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Journal Paediatr Int Child Health

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COVID-19 in the paediatric population of Kazakhstan.

Dinagul Bayesheva, Riza Boranbayeva, Bayan Turdalina, Ildar Fakhradiyev, Timur Saliev, Shynar Tanabayeva, Baurzhan Zhussupov, Talgat Nurgozhin,

<b>Background</b>: To date, there have been no studies of COVID-19 infection in children in Central Asia, particularly the Republic of Kazakhstan. This report analyses the epidemiological data on COVID-19 infection in children in Kazakhstan. <b>Methods</b>: The study included 650 paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Demographic and epidemiological data and the ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-7]

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Global emerging resistance in pediatric infections with TB, HIV, and gram-negative pathogens.

Leslie A Enane, John C Christenson,

Infants, children and adolescents are at risk of life-threatening, antimicrobial-resistant infections. Global burdens of drug-resistant TB, HIV and gram-negative pathogens have a particular impact on paediatric age groups, necessitating a paediatric-focused agenda to address emerging resistance. Dedicated approaches are needed to find, successfully treat and prevent resistant infections in paediatric ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-11]

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Tuberculosis in a 2.5-month-old infant: congenital or acquired dilemma?

Yellanthoor Ramesh Bhat, Sandesh Kini, Lakshmikanth Halegubbi Karegowda,

Infants may develop congenital tuberculosis from an infectious mother or acquire the disease postnatally by contact with an infectious adult. Delayed diagnosis is common, especially in infants under 1 year of age, and, if unrecognised, there is an increased risk of death. A 2.5-month-old boy presented with respiratory distress, small ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilianchildren and adolescents: the mediating role of obesity parameters.

Caroline Brand, Cézane Priscila Reuter, Anelise Reis Gaya, Jorge Mota, Michael Duncan, Leticia Borfe, Jane Dagmar Pollo Renner,

<h4>Background</h4>There is a lack of clarity as to which obesity parameters may be more important in the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF).<h4>Aim</h4>To verify the mediating role of different obesity parameters on the association between CRF and CMRF in normal weight and overweight/obese children and adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>This ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-10]

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Neisseria oralis septicaemia in a newborn: first recorded case.

Gabriele Baniulyte, Sima Svirpliene, Andrew Eccleston, Sangeetha Arjunan, Martin Connor,

<i>Neisseria oralis</i> is a bacterium which normally resides within the oral microflora. A female infant was born by emergency caesarean section owing to fetal distress with a gestational age of 38 weeks, a birthweight of 2250 g and a temperature of 36.5°C. The pregnancy had been normal. The delivery was complicated by ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-2]

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Infantile nephrotic syndrome secondary to cytomegalovirus infection in a 7-month-old girl: resolution with ganciclovir.

Jasleen Kaur, Bobbity Deepthi, Rachita Singh Dhull, M D Faruq, Abhijeet Saha,

Infantile nephrotic syndrome is a rare disorder which is frequently caused by genetic defects. A 7-month-old girl presented with fever, loose stools and anasarca and was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. Work-up for a genetic cause was negative. Cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction (CMV PCR) was positive and the infant was treated ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Prospective evaluation of World Health Organization guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in children presenting to an emergency department in a resource-limited setting.

Darlene R House, Suraj Rijal, Sunil Adhikari, Matthew L Cooper, Corinne M Hohl,

<h4>Background</h4>Clinicians in resource-limited settings commonly use the World Health Organization criteria to diagnose pneumonia in children.<h4>Aim</h4>The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the WHO criteria compared with chest radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age presenting to an emergency ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):227-230]

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An adolescent girl with obstructive uropathy requiring nephro-ureterectomy was subsequently diagnosed with renal tuberculosis: case report.

Özge Kaba, Manolya Kara, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Bilal Çetin, Elnur Karimov, Ünsal Özkuvancı, Yasemin Özlük, Selda Hançerli Torun, Zeynep Nagehan Yürük Yıldırım, Hasan Orhan Ziylan, Ayper Somer,

A 15-year-old girl was followed up for 2 years in a district hospital for management of vesicoureteral reflux and, subsequently, hydronephrosis of both kidneys and required bilateral ureteroneocystostomy. Despite surgery, there was continuous progression of the left hydronephrosis. Referral to a tertiary hospital because of continued sterile pyuria prompted investigation for ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Validity of maternal visual assessment of neonatal jaundice: a hospital-based study in Thailand.

Visanu Kittiarpornpon, Sopapan Ngerncham, Saipin Plumjit,

<h4>Background</h4>Hyperbilirubinaemia is a common cause of hospital admission of newborn infants; however, maternal visual assessment of jaundice may reduce unnecessary hospital visits.<h4>Aims</h4>To investigate the validity of maternal visual assessment of neonatal jaundice to identify infants with hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy or who have significant hyperbilirubinaemia ≥239.4 µmol/L (14 mg/dL).<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective study of ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):242-247]

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Paediatric scurvy: frequently misdiagnosed.

Husna Musa, Imma Isniza Ismail, Nurul Hazwani Abdul Rashid,

Paediatric scurvy is uncommon in the modern age but cases have been reported in children with neurodevelopmental issues and restricted dietary habits. The broad clinical picture is frequently overlooked as primarily other systemic diseases are considered first leading to extensive investigations and delay in diagnosis. A 4-year-old boy with autism ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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A rare case of metapneumovirus-induced rhabdomyolysis and multi-organ dysfunction in a 4-year-old child.

Aakash Chandran Chidambaram, Rohit Bhowmick, Narayanan Parameswaran, Dhandapany Gunasekaran,

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a common cause of acute respiratory tract infections in children. In immunocompetent individuals, the course of hMPV infection is usually benign and self-limiting. A developmentally normal, previously healthy 4-year-old girl presented with pneumonia and later developed rhabdomyolysis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) which was fatal. Extensive ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-4]

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Clinical and laboratory characteristics of SARS-CoV2-infected paediatric patients in Jordan: serial RT-PCR testing until discharge.

Muna M Kilani, Mohanad M Odeh, Marwan Shalabi, Rami Al Qassieh, Mohammad Al-Tamimi,

<h4>Background</h4>Data on COVID-19 in children are limited. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics, laboratory results and longitudinal RT-PCR- testing pattern in children infected with theSARS-CoV2 virus and admitted to a hospital in Jordan.<h4>Methods</h4>The study is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted between 16 March and 23 April ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-10]

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Diaphragmatic palsy in a 10-month-old boy with infantile tremor syndrome causing respiratory failure with full response to vitamin B12 therapy.

Neha Bidhuri, Vishal Kumar, Ruby Singh, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Sheetal Agarwal, Devki Nandan,

Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) owing to vitamin B<sub>12</sub> deficiency usually presents with tremors, anaemia, pigmentary skin changes, neuro-regression and hypotonia. A 10-month-old boy with ITS and respiratory failure owing to bilateral diaphragmatic palsy who responded to high parenteral doses of vitamin B<sub>12</sub> is presented. As far as we are aware, ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):248-250]

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Review of Ebola virus disease in children - how far have we come?

Devika Dixit, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Lindsey Kjaldgaard, Michael T Hawkes,

Ebola virus (EBOV) causes an extremely contagious viral haemorrhagic fever associated with high mortality. While, historically, children have represented a small number of total cases of Ebolavirus disease (EVD), in recent outbreaks up to a quarter of cases have been in children. They pose unique challenges in clinical management and ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-16]

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Child survivor of rabies in India: a case report.

Biju John, Shyam Kumar, Sudeep Kumar, S S Dalal, Aneesh Mohimen,

A 4-year-old boy was admitted with an acute onset fever for 4 days and drowsiness for 3 days, followed by progressive flaccid weakness of both lower limbs and encephalopathy soon after admission. He had sustained a WHO Class III stray dog bite 2 weeks previously and had received three doses of post-exposure rabies ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):255-260]

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Inflammatory bowel disease in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

David Epstein, Chris Kassianides, Zeenat Gaibee, Gillian Watermeyer, Anne Griffiths,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):141-142]

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Neonaticide rate unchanged in Japan despite a decrease in the birth rate.

Kumi Yoshiba,

BACKGROUND:Neonaticide is the murder of a newborn baby within 24 hours of birth. It has been reported in various countries, but there has been little recent research on the current state of neonaticide in Japan. AIM:To elucidate the epidemiological features of neonaticide in Japan using public long-term, population-based data collected over ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):238-241]

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Myocardial injury in patients with sickle cell anaemia and myocardial ischaemia in Calabar, Nigeria.

Anthony Chibueze Nlemadim, Henry Chima Okpara, Maxwell Udoh Anah, Friday Akwagiobe Odey, Martin Madu Meremikwu,

Background In children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), ischaemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes occur during both vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) and the steady state. Myocardial ischaemia evidenced by an ischaemic pattern on ECG may lead to myocardial injury which is evidenced by elevated serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT). Occasionally, the myocardial injury ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):231-237]

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Intrapericardial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in a 3-month-old infant associated with Coronavirus OC43 presenting with pericardial tamponade.

Yasemin Nuran Donmez, Hayrettin Hakan Aykan, Diclehan Orhan, Recep Oktay Peker, Mustafa Yilmaz, Tevfik Karagoz,

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour usually has a benign course and is very rarely associated with the heart. It can have life-threatening consequences, depending on its position or the presence of aggressive and metastatic complications. A 3-month-old boy presented with pericardial tamponade and was diagnosed with intrapericardial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour associated with ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):261-267]

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Zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhoea: an integral part of management.

Lakkana Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):212-213]

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Zika virus in Brazil and worldwide: a narrative review.

Marlos Melo Martins, Roberto De Andrade Medronho, Antônio José Ledo Alves Da Cunha,

<h4>Background</h4>In the past 5 years, the Zika virus (ZIKV) has gone from being associated with mild infection to one of the most studied viruses worldwide. Between 2015 and 2016, the first reports of pregnant women with confirmed and/or suspected ZIKV infection described fetuses and newborns with severe congenital malformations, in particular ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-8]

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Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review.

Nipunie Rajapakse, Devika Dixit,

Coronaviruses, seven of which are known to infect humans, can cause a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death. Four human coronaviruses (hCoVs)-229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43-circulate globally, commonly infect children and typically cause mild upper respiratory tract infections. Three novel coronaviruses of zoonotic ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, :1-20]

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Relationship between low serum vitamin D status and urinary tract infection in children: a case-control study.

Hashem Mahmoudzadeh, Ahmad Ali Nikibakhsh, Sarvin Pashapour, Morteza Ghasemnejad-Berenji,

BACKGROUND:A link between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections has recently been suggested. AIM:To investigate a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS:A case-control study was undertaken comprising 75 children aged 2-7 years with UTI (cases) compared with 75 healthy controls in ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):181-185]

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Zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhoea: an integral part of management.

Jogender Kumar, Arushi Yadav,

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(3):211]

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Juvenile dermatomyositis presenting as complete heart block in a 10-year-old girl.

Ritwik Ghosh, Devlina Roy, Souvik Dubey, Khaled Abdelrahman, Amit Kumar Dey, Subhankar Chatterjee, Durjoy Lahiri, Biman Kanti Ray,

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an auto-immune inflammatory condition associated with cardiac disorders including conduction abnormalities and myocardial dysfunction. The time of presentation of cardiac abnormalities can range from disease onset to after long-term follow-up, emphasising the importance of screening for cardiac involvement in JDM. A previously healthy 10-year-old girl presented ... Read more >>

Paediatr Int Child Health (Paediatrics and international child health)
[2020, 40(4):251-254]

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