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Journal Paediatr Int Child Health

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Prospective evaluation of World Health Organization guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in children presenting to an emergency department in a resource-limited setting.

Darlene R House, Suraj Rijal, Sunil Adhikari, Matthew L Cooper, Corinne M Hohl,

BACKGROUND:Clinicians in resource-limited settings commonly use the World Health Organization criteria to diagnose pneumonia in children. AIM:The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the WHO criteria compared with chest radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age presenting to an ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Paediatric scurvy: frequently misdiagnosed.

Husna Musa, Imma Isniza Ismail, Nurul Hazwani Abdul Rashid,

Paediatric scurvy is uncommon in the modern age but cases have been reported in children with neurodevelopmental issues and restricted dietary habits. The broad clinical picture is frequently overlooked as primarily other systemic diseases are considered first leading to extensive investigations and delay in diagnosis. A 4-year-old boy with autism ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Clinical and laboratory characteristics of SARS-CoV2-infected paediatric patients in Jordan: serial RT-PCR testing until discharge.

Muna M Kilani, Mohanad M Odeh, Marwan Shalabi, Rami Al Qassieh, Mohammad Al-Tamimi,

BACKGROUND:Data on COVID-19 in children are limited. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics, laboratory results and longitudinal RT-PCR- testing pattern in children infected with theSARS-CoV2 virus and admitted to a hospital in Jordan. METHODS:The study is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted between 16 March and 23 ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-10]

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A rare case of metapneumovirus-induced rhabdomyolysis and multi-organ dysfunction in a 4-year-old child.

Aakash Chandran Chidambaram, Rohit Bhowmick, Narayanan Parameswaran, Dhandapany Gunasekaran,

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a common cause of acute respiratory tract infections in children. In immunocompetent individuals, the course of hMPV infection is usually benign and self-limiting. A developmentally normal, previously healthy 4-year-old girl presented with pneumonia and later developed rhabdomyolysis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) which was fatal. Extensive ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Diaphragmatic palsy in a 10-month-old boy with infantile tremor syndrome causing respiratory failure with full response to vitamin B12 therapy.

Neha Bidhuri, Vishal Kumar, Ruby Singh, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Sheetal Agarwal, Devki Nandan,

Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) owing to vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with tremors, anaemia, pigmentary skin changes, neuro-regression and hypotonia. A 10-month-old boy with ITS and respiratory failure owing to bilateral diaphragmatic palsy who responded to high parenteral doses of vitamin B12 is presented. As far as we are aware, ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-3]

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Review of Ebola virus disease in children - how far have we come?

Devika Dixit, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Lindsey Kjaldgaard, Michael T Hawkes,

Ebola virus (EBOV) causes an extremely contagious viral haemorrhagic fever associated with high mortality. While, historically, children have represented a small number of total cases of Ebolavirus disease (EVD), in recent outbreaks up to a quarter of cases have been in children. They pose unique challenges in clinical management and ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-16]

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Neonaticide rate unchanged in Japan despite a decrease in the birth rate.

Kumi Yoshiba,

BACKGROUND:Neonaticide is the murder of a newborn baby within 24 hours of birth. It has been reported in various countries, but there has been little recent research on the current state of neonaticide in Japan. AIM:To elucidate the epidemiological features of neonaticide in Japan using public long-term, population-based data collected over ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Child survivor of rabies in India: a case report.

Biju John, Shyam Kumar, Sudeep Kumar, S S Dalal, Aneesh Mohimen,

A 4-year-old boy was admitted with an acute onset fever for 4 days and drowsiness for 3 days, followed by progressive flaccid weakness of both lower limbs and encephalopathy soon after admission. He had sustained a WHO Class III stray dog bite 2 weeks previously and had received three doses of post-exposure rabies ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-6]

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Inflammatory bowel disease in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

David Epstein, Chris Kassianides, Zeenat Gaibee, Gillian Watermeyer, Anne Griffiths,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):141-142]

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Myocardial injury in patients with sickle cell anaemia and myocardial ischaemia in Calabar, Nigeria.

Anthony Chibueze Nlemadim, Henry Chima Okpara, Maxwell Udoh Anah, Friday Akwagiobe Odey, Martin Madu Meremikwu,

Background In children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), ischaemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes occur during both vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) and the steady state. Myocardial ischaemia evidenced by an ischaemic pattern on ECG may lead to myocardial injury which is evidenced by elevated serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT). Occasionally, the myocardial injury ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-7]

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Intrapericardial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in a 3-month-old infant associated with Coronavirus OC43 presenting with pericardial tamponade.

Yasemin Nuran Donmez, Hayrettin Hakan Aykan, Diclehan Orhan, Recep Oktay Peker, Mustafa Yilmaz, Tevfik Karagoz,

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour usually has a benign course and is very rarely associated with the heart. It can have life-threatening consequences, depending on its position or the presence of aggressive and metastatic complications. A 3-month-old boy presented with pericardial tamponade and was diagnosed with intrapericardial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour associated with ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-7]

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Zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhoea: an integral part of management.

Lakkana Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):212-213]

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Zika virus in Brazil and worldwide: a narrative review.

Marlos Melo Martins, Roberto De Andrade Medronho, Antônio José Ledo Alves Da Cunha,

BACKGROUND:In the past 5 years, the Zika virus (ZIKV) has gone from being associated with mild infection to one of the most studied viruses worldwide. Between 2015 and 2016, the first reports of pregnant women with confirmed and/or suspected ZIKV infection described fetuses and newborns with severe congenital malformations, in particular ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-8]

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Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review.

Nipunie Rajapakse, Devika Dixit,

Coronaviruses, seven of which are known to infect humans, can cause a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death. Four human coronaviruses (hCoVs)-229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43-circulate globally, commonly infect children and typically cause mild upper respiratory tract infections. Three novel coronaviruses of zoonotic ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-20]

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Relationship between low serum vitamin D status and urinary tract infection in children: a case-control study.

Hashem Mahmoudzadeh, Ahmad Ali Nikibakhsh, Sarvin Pashapour, Morteza Ghasemnejad-Berenji,

BACKGROUND:A link between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections has recently been suggested. AIM:To investigate a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS:A case-control study was undertaken comprising 75 children aged 2-7 years with UTI (cases) compared with 75 healthy controls in ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):181-185]

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Zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhoea: an integral part of management.

Jogender Kumar, Arushi Yadav,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):211]

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Juvenile dermatomyositis presenting as complete heart block in a 10-year-old girl.

Ritwik Ghosh, Devlina Roy, Souvik Dubey, Khaled Abdelrahman, Amit Kumar Dey, Subhankar Chatterjee, Durjoy Lahiri, Biman Kanti Ray,

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an auto-immune inflammatory condition associated with cardiac disorders including conduction abnormalities and myocardial dysfunction. The time of presentation of cardiac abnormalities can range from disease onset to after long-term follow-up, emphasising the importance of screening for cardiac involvement in JDM. A previously healthy 10-year-old girl presented ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Vitamin B12 deficiency in Indian infants and children.

Jatinder Singh Goraya,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(2):75-77]

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An outbreak of dengue fever in children in the National Capital District of Papua New Guinea in 2016.

Francis Pulsan, Kone Sobi, Gwenda Anga, John Vince, Trevor Duke,

BACKGROUND:The first documented outbreak of dengue which included cases with haemorrhage occurred in Papua New Guinea in 2016. AIM:To document the presentation and outcome of children with dengue in Port Moresby. METHODS:This prospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Port Moresby General Hospital during a 6-month period from 6 January ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):177-180]

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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis without asthma or cystic fibrosis.

Parminder Kaur, Pankaj Kumar, Shivani Randev, Vishal Guglani,

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological disease complicating asthma or cystic fibrosis. An 8-year-old girl with no previous respiratory morbidity was diagnosed with ABPA on the basis of a raised eosinophil count and total and specific serum IgE levels combined with a positive skin-prick test for aspergillus and typical ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):199-201]

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Influenza virus infection complicated by bacterial necrotising pneumonia: two case reports.

Augusta Aragão Arruda, Joana Pacheco Fortuna, Ana Teresa Raposo, Marina Rita Paulo Soares, Juan António Gonçalves, Maria Fernanda Gomes,

Necrotising pneumonia (NP) is a potentially severe complication of community-acquired pneumonia characterised by necrosis of consolidated lung tissue. A 7-year-old boy and a 6-year-old boy are presented, both of whom had a complicated influenza infection which evolved into severe NP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Both needed intensive care for invasive ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):202-206]

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Risk factors for mortality and management of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition at a tertiary referral hospital in Malawi.

Bryan J Vonasek, Msandeni Chiume, Heather L Crouse, Susan Mhango, Alexander Kondwani, Emily J Ciccone, Peter N Kazembe, Wilfred Gaven, Elizabeth Fitzgerald,

BACKGROUND:Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major cause of childhood mortality in resource-limited settings. The relationship between clinical factors and adherence to the 'WHO 10 Steps' and mortality in children with SAM is not fully understood. METHODS:Data from an ongoing prospective observational cohort study assessing admission characteristics, management patterns and ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):148-157]

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The change in prevalence of suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Korean adolescents from 2001 to 2017.

Seung Ha Park, Yong Eun Park, Jin Lee, Joon Hyuk Choi, Nae Yun Heo, Jongha Park, Tae Oh Kim, Jun Seong Hwang, Eunju Kim, Eun Hye Oh, Hang Jea Jang, Ha Young Park, Hyun Kuk Kim,

AIM:Data on trends in the prevalence of suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents are scarce, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of suspected NAFLD changed between 2001-2005 and 2015-2017. METHODS:Data were extracted from the Korea National Health and ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):166-170]

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Prevalence and risk factors for neurocysticercosis in children with a first-onset seizure in rural North India.

Amit Kumar Mital, Priyanka Choudhary, R B Jain,

BACKGROUND:Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection acquired by consuming food and water contaminated by the faeces of a Taenia solium tapeworm carrier. It is an important cause of acquired seizures and also the common identifiable cause of new-onset seizures in children. METHODS:A hospital-based prospective cross-sectional study of NCC was undertaken ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):158-165]

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Fatal congenital tuberculosis owing to late diagnosis of maternal tuberculosis: case report and review of congenital tuberculosis in China.

Jing-Min Sun, Chang Wang, Dan-Qun Jin, Fang Deng,

Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare and the prognosis is poor if not detected early. The diagnosis is often delayed owing to non-specific clinical presentation, misdiagnosis and undiagnosed maternal TB during pregnancy. A 12-day-old girl presented with a 5-day history of fever, cough, poor feeding and respiratory distress. Her mother had ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):194-198]

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