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Platelet-Monocyte Aggregates: Understanding Mechanisms and Functions in Sepsis.

Guang Fu, Meihong Deng, Matthew D Neal, Timothy R Billiar, Melanie J Scott,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Platelets have been shown to play an important immunomodulatory role in the pathogenesis of various diseases through their interactions with other immune and nonimmune cells. Sepsis is a major cause of death in the United States, and many of the mechanisms driving sepsis pathology are still unresolved. Monocytes have recently ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):156-166]

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Cell-Cell Interaction Mechanisms in Acute Lung Injury.

Huiting Zhou, Erica K Fan, Jie Fan,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are caused by an exaggerated inflammatory response arising from a wide variety of pulmonary and systemic insults. Lung tissue is composed of a variety of cell populations, including parenchymal and immune cells. Emerging evidence has revealed that multiple cell populations ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):167-176]

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Early Hemoglobin Status as a Predictor of Long-Term Mortality for Sepsis Patients in Intensive Care Units.

Desheng Qi, Milin Peng,

<h4>Objectives</h4>It is still not clear what influences hemoglobin has on the outcomes of patients with sepsis. The intention of this research is to investigate the impact of early hemoglobin levels on clinical outcomes for sepsis.<h4>Methods</h4>In this single-center, cohort study, each patient was put into one of four groups dependent on ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):215-223]

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Overexpressed lncRNA AC068039.4 Contributes to Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progression of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Via Sponging miR-26a-5p/TRPC6 in Hypoxic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Yuhan Qin, Boqian Zhu, Linqing Li, Dong Wang, Yong Qiao, Bo Liu, Erfei Luo, Jiantong Hou, Gaoliang Yan, Chengchun Tang,

<h4>Background</h4>Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a devastating and incurable disease characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling, resulting in right heart failure and even death. Accumulated evidence has confirmed long coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in HPH. The exact mechanism of lncRNA in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension remains ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):244-255]

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Luteolin Suppresses Sepsis-Induced Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein Production and Lung Injury in Neonatal Mice.

Yuanyuan Zhang, Jia Zhang, Yifan Ren, Teng Li, Jianbin Bi, Zhaoqing Du, Rongqian Wu,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening inflammatory condition. Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), a proinflammatory mediator, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced lung injury in neonates. Luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of luteolin on CIRP production and neonatal sepsis-induced lung injury remained ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):268-273]

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Regulatory Roles of Human Surfactant Protein B Variants on Genetic Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia-Induced Sepsis: Erratum.

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):284]

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Remote Ischemic Conditioning Reduced Acute Lung Injury After Traumatic Brain Injury in the Mouse.

Maha Saber, Amanda D Rice, Immaculate Christie, Rebecca G Roberts, Kenneth S Knox, Peter Nakaji, Rachel K Rowe, Ting Wang, Jonathan Lifshitz,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce acute lung injury (ALI). The exact pathomechanism of TBI-induced ALI is poorly understood, limiting treatment options. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) can mitigate detrimental outcomes following transplants, cardiac arrests, and neurological injuries. In this study, we hypothesized that RIC would reduce TBI-induced ALI by regulating ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):256-267]

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The Septic Neutrophil-Friend or Foe.

Yibing Wei, Jiyoun Kim, Harri Ernits, Daniel Remick,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Neutrophils play a critical role in the eradication of pathogenic organisms, particularly bacteria. However, in the septic patient the prolonged activation and accumulation of neutrophils may augment tissue and organ injury. This review discusses the different activation states and chemotaxis of neutrophils in septic patients. Neutrophil killing of bacteria and ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):147-155]

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Paracoxib Alleviates Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury Through Functional Modulation of Lung-Recruited CD11bloLy6Chi Monocytes.

Chaofeng Zhang, Shanshan Hu, Graeme R Zosky, Xin Wei, Shuhua Shu, Di Wang, Xiaoqing Chai,

<h4>Objective</h4>Lung-recruited Ly6Chi monocytes had been shown to be involved in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Our present study aimed to investigate whether the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition modulates the function of lung-recruited Ly6Chi monocytes in a mouse model of VILI.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng) intraperitoneally prior to injurious mechanical ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):236-243]

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What's New in Shock, February 2021?

Linda E Sousse, Teresa A Zimmers,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):143-146]

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A Noninvasive Stroke Volume Monitoring for Early Detection of Minimal Blood Loss: A Pilot Study.

Danny Epstein, Ariel Guinzburg, Saar Sharon, Shai Kiso, Yuval Glick, Erez Marcusohn, Yehuda Daniel Glass, Asaf Miller, Sa'ar Minha, Ariel Furer,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Alternation in traditional vital signs can only be observed during advanced stages of hypovolemia and shortly before the hemodynamic collapse. However, even minimal blood loss induces a decrease in the cardiac preload which translates to a decrease in stroke volume, but these indices are not readily monitored. We aimed to ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):230-235]

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Macrophage Efferocytosis in Cardiac Pathophysiology and Repair.

Yutian Li, Qianqian Li, Guo-Chang Fan,

<h4>Abstract</h4>As an integral component of cardiac tissue, macrophages are critical for cardiac development, adult heart homeostasis, as well as cardiac healing. One fundamental function of macrophages involves the clearance of dying cells or debris, a process termed efferocytosis. Current literature primarily pays attention to the impact of efferocytosis on apoptotic ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):177-188]

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Retraction of Articles Published in Shock With Joachim Boldt as Principle Author.

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):283]

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Abrupt Discontinuation Versus Down-Titration of Vasopressin in Patients Recovering from Septic Shock.

Simon W Lam, Gretchen L Sacha, Abhijit Duggal, Anita J Reddy, Seth R Bauer,

<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare patient outcomes based on management of arginine vasopressin (AVP) during the recovery phase of septic shock (abrupt vs. tapering discontinuation).<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients receiving AVP with concomitant norepinephrine for septic shock. Primary outcome measure was time to intensive care unit (ICU) discharge (from decision ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):210-214]

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Aluminum Adjuvant Improves Survival Via NLRP3 Inflammasome and Myeloid Non-Granulocytic Cells in a Murine Model of Neonatal Sepsis.

Jaimar C Rincon, Russell B Hawkins, Mckenzie Hollen, Dina C Nacionales, Ricardo Ungaro, Philip A Efron, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Neonatal sepsis leads to significant morbidity and mortality with the highest risk of death occurring in preterm (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The neonatal immune system is developmentally immature with well-described defects in innate and adaptive immune responses. Immune adjuvants used to enhance the vaccine response have ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):274-282]

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Association Between Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation and Hospital Mortality in Post Cardiac Arrest Patients: A Retrospective Study.

Fahad Gul, Eric Peterson, Robert Dejoy, Jeri Albano, Siddique Chaudhary, Paul Valestra, Zurab Azmaiparashvili, Kevin Bryan Lo, Janani Rangaswami, Gabriel Patarroyo-Aponte,

<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the role for intravenous fluid (IVF) resuscitation in the postarrest state. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge and 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were associations with amount of vasopressor use and mechanical ventilation days.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective study design.<h4>Setting</h4>Single-center tertiary hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.<h4>Patients</h4>All patients admitted to the intensive care unit ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):224-229]

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Good Platelets Gone Bad: The Effects of Trauma Patient Plasma on Healthy Platelet Aggregation.

Alexander T Fields, Zachary A Matthay, Brenda Nunez-Garcia, Ellicott C Matthay, Roland J Bainton, Rachael A Callcut, Lucy Z Kornblith,

<h4>Background</h4>Altered postinjury platelet behavior is recognized in the pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), but the mechanisms remain largely undefined. Studies suggest that soluble factors released by injury may inhibit signaling pathways and induce structural changes in circulating platelets. Given this, we sought to examine the impact of treating healthy platelets ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):189-197]

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Early Screening of Risk for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in the Emergency Department in Patients With Pneumonia and Early Septic Shock: Single-Center, Retrospective Cohort Study.

Giou-Teng Yiang, I-Shiang Tzeng, Hao-Ai Shui, Meng-Yu Wu, Ming-Yieh Peng, Chih-Yu Chan, Edward D Chan, Yao-Kuang Wu, Chou-Chin Lan, Mei-Chen Yang, Kuo-Liang Huang, Chih-Wei Wu, Chia-Hui Chang, Wen-Lin Su,

<h4>Objectives</h4>Pneumonia is the fourth leading cause of death globally, with rapid progression during sepsis. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are becoming more common with some healthcare-associated pneumonia events. Early detection of MDRO risk improves the outcomes; however, MDROs risk in pneumonia with sepsis is unknown. This study investigated the disease outcomes of ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(2):198-209]

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Rhabdomyolysis is Associated with In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19.

Yan Geng, Qiang Ma, Yong-Sheng Du, Na Peng, Ting Yang, Shi-Yu Zhang, Feng-Fu Wu, Hua-Liang Lin, Lei Su,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Rhabdomyolysis (RM) has been associated with many viral infectious diseases, and associated with poor outcomes. We aim to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis (RM) in patients with COVID-19.<h4>Method</h4>This was a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan Hospital in ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, :]

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Severe COVID-19: Immunosuppression or Hyperinflammation?

Ye Liu, Yiming Li, Dongxue Xu, Jing Zhang, Zhiyong Peng,

<h4>Abstract</h4>The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has swept over the world and causes thousands of deaths. Although the clinical features of COVID-19 become much clearer than before, there are still further problems with the pathophysiological process and treatments of severe patients. One primary problem is with the paradoxical immune ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, :]

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A Randomized Porcine Study in Low Cardiac Output of Vasoactive and Inotropic Drug Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Jenny Seilitz, Isabelle Grafver, Lars Kiszakiewicz, Ioannis Oikonomakis, Kjell Jansson, Birger Axelsson, Kristofer F Nilsson,

<h4>Background</h4>Splanchnic vasodilation by inodilators is an argument for their use in critical cardiac dysfunction. To isolate peripheral vasoactivity from inotropy, such drugs were investigated, and contrasted to vasopressors, in a fixed low cardiac output (CO) model resembling acute cardiac dysfunction effects on the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that inodilators would ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, :]

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H2S As A Therapeutic Adjuvant Against COVID-19: Why and How?

Thomas Datzmann, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Csaba Szabo, Peter Radermacher,

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, :]

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Sex- and Gender-Dependent Differences in Clinical and Preclinical Sepsis.

MengQi Zhang, Kimberly F Macala, Alison Fox-Robichaud, Asher A Mendelson, Manoj M Lalu, ,

<h4>Abstract</h4>In this mini-review we provide an overview of sex- and gender-dependent issues in both clinical and preclinical sepsis. The increasing recognition for the need to account for sex and gender in biomedical research brings a unique set of challenges and requires researchers to adopt best practices in conducting and communicating ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, Publish Ahead of Print:]

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Is Tranexamic Acid Associated With Mortality or Multiple Organ Failure Following Severe Injury?

Justin E Richards, Benjamin T Fedeles, Jonathan H Chow, Jonathan J Morrison, Corinne Renner, Anthony T Trinh, Caroline S Schlee, Ken Koerner, Thomas E Grissom, Richard D Betzold, Thomas M Scalea, Rosemary A Kozar,

<h4>Background</h4>Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is recommended in severely injured trauma patients. We examined TXA administration, admission fibrinolysis phenotypes, and clinical outcomes following traumatic injury and hypothesized that TXA was associated with increased multiple organ failure (MOF).<h4>Methods</h4>Two-year, single-center, retrospective investigation. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, Injury Severity Score (ISS) >16, admitted ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(1):55-60]

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The Effect of Xinmailong Infusion on Sepsis-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction: a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

Jianzhuo He, Xujie Zhao, Xinfeng Lin, Zhixu Yang, Mingyuan Ma, Li Ma, Qun Liang, Lan Li, Yong Ye, Zehuai Wen, Zhanlin Zhang, Minzhou Zhang, Liheng Guo,

<h4>Abstract</h4>Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) contributes significantly to cardiovascular dysfunction during septic shock. We aimed to evaluate the potential role of Xinmailong injection (XMLI), a polypeptide medicine extracted from Periplaneta americana, in reversing the progression of myocardial damage to SIMD in sepsis patients. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. ... Read more >>

Shock (Shock (Augusta, Ga.))
[2021, 55(1):33-40]

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