of four therapeutic methods to modify gut microbiota dysbiosis and brain dysfunction in septic rats.<h4>Methods</h4>Rats were treated with fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics after exposure to lipopolysaccharide. The diversity and composition of gut microbiota, electroencephalogram values, and the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):824-831]

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Assessment of Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide in Suppressing Deterioration in Patients With COVID-19.

Mohammed A M Ali Qaba, Mhmood Khleel Saleem, Nahla Kh Ali Qaba, Muataz A Alani, Muna Muneer Ahmed, Salih M Sabry,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):868-869]

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Activation of the XBP1s/O-GlcNAcylation Pathway Improves Functional Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation in Young and Aged Mice.

Ran Li, Yuntian Shen, Xuan Li, Liping Lu, Zhuoran Wang, Huaxin Sheng, Ulrike Hoffmann, Wei Yang,

<h4>Abstract</h4>After cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in various organs including the brain. However, the role of the UPR in CA outcome remains largely unknown. One UPR branch involves spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1s). Notably, XBP1s, a transcriptional factor, can upregulate expression of specific enzymes ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):755-761]

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Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation Causes Glycocalyx Shedding and Endothelial Oxidative Stress Preferentially in the Lung and Intestinal Vasculature.

Sarah Abdullah, Mardeen Karim, Mark Legendre, Laura Rodriguez, Jessica Friedman, Aaron Cotton-Betteridge, Robert Drury, Jacob Packer, Chrissy Guidry, Juan Duchesne, Sharven Taghavi, Olan Jackson-Weaver,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Hemorrhagic shock has recently been shown to cause shedding of a carbohydrate surface layer of endothelial cells known as the glycocalyx. This shedding of the glycocalyx is thought to be a mediator of the coagulopathy seen in trauma patients. Clinical studies have demonstrated increases in shed glycocalyx in the blood ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):803-812]

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Reply Letter to The Editor Regarding: Cytokine Drizzle-The Rationale for Abandoning The Term Cytokine Storm.

Allan E Stolarski, Jiyoun Kim, Qiuyang Zhang, Daniel G Remick,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):873-874]

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Urine Output Calculated Using Actual Body Weight May Result in Overestimation of Acute Kidney Injury for Obese Patients.

Jun Jiang, Jing Zhang, Ye Liu, Dongxue Xu, Zhiyong Peng,

<h4>Goal</h4>The derived hourly urine output (UO) indexed by body weight is one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, it is unclear whether actual body weight (ABW) or ideal body weight (IBW) should be used. This study aims to explore whether UO calculation based ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):737-743]

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Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) and the Immunoinflammatory Response to Injury (Mini Review).

Shannon R Sayyadioskoie, Martin G Schwacha,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of immature myeloid cells hallmarked by their potent immunosuppressive function in a vast array of pathologic conditions. MDSCs have recently been shown to exhibit marked expansion in acute inflammatory states including traumatic injury, burn, and sepsis. Although MDSCs have been well characterized ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):658-666]

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The Influence of Alcohol on the Base Excess Parameter in Trauma Patients.

Maximilian Leiblein, Ramona Sturm, Niklas Franz, Nils Mühlenfeld, Borna Relja, Rolf Lefering, Ingo Marzi, Nils Wagner,

<h4>Background</h4>The base excess (BE) parameter can be used as an indicator of mortality. However, study results on the influence of alcohol on the validity of BE as a prognostic parameter in alcohol-intoxicated patients are controversial. Thus, this study examined the hypothesis: An increasing blood alcohol level reduces the prognostic value ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):727-732]

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Thrombin Generation Following Severe Trauma: Mechanisms, Modulators, and Implications for Hemostasis and Thrombosis.

Jessica C Cardenas,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Thrombin is the central coagulation enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to form insoluble fibrin blood clots. In vivo, thrombin production results from the concerted effort of plasma enzymatic reactions with essential contributions from circulating and vessel wall cells. The relative amount of thrombin produced directly dictates the structure ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):682-690]

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Adipocytokine Profile Reveals Resistin Forming a Prognostic-Related Cytokine Network in the Acute Phase of Sepsis.

Takeshi Ebihara, Hisatake Matsumoto, Tsunehiro Matsubara, Hiroshi Matsuura, Tomoya Hirose, Kentaro Shimizu, Hiroshi Ogura, Sujin Kang, Toshio Tanaka, Takeshi Shimazu,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Cytokines compose a network and play crucial roles in the pathogenesis and prognosis of sepsis. Adipose tissue is an important immune endocrine organ that releases adipocytokines. This study aimed to evaluate adipocytokines in sepsis from a network perspective.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>This retrospective study of 37 patients with sepsis and 12 healthy ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):718-726]

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Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Covid-19.

Cihan Bedel, Mustafa Korkut,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):874]

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Tender Coconut Water Protects Mice From Ischemia-Reperfusion-Mediated Liver Injury and Secondary Lung Injury.

Jaganathan Lakshmanan, Baochun Zhang, Kalen Wright, Amierreza T Motameni, James L Herbst, Brian G Harbrecht,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Organ injury by oxidative and inflammatory mediators occurs during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the liver. Remote organ injury secondary to liver I/R increases the systemic insult. Tender coconut water (TCW) has been studied in chemical and fructose-induced liver injury but its ability to decrease tissue injury in clinically relevant injury models ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):762-772]

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The Impact of Obesity on Critical Illnesses.

Itay Ayalon, Lauren Bodilly, Jennifer Kaplan,

<h4>Abstract</h4>In the last few decades, obesity became one of the world's greatest health challenges reaching a size of global epidemic in virtually all socioeconomic statuses and all age groups. Obesity is a risk factor for many health problems and as its prevalence gradually increases is becoming a significant economic and ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):691-700]

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Abrupt Discontinuation Versus Down-Titration of Vasopressin in Patients Recovering from Septic Shock.

Diamanto Aretha, Panagiotis Kiekkas, Petros N Karamanakos, Eleftheria S Panteli,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):869-870]

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The Therapeutic Value of Hydralazine in Reducing Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress, and Mortality in Animal Sepsis: Involvement of the PI3K/AKT Pathway.

Danillo Menezes Dos Santos, Eric Aian Pereira Da Silva, Jeferson Yuri Santos Oliveira, Yandra Yssa de Menezes Marinho, Izabel Rodrigues de Santana, Luana Heimfarth, Erik Willyame Menezes Pereira, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Jamil Assreuy, Igor Alexandre Cortes Menezes, Márcio Roberto Viana Dos Santos,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Sepsis is an amplified systemic immune-inflammatory response produced by a microorganism, which involves activation of inflammatory cytokine signaling pathways and oxidative stress. A variety of studies have shown that hydralazine (HDZ) has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. Therefore, we hypothesize that HDZ can improve the clinical outcome of sepsis. Thus, ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):782-792]

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Noninvasive Beat-To-Beat Stroke Volume Measurements to Determine Preload Responsiveness During Mini-Fluid Challenge in a Swine Model: A Preliminary Study.

Ryoung Eun Ko, Geuk Young Jang, Chi Ryang Chung, Jin Young Lee, Tong In Oh, Gee Young Suh, Yongmin Kim, Eung Je Woo,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Cardiac output (CO) is an important parameter in fluid management decisions for treating hemodynamically unstable patients in intensive care unit. The gold standard for CO measurements is the thermodilution method, which is an invasive procedure with intermittent results. Recently, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has emerged as a new method for ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):850-856]

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H2S as a Therapeutic Adjuvant Against COVID-19: Why and How?

Thomas Datzmann, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Csaba Szabo, Peter Radermacher,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):865-867]

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Cytokine Drizzle-The Rationale for Abandoning "Cytokine Storm".

Allan E Stolarski, Jiyoun Kim, Qiuyang Zhang, Daniel G Remick,

<h4>Background</h4>"Cytokine storm" has been used to implicate increased cytokine levels in the pathogenesis of serious clinical conditions. Similarities with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronoavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) and the 2012 Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome led early investigators to suspect a "cytokine storm" resulting in an unregulated inflammatory response associated with the ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):667-672]

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Author's Response: Abrupt Discontinuation Versus Down-Titration of Vasopressin in Patients Recovering from Septic Shock.

Simon W Lam, Gretchen L Sacha, Seth R Bauer,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 56(5):870]

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