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Journal Pediatr Infect Dis J

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Disseminated Tuberculosis Complicated With Pneumatoceles in 2 Infants.

Sara Guillén Martín, Ignacio Callejas Caballero, Arancha Berzosa Sánchez, Marta Illán Ramos, Beatriz Soto Sánchez, José Tomás Ramos Amador,

Pneumatoceles are rare complications of pulmonary tuberculosis in children. We present 2 cases in infants of disseminated tuberculosis complicated by pneumatoceles with different evolution. This complication should be considered if worsening of respiratory symptoms occurs after initiating anti-tuberculous treatment. Treatment of pneumatoceles is usually conservative and surgical treatment should be ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e94-e97]

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Food Safety and Invasive Cronobacter Infections During Early Infancy, 1961-2018.

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):102]

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Association of Empiric Antibiotic Regimen Discordance With 30-Day Mortality in Neonatal and Pediatric Bloodstream Infection-A Global Retrospective Cohort Study.

Aislinn Cook, Yingfen Hsia, Neal Russell, Mike Sharland, Kaman Cheung, Keith Grimwood, Jack Cross, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Gloria Regina Magalhães, Hanna Renk, Avni Hindocha, Paddy McMaster, Uduak Okomo, Saffiatou Darboe, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Dasaratha R Jinka, Srinivas Murki, Hemasree Kandraju, Dhanya Dharmapalan, Susanna Esposito, Sonia Bianchini, Kahoru Fukuoka, Yuta Aizawa, Rodolfo Norberto Jimenez-Juarez, Karla Ojeda-Diezbarroso, Mateja Pirš, Mojca Rožič, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Ching-Lan Cheng, Bai-Xiu Jian, Evangelos Spyridakis, Theoklis Zaoutis, Julia Bielicki,

<h4>Background</h4>While there have been studies in adults reporting discordant empiric antibiotic treatment associated with poor outcomes, this area is relatively unexplored in children and neonates despite evidence of increasing resistance to recommended first-line treatment regimens.<h4>Methods</h4>Patient characteristics, antibiotic treatment, microbiology, and 30-day all-cause outcome from children <18 years with blood-culture-confirmed bacterial ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):137-143]

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Abdominal Imaging Findings in Critically Ill Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With COVID-19.

Kavita Morparia, Min Jung Park, Meena Kalyanaraman, Derrick McQueen, Maria Bergel, Tej Phatak,

We report findings on abdominal imaging in critically ill children admitted with MIS-C. On sonography, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, gallbladder wall edema, ascites, intestinal inflammation and mesenteric lymphadenopathy were seen, while CT showed fluid-filled small bowel loops, mural thickening of the terminal ileum, diffuse lymphadenopathy, and moderate ascites. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e82-e83]

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Non-SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Patients Evaluated for MIS-C Associated With COVID-19.

Jeffrey I Campbell, Jordan E Roberts, Melanie Dubois, Caitlin Naureckas Li, Thomas J Sandora, Gabriella S Lamb,

Clinical features of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 are nonspecific. In this retrospective cohort study of 39 patients evaluated for MIS-C, 11 had non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, 3 of whom were also diagnosed with MIS-C. Clinical features were similar in patients with MIS-C and patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e90-e93]

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Cost-utility Analysis of Rotavirus Vaccines Including the Latest Evidence and Data as of June 2020 in Japan.

Teruyoshi Kurosawa, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kenzo Takahashi,

<h4>Background</h4>In several health economic analyses of rotavirus vaccines in Japan, all were not cost-effective from the healthcare payer perspective (HPP) but generally cost-effective from the societal perspective (SP). However, few studies have incorporated clinically significant factors of vaccine herd immunity, convulsions with gastroenteritis, encephalopathies, nosocomial infections, death, and intussusception as ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):162-168]

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Liver Fibrosis Evaluated With Transient Elastography in 35 Children With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Anna Dobrzeniecka, Marta Lipińska, Anna Tomasik, Małgorzata Aniszewska, Magdalena Marczyńska,

<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this prospective study was to analyze liver fibrosis in teenagers with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) using noninvasive methods.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-five patients with CHC, 12-17 years of age (mean 14.2 ± 1.8 years; 22/35, 63% male) were included. Most of them (29/35, 83%) were infected vertically, 21/35 (60%) were treatment-naive, ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):103-108]

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Changes in the Etiology and Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Infective Endocarditis in South Korea.

Seung Ha Song, Ji Seok Bang, Mi Seon Han, Ki Wook Yun, Sang Yun Lee, Mi Kyoung Song, Gi Beom Kim, Eun Jung Bae, Woong Han Kim, Eun Hwa Choi,

<h4>Objective</h4>Changes in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) have been reported in recent years. This study was performed to analyze changing trends in the etiology of IE in children in South Korea.<h4>Study design</h4>A retrospective study of children with IE was conducted from 2 hospitals in Korea ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):123-127]

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High Frequency of Aichivirus in Children With Acute Gastroenteritis in Iran: ERRATUM.

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):153]

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Fatal SARS-CoV-2 Inflammatory Syndrome and Myocarditis in an Adolescent: A Case Report.

Jeanette T Beaudry, Barbara Dietrick, Dawn B Lammert, Alexander Constas, Julia McCaw, John Hammond, Matthew Buendia, Julie E Stein, Andrew Pekosz, Jennifer Schuette, Heba H Mostafa, Jody E Hooper, Meghan Bernier, Allison Agwu, Leonard S Feldman,

<h4>Background</h4>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an entity in children initially characterized by milder case presentations and better prognoses as compared with adults. Recent reports, however, raise concern for a new hyperinflammatory entity in a subset of pediatric COVID-19 patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We report a fatal case ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e72-e76]

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Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine-induced Osteomyelitis in Immunocompetent Children: A 10-year Case Series in Lithuania.

Valdone Miseviciene, Gintare Liakaite, Elena Suciliene, Inga Ivaskeviciene,

The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced osteomyelitis is an extremely rare systemic adverse reaction after BCG vaccination in immunocompetent children and the correct diagnosis is frequently missed. We present 4 clinical cases of BCG-induced osteomyelitis reported over a 10-year period in a high-TB incidence country Lithuania. A brief review of clinical, management ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e77-e81]

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis-like Pneumatosis Intestinalis in an Infant With COVID-19.

Steven C Mehl, Richard S Whitlock, Daniela C Marcano, Kristy L Rialon, Amy S Arrington, Bindi Naik-Mathuria,

We report an infant with COVID-19 who presented with bloody stools, lethargy and imaging findings significant for pneumatosis intestinalis. The infant was treated with conservative therapy, including resuscitation, bowel rest and intravenous antibiotics, successfully avoiding surgical intervention. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e85-e86]

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Spanish Case of Acute Encephalopathy With Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion: Are We Only Seeing the Tip of the Iceberg?

Miguel García-Boyano, José Manuel Caballero-Caballero, Diego Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta García-Fernández de Villalta, Francisco José Climent Alcalá,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e98]

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Four-component Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine Induces Antibodies With Bactericidal Activity Against Diverse Outbreak Strains in Adolescents.

Alessia Biolchi, Sara Tomei, Laura Santini, Rita La Gaetana, Elena Mori, Patricia Novy, Rino Rappuoli, Rafik Bekkat-Berkani, Marzia Monica Giuliani, Mariagrazia Pizza,

<h4>Background</h4>Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) causes most meningitis outbreaks worldwide. We evaluated the ability of the 4-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) to induce bactericidal activity against outbreak strains in adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>Individual sera from 20 United States and 23 Chilean adolescents who received 2 doses of 4CMenB 2 months apart were assayed at ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e66-e71]

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The Role of Mannose-binding Lectin in Infectious Complications of Pediatric Hemato-Oncologic Diseases.

Marianna Dobi, Ágnes Szilágyi, Dorottya Csuka, Lilian Varga, Zoltán Prohászka, Csaba Bereczki, Gábor Kovács, Ferenc Fekete,

The complement system is essential for protection against infections in oncologic patients because of the chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression. One of the key elements in the activation of the complement system via the lectin pathway is the appropriate functioning of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP2) complex. The ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):154-158]

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Serratia Chorioamnionitis and Culture Proven Sepsis in a Preterm Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Katherine M Ottolini, Carrie A Litke-Wager, Rebecca L Johnson, Elizabeth V Schulz,

<h4>Background</h4>Serratia marcescens is a well-known cause of nosocomial infectious outbreaks in the neonatal intensive care unit, with a high mortality rate in the vulnerable preterm population. However, it is not typically associated with neonatal sepsis secondary to intrapartum vertical transmission. We present the case of a preterm male born at ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e62-e65]

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Clinical Characteristics and Outcome Analysis of 94 Children With Brain Abscess in Beijing: A Single-center Retrospective Study.

Zhen-Zhen Dou, Ling-Yun Guo, Lin-Lin Liu, Mu-Han Li, Hui-Li Hu, Bing Hu, Xin Guo, Tian-Ming Chen, He-Ying Chen, Ming Ge, Su-Yun Qian, Hu-Yong Zheng, Jiu-Wei Li, Wei-Hua Zhang, Ming-Yan Hei, Gang Liu,

<h4>Background</h4>There are limit studies about pediatric brain abscess in China. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric brain abscess in recent years in China.<h4>Methods</h4>The clinical information of children with brain abscess hospitalized in Beijing Children's Hospital between January 1, 2007 and December 31, ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):109-115]

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Effect of Macrolides and β-lactams on Clearance of Bordetella pertussis in the Nasopharynx in Children With Whooping Cough.

Yu-Mei Mi, Chun-Zhen Hua, Chao Fang, Juan-Juan Liu, Yong-Ping Xie, Luo-Na Lin, Gao-Liang Wang,

<h4>Objective</h4>The purpose of the current study is to investigate the bactericidal effect of macrolides and β-lactams on Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) in the nasopharynx and provide guidance for treating macrolides-resistant B. pertussis infections.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with whooping cough was diagnosed by culture of nasopharynx swabs between January 2016 to December 2018. B. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):87-90]

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Infant Pyogenic Liver Abscess Complicated With Autoimmune Neutropenia: Two Cases.

Shogo Otake, Rin Tamashiro, Naoya Morisada, Masashi Kasai,

Approximately 90% of patients with autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) suffer from mild infections although neutrophil count often decreases to <500/μL. Here, we report 2 cases of infant pyogenic liver abscess complicated with AIN. We should consider the possibility of AIN as an underlying disease when diagnosing pyogenic liver abscess during childhood. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):151-153]

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Variable Presentation of COVID-19 in Pediatric Patients.

Richard L Crawford, Elijah H Bolin, Parthak Prodhan, Markus S Renno, Kenneth R Knecht,

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 has led to disease referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 which, in children has been described as of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Our experience demonstrates 2 distinct presentations of this syndrome which have different clinical courses and may have differing long-term outcomes. ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):e88-e90]

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Clinical Characteristics of 204 Children With Human Adenovirus Type 7 Pneumonia Identified by Whole Genome Sequencing in Liuzhou, China.

Xiaoli Huang, Yongsong Yi, Xiaogang Chen, Bo Wang, Yiqin Long, Jichang Chen, Chokechai Rongkavilit,

<h4>Background</h4>Clinical knowledge of human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV-7) pneumonia in children remains limited. Moreover, predictors for disease severity are largely unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a retrospective study of children hospitalized at Liuzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital, China, with HAdV-7 pneumonia in 2018-2019. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and imaging data were ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):91-95]

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Performance Comparison of a Novel Rapid Stand-alone Molecular Test and a 2-Step Diagnostic Algorithm for Clostridioides difficile Detection in Children.

Pedro Brotons, Jesica Saucedo, Silvia Simó, Amadeu Gené, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro,

<h4>Background</h4>We aimed to evaluate diagnostic performance of the cobas® Liat® Cdiff test, a novel single-step automated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid diagnosis of toxigenic Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in stool samples from children with clinical symptoms of CDI.<h4>Methods</h4>Assessment of cobas Liat Cdiff diagnostic yield, time of analytical process ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):169-172]

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Pediatric and Neonatal Invasive Candidiasis: Species Distribution and Mortality Rate in a Thai Tertiary Care Hospital.

Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Chatnapa Yodkitudomying, Ariya Chindamporn, Pintip Suchartlikitwong, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Thanyawee Puthanakit,

<h4>Background</h4>Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a serious infection among children with underlying medical conditions. A shift from C. albicans to non-albicans Candida has been observed worldwide. This study aims to identify species of Candida and factors associated with the overall 30-day mortality rate.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective chart review was conducted among children with ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):96-102]

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A 15-Month-old Boy With Kawasaki Disease-like Symptoms.

Hiroshi Hayashi, Kazuhiro Uda, Keiji Akamine, Nanako Kawata, Shogo Akahoshi, Masaki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi, Hiroshi Hataya,

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):173-174]

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Age-dependent Interactions Among Clinical Characteristics, Viral Loads and Disease Severity in Young Children With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Helena Brenes-Chacon, Cristina Garcia-Mauriño, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Sara Mertz, Fang Ye, Daniel M Cohen, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias,

<h4>Background</h4>Age-dependent differences in clinical presentation and viral loads in infants and young children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and their correlation with disease severity are poorly defined.<h4>Methods</h4>Previously healthy children <2 years old with mild (outpatients) and severe (inpatients) RSV infection were enrolled and viral loads measured by polymerase chain ... Read more >>

Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, 40(2):116-122]

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