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A bird's-eye view of brain activity in socially interacting mice through mobile edge computing (MEC).

Jisoo Kim, Chaewoo Kim, Hio-Been Han, Cheol Jun Cho, Wooseob Yeom, Sung Q Lee, Jee Hyun Choi,

Social cognition requires neural processing, yet a unifying method linking particular brain activities and social behaviors is lacking. Here, we embedded mobile edge computing (MEC) and light emitting diodes (LEDs) on a neurotelemetry headstage, such that a particular neural event of interest is processed by the MEC and subsequently an ... Read more >>

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Potassium isotopic heterogeneity in subducting oceanic plates.

Yan Hu, Fang-Zhen Teng, Terry Plank, Catherine Chauvel,

Oceanic crust and sediments are the primary K sinks for seawater, and they deliver considerable amounts of K to the mantle via subduction. Historically, these crustal components were not studied for K isotopes because of the lack of analytical precision to differentiate terrestrial variations. Here, we report a high-precision dataset ... Read more >>

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Rapid evolution of coordinated and collective movement in response to artificial selection.

Alexander Kotrschal, Alexander Szorkovszky, James Herbert-Read, Natasha I Bloch, Maksym Romenskyy, Séverine Denise Buechel, Ada Fontrodona Eslava, Laura Sánchez Alòs, Hongli Zeng, Audrey Le Foll, Ganaël Braux, Kristiaan Pelckmans, Judith E Mank, David Sumpter, Niclas Kolm,

Collective motion occurs when individuals use social interaction rules to respond to the movements and positions of their neighbors. How readily these social decisions are shaped by selection remains unknown. Through artificial selection on fish (guppies, <i>Poecilia reticulata</i>) for increased group polarization, we demonstrate rapid evolution in how individuals use ... Read more >>

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BRAF inhibition protects against hearing loss in mice.

Matthew A Ingersoll, Emma A Malloy, Lauryn E Caster, Eva M Holland, Zhenhang Xu, Marisa Zallocchi, Duane Currier, Huizhan Liu, David Z Z He, Jaeki Min, Taosheng Chen, Jian Zuo, Tal Teitz,

Hearing loss caused by noise, aging, antibiotics, and chemotherapy affects 10% of the world population, yet there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs to prevent it. Here, we screened 162 small-molecule kinase-specific inhibitors for reduction of cisplatin toxicity in an inner ear cell line and identified dabrafenib (TAFINLAR), ... Read more >>

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Pattern blending enriches the diversity of animal colorations.

Seita Miyazawa,

Animals exhibit a fascinating variety of skin patterns, but mechanisms underlying this diversity remain largely unknown, particularly for complex and camouflaged colorations. A mathematical model predicts that intricate color patterns can be formed by "pattern blending" between simple motifs via hybridization. Here, I analyzed the skin patterns of 18,114 fish ... Read more >>

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Groundwater production from geothermal heating on early Mars and implication for early martian habitability.

Lujendra Ojha, Jacob Buffo, Suniti Karunatillake, Matthew Siegler,

In explaining extensive evidence for past liquid water, the debate on whether Mars was primarily warm and wet or cold and arid 4 billion years (Ga) ago has continued for decades. The Sun's luminosity was ~30% lower 4 Ga ago; thus, most martian climate models struggle to elevate the mean ... Read more >>

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Regulatory encoding of quantitative variation in spatial activity of a Drosophila enhancer.

Yann Le Poul, Yaqun Xin, Liucong Ling, Bettina Mühling, Rita Jaenichen, David Hörl, David Bunk, Hartmann Harz, Heinrich Leonhardt, Yingfei Wang, Elena Osipova, Mariam Museridze, Deepak Dharmadhikari, Eamonn Murphy, Remo Rohs, Stephan Preibisch, Benjamin Prud'homme, Nicolas Gompel,

Developmental enhancers control the expression of genes prefiguring morphological patterns. The activity of an enhancer varies among cells of a tissue, but collectively, expression levels in individual cells constitute a spatial pattern of gene expression. How the spatial and quantitative regulatory information is encoded in an enhancer sequence is elusive. ... Read more >>

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Spontaneous chemical functionalization via coordination of Au single atoms on monolayer MoS2.

He Liu, Daniel Grasseschi, Akhil Dodda, Kazunori Fujisawa, David Olson, Ethan Kahn, Fu Zhang, Tianyi Zhang, Yu Lei, Ricardo Braga Nogueira Branco, Ana Laura Elías, Rodolfo Cruz Silva, Yin-Ting Yeh, Camila M Maroneze, Leandro Seixas, Patrick Hopkins, Saptarshi Das, Christiano J S de Matos, Mauricio Terrones,

Surface functionalization of metallic and semiconducting 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have mostly relied on physi- and chemi-sorption at defect sites, which can diminish the potential applications of the decorated 2D materials, as structural defects can have substantial drawbacks on the electronic and optoelectronic characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a spontaneous ... Read more >>

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Enoxacin induces oxidative metabolism and mitigates obesity by regulating adipose tissue miRNA expression.

Andréa Livia Rocha, Tanes Imamura de Lima, Gerson Profeta de Souza, Renan Oliveira Corrêa, Danilo Lopes Ferrucci, Bruno Rodrigues, Camila Lopes-Ramos, Daniel Nilsson, Thiago Leite Knittel, Pollyana Ribeiro Castro, Mariane Font Fernandes, Flaviano Dos Santos Martins, Raphael Bessa Parmigiani, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Hernandes F Carvalho, Johan Auwerx, Marco Aurélio R Vinolo, Jeremie Boucher, Marcelo A Mori,

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in oxidative metabolism and brown/beige adipocyte identity. Here, we tested whether widespread changes in miRNA expression promoted by treatment with the small-molecule enoxacin cause browning and prevent obesity. Enoxacin mitigated diet-induced obesity in mice, and this was associated with increased energy expenditure. Consistently, subcutaneous white ... Read more >>

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Breaking medical data sharing boundaries by using synthesized radiographs.

Tianyu Han, Sven Nebelung, Christoph Haarburger, Nicolas Horst, Sebastian Reinartz, Dorit Merhof, Fabian Kiessling, Volkmar Schulz, Daniel Truhn,

Computer vision (CV) has the potential to change medicine fundamentally. Expert knowledge provided by CV can enhance diagnosis. Unfortunately, existing algorithms often remain below expectations, as databases used for training are usually too small, incomplete, and heterogeneous in quality. Moreover, data protection is a serious obstacle to the exchange of ... Read more >>

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Context-specific control over the neural dynamics of temporal attention by the human cerebellum.

Assaf Breska, Richard B Ivry,

Physiological methods have identified a number of signatures of temporal prediction, a core component of attention. While the underlying neural dynamics have been linked to activity within cortico-striatal networks, recent work has shown that the behavioral benefits of temporal prediction rely on the cerebellum. Here, we examine the involvement of ... Read more >>

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Satellite-based estimates of decline and rebound in China's CO2 emissions during COVID-19 pandemic.

Bo Zheng, Guannan Geng, Philippe Ciais, Steven J Davis, Randall V Martin, Jun Meng, Nana Wu, Frederic Chevallier, Gregoire Broquet, Folkert Boersma, Ronald van der A, Jintai Lin, Dabo Guan, Yu Lei, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang,

Changes in CO<sub>2</sub> emissions during the COVID-19 pandemic have been estimated from indicators on activities like transportation and electricity generation. Here, we instead use satellite observations together with bottom-up information to track the daily dynamics of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions during the pandemic. Unlike activity data, our observation-based analysis deploys independent measurement ... Read more >>

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Transcriptome and regulatory maps of decidua-derived stromal cells inform gene discovery in preterm birth.

Noboru J Sakabe, Ivy Aneas, Nicholas Knoblauch, Debora R Sobreira, Nicole Clark, Cristina Paz, Cynthia Horth, Ryan Ziffra, Harjot Kaur, Xiao Liu, Rebecca Anderson, Jean Morrison, Virginia C Cheung, Chad Grotegut, Timothy E Reddy, Bo Jacobsson, Mikko Hallman, Kari Teramo, Amy Murtha, John Kessler, William Grobman, Ge Zhang, Louis J Muglia, Sarosh Rana, Vincent J Lynch, Gregory E Crawford, Carole Ober, Xin He, Marcelo A Nóbrega,

While a genetic component of preterm birth (PTB) has long been recognized and recently mapped by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), the molecular determinants underlying PTB remain elusive. This stems in part from an incomplete availability of functional genomic annotations in human cell types relevant to pregnancy and PTB. We generated ... Read more >>

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The chaperonin CCT controls T cell receptor-driven 3D configuration of centrioles.

N B Martin-Cofreces, F J Chichon, E Calvo, D Torralba, E Bustos-Moran, S G Dosil, A Rojas-Gomez, E Bonzon-Kulichenko, J A Lopez, J Otón, A Sorrentino, J C Zabala, I Vernos, J Vazquez, J M Valpuesta, F Sanchez-Madrid,

T lymphocyte activation requires the formation of immune synapses (IS) with antigen-presenting cells. The dynamics of membrane receptors, signaling scaffolds, microfilaments, and microtubules at the IS determine the potency of T cell activation and subsequent immune response. Here, we show that the cytosolic chaperonin CCT (chaperonin-containing TCP1) controls the changes ... Read more >>

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Landscapes of bacterial and metabolic signatures and their interaction in major depressive disorders.

Jian Yang, Peng Zheng, Yifan Li, Jing Wu, Xunmin Tan, Jingjing Zhou, Zuoli Sun, Xu Chen, Guofu Zhang, Hanping Zhang, Yu Huang, Tingjia Chai, Jiajia Duan, Weiwei Liang, Bangmin Yin, Jianbo Lai, Tingting Huang, Yanli Du, Peifen Zhang, Jiajun Jiang, Caixi Xi, Lingling Wu, Jing Lu, Tingting Mou, Yi Xu, Seth W Perry, Ma-Li Wong, Julio Licinio, Shaohua Hu, Gang Wang, Peng Xie,

Gut microbiome disturbances have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about how the gut virome, microbiome, and fecal metabolome change, and how they interact in MDD. Here, using whole-genome shotgun metagenomic and untargeted metabolomic methods, we identified 3 bacteriophages, 47 bacterial species, and 50 fecal ... Read more >>

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Histone H3.3 beyond cancer: Germline mutations in Histone 3 Family 3A and 3B cause a previously unidentified neurodegenerative disorder in 46 patients.

Laura Bryant, Dong Li, Samuel G Cox, Dylan Marchione, Evan F Joiner, Khadija Wilson, Kevin Janssen, Pearl Lee, Michael E March, Divya Nair, Elliott Sherr, Brieana Fregeau, Klaas J Wierenga, Alexandrea Wadley, Grazia M S Mancini, Nina Powell-Hamilton, Jiddeke van de Kamp, Theresa Grebe, John Dean, Alison Ross, Heather P Crawford, Zoe Powis, Megan T Cho, Marcia C Willing, Linda Manwaring, Rachel Schot, Caroline Nava, Alexandra Afenjar, Davor Lessel, Matias Wagner, Thomas Klopstock, Juliane Winkelmann, Claudia B Catarino, Kyle Retterer, Jane L Schuette, Jeffrey W Innis, Amy Pizzino, Sabine Lüttgen, Jonas Denecke, Tim M Strom, Kristin G Monaghan, , Zuo-Fei Yuan, Holly Dubbs, Renee Bend, Jennifer A Lee, Michael J Lyons, Julia Hoefele, Roman Günthner, Heiko Reutter, Boris Keren, Kelly Radtke, Omar Sherbini, Cameron Mrokse, Katherine L Helbig, Sylvie Odent, Benjamin Cogne, Sandra Mercier, Stephane Bezieau, Thomas Besnard, Sebastien Kury, Richard Redon, Karit Reinson, Monica H Wojcik, Katrin Õunap, Pilvi Ilves, A Micheil Innes, Kristin D Kernohan, , Gregory Costain, M Stephen Meyn, David Chitayat, Elaine Zackai, Anna Lehman, Hilary Kitson, , Martin G Martin, Julian A Martinez-Agosto, , Stan F Nelson, Christina G S Palmer, Jeanette C Papp, Neil H Parker, Janet S Sinsheimer, Eric Vilain, Jijun Wan, Amanda J Yoon, Allison Zheng, Elise Brimble, Giovanni Battista Ferrero, Francesca Clementina Radio, Diana Carli, Sabina Barresi, Alfredo Brusco, Marco Tartaglia, Jennifer Muncy Thomas, Luis Umana, Marjan M Weiss, Garrett Gotway, K E Stuurman, Michelle L Thompson, Kirsty McWalter, Constance T R M Stumpel, Servi J C Stevens, Alexander P A Stegmann, Kristian Tveten, Arve Vøllo, Trine Prescott, Christina Fagerberg, Lone Walentin Laulund, Martin J Larsen, Melissa Byler, Robert Roger Lebel, Anna C Hurst, Joy Dean, Samantha A Schrier Vergano, Jennifer Norman, Saadet Mercimek-Andrews, Juanita Neira, Margot I Van Allen, Nicola Longo, Elizabeth Sellars, Raymond J Louie, Sara S Cathey, Elly Brokamp, Delphine Heron, Molly Snyder, Adeline Vanderver, Celeste Simon, Xavier de la Cruz, Natália Padilla, J Gage Crump, Wendy Chung, Benjamin Garcia, Hakon H Hakonarson, Elizabeth J Bhoj,

Although somatic mutations in Histone 3.3 (H3.3) are well-studied drivers of oncogenesis, the role of germline mutations remains unreported. We analyze 46 patients bearing de novo germline mutations in histone 3 family 3A (<i>H3F3A</i>) or <i>H3F3B</i> with progressive neurologic dysfunction and congenital anomalies without malignancies. Molecular modeling of all 37 ... Read more >>

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Macrophage activation on "phagocytic synapse" arrays: Spacing of nanoclustered ligands directs TLR1/2 signaling with an intrinsic limit.

Miao Li, Haomin Wang, Wenqian Li, Xiaoji G Xu, Yan Yu,

The activation of Toll-like receptor heterodimer 1/2 (TLR1/2) by microbial components plays a critical role in host immune responses against pathogens. TLR1/2 signaling is sensitive to the chemical structure of ligands, but its dependence on the spatial distribution of ligands on microbial surfaces remains unexplored. Here, we reveal the quantitative ... Read more >>

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Patient-centered connectivity-based prediction of tau pathology spread in Alzheimer's disease.

Nicolai Franzmeier, Anna Dewenter, Lukas Frontzkowski, Martin Dichgans, Anna Rubinski, Julia Neitzel, Ruben Smith, Olof Strandberg, Rik Ossenkoppele, Katharina Buerger, Marco Duering, Oskar Hansson, Michael Ewers,

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the Braak staging scheme suggests a stereotypical tau spreading pattern that does, however, not capture interindividual variability in tau deposition. This complicates the prediction of tau spreading, which may become critical for defining individualized tau-PET readouts in clinical trials. Since tau is assumed to spread throughout ... Read more >>

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Serotonergic projections to the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices differentially modulate waiting for future rewards.

Katsuhiko Miyazaki, Kayoko W Miyazaki, Gaston Sivori, Akihiro Yamanaka, Kenji F Tanaka, Kenji Doya,

Optogenetic activation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) enhances patience when waiting for future rewards, and this effect is maximized by both high probability and high timing uncertainty of reward. Here, we explored which serotonin projection areas contribute to these effects using optogenetic axon terminal stimulation. We ... Read more >>

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PBRM1 and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthetic pathway promote tumor killing mediated by MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic lymphocytes.

Bridget L Menasche, Eric M Davis, Shifeng Wang, Yan Ouyang, Suzhao Li, Haijia Yu, Jingshi Shen,

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytotoxic lymphocytes (CLs) such as natural killer (NK) cells can detect and destroy tumor and virus-infected cells resistant to T cell-mediated killing. Here, we performed genome-wide genetic screens to identify tumor-intrinsic genes regulating killing by MHC-unrestricted CLs. A group of genes identified in our screens encode ... Read more >>

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Resurrecting the ancient glow of the fireflies.

Y Oba, K Konishi, D Yano, H Shibata, D Kato, T Shirai,

The color of firefly bioluminescence is determined by the structure of luciferase. Firefly luciferase genes have been isolated from more than 30 species, producing light ranging in color from green to orange-yellow. Here, we reconstructed seven ancestral firefly luciferase genes, characterized the enzymatic properties of the recombinant proteins, and determined ... Read more >>

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Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds.

F Sayol, M J Steinbauer, T M Blackburn, A Antonelli, S Faurby,

Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition-the evolution of flightlessness in birds-is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant global avifauna increases the ... Read more >>

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A novel cardiomyogenic role for Isl1+ neural crest cells in the inflow tract.

Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Michael A Durante, Krystalenia Valasaki, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, J William Harbour, Joshua M Hare,

The degree to which populations of cardiac progenitors (CPCs) persist in the postnatal heart remains a controversial issue in cardiobiology. To address this question, we conducted a spatiotemporally resolved analysis of CPC deployment dynamics, tracking cells expressing the pan-CPC gene <i>Isl1</i> Most CPCs undergo programmed silencing during early cardiogenesis through ... Read more >>

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Metachronal patterns in artificial cilia for low Reynolds number fluid propulsion.

Edoardo Milana, Rongjing Zhang, Maria Rosaria Vetrano, Sam Peerlinck, Michael De Volder, Patrick R Onck, Dominiek Reynaerts, Benjamin Gorissen,

Cilia are hair-like organelles, present in arrays that collectively beat to generate flow. Given their small size and consequent low Reynolds numbers, asymmetric motions are necessary to create a net flow. Here, we developed an array of six soft robotic cilia, which are individually addressable, to both mimic nature's symmetry-breaking ... Read more >>

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Disparate compound eyes of Cambrian radiodonts reveal their developmental growth mode and diverse visual ecology.

John R Paterson, Gregory D Edgecombe, Diego C García-Bellido,

Radiodonts are nektonic stem-group euarthropods that played various trophic roles in Paleozoic marine ecosystems, but information on their vision is limited. Optical details exist only in one species from the Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of Australia, here assigned to <i>Anomalocaris</i> aff. <i>canadensis</i> We identify another type of radiodont compound eye ... Read more >>

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