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Journal Pediatr Infect Dis J

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Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Against Contemporary Pathogens From Urinary Tract Infections and Intra-abdominal Infections Collected From US Children During the 2016-2019 INFORM Surveillance Program.

Lynn-Yao Lin, Todd Riccobene, Dmitri Debabov,

<h4>Background</h4>Antibacterial activity of ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) was evaluated against bacterial isolates from children in the United States with a urinary tract infection (UTI) or intra-abdominal infection (IAI) during the 2016-2019 International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring program. Prevalence of isolates and susceptibility to CAZ-AVI in pediatric and adult patients were compared.<h4>Methods</h4>Bacterial ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, Publish Ahead of Print:]

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Tularemia in Children.

Aslinur Ozkaya-Parlakay, Meltem Polat,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Testing in Children in a Large Regional US Health System During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic.

David R Peaper, Christina Murdzek, Carlos R Oliveira, Thomas S Murray,

<h4>Background</h4>The objective was to evaluate patterns of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 testing in a large health system throughout the pandemic, before and after school reopening.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross-sectional time-series study of clinical virology results from children tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Southern Connecticut and areas of ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, Publish Ahead of Print:]

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Strikingly Decreased Community-acquired Pneumonia Admissions in Children Despite Open Schools and Day-care Facilities in Switzerland.

Malte Kohns Vasconcelos, Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Kristina Keitel, Regina Santoro, Ulrich Heininger, John van den Anker, Julia A Bielicki,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
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Impact of the Rotavirus Vaccination Program in Norway After Four Years With High Coverage.

Tone Bruun, Beatriz Valcarcel Salamanca, Terese Bekkevold, Henrik Døllner, Moustafa Gibory, Ann Marit Gilje, Elisebet Haarr, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Truls M Leegaard, Britt Nakstad, Svein Arne Nordbø, Astrid Rojahn, Ketil Størdal, Elmira Flem, ,

<h4>Background</h4>Use of rotavirus vaccines worldwide since 2006 has led to a significant impact on the burden of rotavirus disease. However, only a third of European countries have introduced rotavirus vaccination in their immunization programs. In October 2014, rotavirus vaccination was introduced for Norwegian infants under strict age restrictions. Exclusive use ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, Publish Ahead of Print:]

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Isavuconazole as Salvage Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Coccidioidal Meningitis.

Fouzia Naeem, Fred Laningham, Brenik Kuzmic, Patricia Clerkin, James McCarty,

Coccidioidal meningitis remains difficult to treat. The newer triazole, isavuconazole, has demonstrated efficacy in invasive fungal disease with less side effects than other azoles. We describe a case of refractory pediatric coccidioidal meningitis with disease stabilization and improvement on isavuconazole after failing treatment with other antifungal agents. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, :]

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Enhanced Protection Against Diarrhea Among Breastfed Infants of Nonsecretor Mothers.

Dhasni Muthumuni, Kozeta Miliku, Kaitlin H Wade, Nicholas J Timpson, Meghan B Azad,

Diarrhea is a major cause of infant mortality. Being a "nonsecretor" (having an inactive fucosylase-2 gene) protects against diarrhea by inhibiting enteric infections. Breastfeeding also protects against diarrhea; however, the impact of maternal secretor status is unknown. In the ALSPAC cohort (N = 4971), we found that breastfeeding by nonsecretor ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, :]

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Impact of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on Nasopharyngeal and Saliva Microbiome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Suvi Sarlin, Mysore V Tejesvi, Jenni Turunen, Petri Vänni, Tytti Pokka, Marjo Renko, Terhi Tapiainen,

<h4>Background</h4>Probiotic lactobacilli have been ineffective in preventing acute otitis media. In contrast to lactobacilli, alpha-hemolytic streptococci belong to the core microbiome of nasopharynx.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated the effects of Streptococcus salivarius K12 probiotic on the saliva and nasopharyngeal microbiome in 121 children attending daycare. Children were randomly allocated to receive oral K12 ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, :]

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Meningoencephalitis Due to Spotted Fever Rickettsioses, Including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):1080]

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Mortality in Perinatally HIV-infected Adolescents After Transition to Adult Care in Spain.

Arantxa Berzosa Sánchez, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, M Antoinette Frick, Ana Isabel Menasalvas Ruiz, José Antonio Couceiro, Mª José Mellado, Otilia Bisbal, Helena Albendin Iglesias, Marta Montero, Cristina Roca, Gloria Samperiz, Miguel Cervero, Celia Miralles, Clàudia Fortuny Guash, Itziar Carrasco, María Luisa Navarro, José Tomás Ramos Amador, ,

<h4>Introduction</h4>After the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment, (ART) mortality in HIV-infected patients has dramatically decreased. However, it is still high in patients at risk, as adolescents transitioning to adult care (AC) without virological control. The aim of this study was to characterize mortality and comorbidities of perinatally infected HIV (PHIV) ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, :]

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Risk Factors of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Blood Stream Infections: Comparison With Other Gram-Negative Blood Stream Infections in Children.

Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydιn, Gonul Tanir, Gulsum Iclal Bayhan, Turkan Aydin Teke, Ozge Metin Akçan, Ayse Kaman, Sevgi Yasar Durmus, Fatma Nur Oz,

<h4>Background</h4>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, is a nonfermentative, aerobic, Gram-negative bacilli which is intrinsically resistance to several antibiotics. Treatment options for this bacteria are quite different from the other Gram-negative bacilli, which can represent a therapeutic challenge. To initiate appropriate empiric treatment and to reduce mortality, differentiation of S. maltophilia from other Gram-negative ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e406-e409]

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Prospective Evaluation of Childhood Encephalitis: Predisposing Factors, Prevention and Outcome.

Åsa Fowler, Sofia Ygberg, Eva Svensson, Kristian Bergman, Gerald Cooray, Ronny Wickström,

<h4>Background</h4>Acute encephalitis in childhood is a serious condition. The severity varies between studies, partly reflecting differences in study design where only severe cases from referral centers often are reported. The aim of this study was to prospectively study the clinical picture and etiology of acute encephalitis in childhood at a ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e417-e422]

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Burden of Tuberculosis in South African Children During Treatment for Underlying Malignancies: A Single-center Experience in Johannesburg.

Gita Naidu, Alane Izu, Metsekae Richard Madimabe, Stelios Poyiadjis, Diane MacKinnon, Biance Rowe, Shabir Ahmed Madhi,

<h4>Background</h4>Children with cancer are immunocompromised with increased susceptibility to infections. We evaluated the burden of tuberculosis in children with cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Children with cancer were enrolled and screened for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection using the tuberculin skin test and enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (T-SPOT.TB; Oxford Immunotec Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom). Children with physician-suspected ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):1111-1115]

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Associations of Intussusception With Adenovirus, Rotavirus, and Other Pathogens: A Review of the Literature.

Eleanor Burnett, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate,

<h4>Background</h4>Intussusception is the leading cause of acute intestinal obstruction in infants. Intussusception is mostly idiopathic, but infectious pathogens are sometimes implicated. In addition, live oral rotavirus vaccines have been associated with intussusception.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched the literature published between January 1, 1990, and March 16, 2020, to describe the association between intussusception ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):1127-1130]

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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Surveillance and COVID-19 in Latin America.

Rolando Ulloa-Gutierrez, Gabriela Ivankovich-Escoto, Adriana Yock-Corrales, Adriana H Tremoulet,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e473-e474]

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Epidemiology of Coronavirus Infection in Children and Their Impact on Lung Health: Finding From a Birth Cohort Study.

Prawin Kumar, Aparna Mukherjee, Shivani Randev, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Kana Ram Jat, Arti Kapil, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra,

In this birth cohort, coronavirus acute respiratory infection was detected in 6.5% of the episodes; the commonest strain was OC43, followed by NL63, HKU1, and 229E. Children with coronavirus acute respiratory infection during infancy had significantly decreased forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e452-e454]

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Human Herpes Virus 6 Detection in Children With Suspected Central Nervous System Infection.

Isabella Cosme, María Alejandra Ramírez, Carlos Adrian Peñata, Claudia Beltrán-Arroyave, Ivan D Florez,

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection is considered a self-limited disease in immunocompetent children. However, HHV-6 could be associated with various neurologic diseases. We describe 8 children with suspected central nervous system infection and detection of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid. The clinical significance of HHV-6 detection is controversial because it ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e469-e471]

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Streptobacillus moniliformis With Features of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Identified by Direct Sequencing.

Phillip Heaton, Noah H Schultz, Peter H Helseth, Farah L Cassis-Ghavami, Glen Hansen, Kris Ann P Schultz, Yoav H Messinger,

Rat-bite fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis is a rare infection that may be fatal. An adolescent male presented with multiorgan failure, negative blood cultures and Gram-negative rods in blood smear. S. moniliformis was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing from the blood. He developed systemic hyperinflammatory syndrome resembling hemophagocytic ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):1131-1133]

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Fever Without an Apparent Source in Young Infants: A Multicenter Retrospective Evaluation of Adherence to the Dutch Guidelines.

Nikki N Klarenbeek, Maya Keuning, Jeroen Hol, Dasja Pajkrt, Frans B Plötz,

<h4>Background</h4>The Dutch fever without an apparent source (FWS) guidelines were published to timely recognize and treat serious infections. We determined the adherence to the Dutch FWS guidelines and the percentage of serious infections in infants younger than 3 months of age. Second, we identified which clinical criteria, diagnostic tests, and ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):1075-1080]

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Impact of Nutritional Status on the Severity of Dengue Infection Among Pediatric Patients in Southern Thailand.

Sarunya Maneerattanasak, Charuai Suwanbamrung,

<h4>Background</h4>Given the lack of specific antiviral drugs and effective vaccine for dengue infection, factors such as host nutritional status that may alter disease progression require investigation. This study examined the relationship between baseline nutritional status and severity of dengue infection in pediatric patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from dengue patients 1-14 years of age ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e410-e416]

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Hospital-based Surveillance for Pediatric Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Bangladesh, 2012-2016.

Syed M Satter, Zarin Abdullah, Cristina V Cardemil, Meerjady S Flora, Emily S Gurley, Mahmudur Rahman, Muhammad Talha, Md D Islam, Mohammad E Hossain, Neha Balachandran, Benjamin Lopman, Mustafizur Rahman, Jan Vinjé, Aron J Hall, Umesh D Parashar,

<h4>Background</h4>Globally, noroviruses are recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), but data from low and middle-income countries are limited.<h4>Aims</h4>To examine the epidemiology and strain diversity of norovirus infections among children hospitalized for AGE in Bangladesh.<h4>Methods</h4>We implemented active surveillance of children <5 years of age hospitalized with AGE at ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, :]

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COVID-19 Gastrointestinal Manifestations Are Independent Predictors of PICU Admission in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients.

David Gonzalez Jimenez, Marta Velasco Rodríguez-Belvís, Pablo Ferrer Gonzalez, Gloria Domínguez Ortega, Oscar Segarra, Enrique Medina Benitez, Diana Garcia Tirado, Ruth Garcia Romero, Raquel Vecino López, Elena Crehuá-Gaudiza, Macarena Queralt, Laura María Palomino Pérez, Juan J Diaz Martin,

Multicenter study conducted in 15 hospitals including 101 COVID-19 pediatric inpatients aiming to describe associated gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations. GI symptoms were present in 57% and were the first manifestation in 14%. Adjusted by confounding factors, those with GI symptoms had higher risk of pediatric intensive care unit admission. GI symptoms ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e459-e462]

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Murine Typhus Outbreak Presenting as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children During SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.

Zain Alamarat, Norma Pérez, Susan Wootton, Ankur Kamdar, Keely Smith, Gloria P Heresi, Michael Chang,

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a severe illness associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that possesses features overlapping with other pediatric diseases causing systemic inflammation. Significant diagnostic and treatment uncertainty remain, and clinicians should maintain a broad differential when evaluating patients for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, as antibiotic-susceptible infections ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e447-e449]

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Impact of COVID-19 Quarantine and School Cancelation on Other Common Infectious Diseases.

Joseph A McBride, Jens Eickhoff, Ellen R Wald,

Coronavirus disease 2019 lead to wide-spread quarantines and cancelations. The impact of these measures on other, noncoronavirus disease 2019, infectious diseases was analyzed within Dane County, Wisconsin. The incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and acute otitis media decreased during quarantine while gonorrhea increased. Quarantine had the expected result for infections spread ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):e449-e452]

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Resistance to Antibiotics of Uropathogen Bacteria Isolated From Urine and Blood in Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Single Center, 12-year Study.

Francesca Landi, Roberto Bandettini, Gioacchino Andrea Rotulo, Alessio Mesini, Carolina Saffioti, Loredana Amoroso, Filomena Pierri, Daniela Guardo, Elio Castagnola,

Resistant pathogens have become a major healthcare problem in children with cancer, causing different kinds of infections such as the bloodstream ones, most common, and most frequently described and the urinary tract ones, of which less data are available. We analyzed and compared the proportions, and the trends of resistance ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2020, 39(12):1106-1110]

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