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Journal Pediatr Infect Dis J

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Pneumococcal Serotype-specific Opsonophagocytic Activity in Interleukin-1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4-deficient Patients: ERRATUM.

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1033]

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Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Ceftobiprole in Pediatric Patients.

Christopher M Rubino, Mark Polak, Sebastian Schröpf, Hans Georg Münch, Anne Smits, Veerle Cossey, Tomasz Tomasik, Przemko Kwinta, Rima Snariene, Arunas Liubsys, Dace Gardovska, Chi Dang Hornik, Miroslava Bosheva, Christine Ruehle, Karine Litherland, Kamal Hamed,

<h4>Background</h4>Ceftobiprole, the active moiety of the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, is an advanced-generation, broad-spectrum, intravenous cephalosporin, which is currently approved for the treatment of adults with hospital-acquired or community-acquired pneumonia.<h4>Methods</h4>Noncompartmental pharmacokinetics and safety were analyzed from 2 recently completed pediatric studies, a single-dose, phase 1 study in neonates and infants up ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):997-1003]

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Pneumonia, Sinusitis, Influenza and Other Respiratory Illnesses in Acute Otitis Media-Prone Children.

Michael E Pichichero, Timothy J Chapman, Peter Bajorski,

<h4>Background</h4>Recurrent acute otitis media in the first years of life can be explained by immune dysfunction. Consequently, it would be expected that otitis-prone (OP) children would be more susceptible to other infectious diseases, especially respiratory infections, since a component of the immune problem involves nasopharyngeal innate immunity.<h4>Design</h4>Cohort study with prospective ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):975-980]

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Is an Antenatal Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis Necessary in the Current Society?

Marta Dorado Criado, Celia Fabra Garrido, Elena Merino San Martín, Carolina González Arboleya, Bartolomé Gómez-Arroyo, Patricia González-Donapetry, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, María de la Calle, Inmaculada Quiles-Melero, Cristina Calvo,

A screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young pregnant women (≤25 years old) and their newborns was conducted. A total of 136 women were tested with urine samples in the immediate postpartum period. The prevalence was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.9-24.9%) (25/136) and the rate of perinatal transmission was ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1034-1036]

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Age-dependency of the Propagation Rate of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Inside School Bubble Groups in Catalonia, Spain.

Sergio Alonso, Enric Alvarez-Lacalle, Martí Català, Daniel López, Iolanda Jordan, Juan José García-García, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Uxue Lazcano, Pilar Sallés, Marta Masats, Julià Urrutia, Anna Gatell, Ramon Capdevila, Pere Soler-Palacin, Quique Bassat, Clara Prats,

<h4>Background</h4>We analyzed contagions of coronavirus disease 2019 inside school bubble groups in Catalonia, Spain, in the presence of strong nonpharmaceutical interventions from September to December 2020. More than 1 million students were organized in bubble groups and monitored and analyzed by the Health and the Educational departments.<h4>Methods</h4>We had access to ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):955-961]

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Growth and Metabolic Changes After Antiretroviral Initiation in South African Children.

Michela Masi-Leone, Stephen Arpadi, Chloe Teasdale, Katharine A Yuengling, Anthony Mutiti, Mary Mogashoa, Emilia D Rivadeneira, Elaine J Abrams, Jennifer Jao,

<h4>Background</h4>Poor growth and metabolic disturbances remain concerns for children living with HIV (CLHIV). We describe the impact of viral load (VL) on growth and lipid outcomes in South African CLHIV <12 years initiating World Health Organization recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2012 to 2015.<h4>Methods</h4>Z scores for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-age ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1004-1010]

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Low Prevalence of Severe Underlying Pathology in Children With Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections.

Daphne Peeters, Pieter Verhulst, Anja Aph Vaessen-Verberne, Xandra W van den Tweel, Jeroen G Noordzij, Gertjan J A Driessen,

No underlying pathology could be detected in 64% of 208 children presenting with recurrent respiratory tract infections in general pediatric practice. Asthma/preschool wheezing and adenoid hypertrophy were commonly diagnosed. None of the children had a severe primary immunodeficiency or severe pulmonary illness such as cystic fibrosis. Our findings can guide ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e424-e426]

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Second Episode of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: Relapse, Rebound, or Recurrence?

Ravindra Shamrao Pawar, Vyankatesh Arun Tarkasband, Rupali Kapil Patil, Amar Vilas Naik,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e452]

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Acute Inguinal Bacterial Lymphadenitis in Infants Younger Than 1 Year of Age.

Reiko Yatabe, Kazuki Iio, Kazuhiro Uda, Hiroshi Hataya,

We examined 17 infants under age 1 year with inguinal bacterial lymphadenitis; 8 had a prior episode of omphalitis or an umbilical procedure, and one-third were afebrile and initially received the misdiagnosis of incarcerated hernia. Our findings suggested a possible association between inguinal bacterial lymphadenitis in infants and umbilical problems. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e450-e451]

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Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Disease-United States, 2008-2017.

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1028]

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Breath Test: Clinical Application of Breath Analysis in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Diagnosis.

Koen J van Aerde, Robin Jansen, Peter J Merkus, Michiel van der Flier,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e434-e436]

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Health-related Quality of Life After Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

Emilie Rugemalira, Mariia Karppinen, Okko Savonius, Manuel Leite Cruzeiro, Heikki Peltola, Irmeli Roine, Tuula Pelkonen,

<h4>Background</h4>Survivors of bacterial meningitis (BM) often suffer from impaired quality of life that stems from disabling sequelae. The authors aimed to estimate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the influence of neurologic and audiologic sequelae among pediatric BM survivors.<h4>Methods</h4>Survivors of 2 BM treatment trials at Luanda Children's Hospital, Angola were ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):987-992]

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Cytomegalovirus Infection Presenting as Severe Sepsis, Hepatitis, and Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in an Immunocompetent Child in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Abhijit Choudhary, Ankit Mehta,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e453-e454]

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Decline in the Incidence of Neonatal Sepsis in Rural Gadchiroli, India During the Twenty-one Years (1998-2019) Following the Home-based Neonatal Care Field-trial.

Abhay Bang, Mahesh Deshmukh, Sanjay Baitule, Jessica Duby,

<h4>Background</h4>Sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality globally. The home-based neonatal care (HBNC) field trial (1995-1998) in rural Gadchiroli demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of neonatal sepsis. The current study examines the trend of neonatal sepsis during the twenty-one years (1998-2019) following the trial's completion.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1029-1033]

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Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup Z Meningitis in a Child With Complement C8 Deficiency and Potential Cross Protection of the MenB-4C Vaccine.

Bryan van den Broek, Jordy P M Coolen, Marien I de Jonge, Ronald de Groot, Stefanie S V Henriet, Jeroen D Langereis, Michiel van der Flier,

Complement deficient patients are susceptible to rare meningococcal serogroups. A 6-year-old girl presented with serogroup Z meningitis. This led to identification of a C8 deficiency. The MenB-4C vaccine induced cross-reactive antibodies to serogroup Z and increased in vitro opsonophagocytic killing and may thus protect complement deficient patients. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1019-1022]

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Impact of Anaerobic Antibacterial Spectrum on Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiome Diversity and Pulmonary Function.

Michael J Bozzella, Hollis Chaney, Iman Sami, Anastassios Koumbourlis, James E Bost, Edith T Zemanick, Robert J Freishtat, Keith A Crandall, Andrea Hahn,

<h4>Background</h4>The role of anaerobic organisms in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome is unclear. Our objectives were to investigate the effect of broad (BS) versus narrow (NS) spectrum antianaerobic antibiotic activity on lung microbiome diversity and pulmonary function, hypothesizing that BS antibiotics would cause greater change in microbiome diversity without ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):962-968]

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Rat Bite Fever: Variability in Clinical Presentation and Management in Children.

Teena Hadvani, Jesus G Vallejo, Ankhi Dutta,

Rat bite fever is a systemic illness most commonly caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis that is classically characterized by fever, rash and migratory polyarthritis. Here, we highlight the highly variable clinical presentations of rat bite fever in children and the importance of maintaining a high degree of suspicion so appropriate treatment ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e439-e442]

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Recent Experience: Corticosteroids as a First-line Therapy in Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome and COVID-19-related Myocardial Damage.

Vladislav Vukomanovic, Stasa Krasic, Sergej Prijic, Sanja Ninic, Sasa Popovic, Gordana Petrovic, Snezana Ristic, Radoje Simic, Ivana Cerovic, Dejan Nesic,

<h4>Background</h4>Cardiovascular complications with myocarditis in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection have been reported, but the optimal therapeutic strategy remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective cohort study included 19 patients with acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction associated with MIS-C, average years of age 13.2 ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e390-e394]

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Management of Bacille Calmette-Guérin Lymphadenitis and Abscess in Immunocompetent Children: A Systematic Review.

Paola Villanueva, Laure F Pittet, Nigel Curtis,

<h4>Background</h4>There is no consensus on managing common adverse reactions to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. We systematically reviewed the management of BCG-associated regional lymphadenitis and injection site abscess in immunocompetent individuals.<h4>Methods</h4>Searches of Medline, Embase and PubMed were done until November 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that compared management ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1037-1045]

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Pneumococcal Carriage Among Indigenous Kichwa Children From the Ecuadorian Andes After the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Introduction.

Daniela Regalado L, Ismar A Rivera-Olivero, Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain, Leandro Tana, Isabel Hernandez, Jeannete Zurita, Jorge E Vidal, Enrique Terán, Jacobus H de Waard,

<h4>Background</h4>We assessed nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in Andean Kichwa children, the largest Amerindian indigenous population in the Ecuadorian Andes. All children in our study had been vaccinated with the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV10).<h4>Methods</h4>Nasopharyngeal swabs from 63 families, 100 children <10 years old including 38 children under 5 years and 63 adult ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e427-e433]

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children in the United States, March 2020 to February 2021.

Bryan Stierman, Joseph Y Abrams, Shana E Godfred-Cato, Matthew E Oster, Lu Meng, Luke Yip, Pragna Patel, Neha Balachandran, Emily Prezzato, Timmy Pierce, Katherine K Hsu, Meagan Burns, Xandy Peterson Pompa, Priscilla Lauro, Amanda Hartley, Cassandra Jones, Stephanie Gretsch, Heather Reid, Sarah Lim, Angela P Campbell, Ermias D Belay,

<h4>Background</h4>The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) varies by race and ethnicity. This study assessed whether disparities in MIS-C in the United States by race and ethnicity exceed known disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared the distribution of race and ethnicity among patients with MIS-C (<21 ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e400-e406]

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COVID-19 Can Cause Severe Intussusception in Infants: Case Report and Literature Review.

Carmine Noviello, Taisia Bollettini, Romano Mercedes, Alfonso Papparella, Stefano Nobile, Giovanni Cobellis,

COVID-19 may cause intussusception in infants. We report on a case of severe ileo-colic intussusception in an infant with COVID-19 who required an ileo-colic resection. A literature review revealed 9 other cases with COVID-19 and intussusception. In this article, we will discuss the management and treatment of the first reported ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e437-e438]

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Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictors for Candidemia in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb in Croatia: A 9-Year Retrospective Study.

Toni Matic, Milivoj Novak, Duje Braovac, Maja Vinkovic, Ana Marija Cicak, Milan Milosevic, Slobodan Galic, Miran Cvitkovic, Filip Rubic, Vanja Ille, Sanja Plesko,

<h4>Background</h4>Candidemia is one of the leading causes of bloodstream infections in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The aim of this study was to define characteristics and risk factors for candidemia in the PICU setting and propose a predictive model to identify the patients at risk.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a retrospective matched ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):981-986]

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Routine Use of Biomarkers to Rationalize Antibiotic Use During Febrile Episodes in Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation Units.

Jessica F Toro, Eliana Peña, Oscar Ramírez, Pio López, Carlos A Portilla, Eduardo López-Medina,

<h4>Background</h4>Children frequently develop fever after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Although the etiology of many febrile episodes (FEs) is not an infection, patients often receive broad-spectrum antibiotics in response.<h4>Methods</h4>To improve the judicious use of antibiotics in pediatric HSCT patients, we performed a prospective cohort study of children receiving an HSCT ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):1023-1028]

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COVID-19-associated Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis-like Disease in 2 Children.

Nihal Akçay, Gonca Bektaş, Mehmet Emin Menentoğlu, Mustafa Oğur, Ayşe İrem Sofuoğlu, Figen Bakirtaş Palabiyik, Esra Şevketoğlu,

<h4>Background</h4>The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the predominant clinical presentation is a respiratory disease, neurologic manifestations are being recognized increasingly.<h4>Case report</h4>We report 2 children 9 years of age who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. Seizures ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(11):e445-e450]

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