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Dysregulation of M segment gene expression contributes to influenza A virus host restriction.

Brenda M Calderon, Shamika Danzy, Gabrielle K Delima, Nathan T Jacobs, Ketaki Ganti, Megan R Hockman, Graeme L Conn, Anice C Lowen, John Steel,

The M segment of the 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) has been implicated in its emergence into human populations. To elucidate the genetic contributions of the M segment to host adaptation, and the underlying mechanisms, we examined a panel of isogenic viruses that carry avian- or human-derived M segments. ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007892]

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Memory CD4 T cell-derived IL-2 synergizes with viral infection to exacerbate lung inflammation.

K Kai McKinstry, Fahmida Alam, Valeria Flores-Malavet, Mate Z Nagy, Stewart Sell, Andrea M Cooper, Susan L Swain, Tara M Strutt,

Defining the most penetrating correlates of protective memory T cells is key for designing improved vaccines and T cell therapies. Here, we evaluate how interleukin (IL-2) production by memory CD4 T cells, a widely held indicator of their protective potential, impacts immune responses against murine influenza A virus (IAV). Unexpectedly, ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007989]

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STING is required for host defense against neuropathological West Nile virus infection.

Kathryn McGuckin Wuertz, Piper M Treuting, Emily A Hemann, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Annelise G Snyder, Jessica B Graham, Brian P Daniels, Courtney Wilkins, Jessica M Snyder, Kathleen M Voss, Andrew Oberst, Jennifer Lund, Michael Gale,

West Nile Virus (WNV), an emerging and re-emerging RNA virus, is the leading source of arboviral encephalitic morbidity and mortality in the United States. WNV infections are acutely controlled by innate immunity in peripheral tissues outside of the central nervous system (CNS) but WNV can evade the actions of interferon ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007899]

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Correction: Antigenic cartography of immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1).

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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007870.]. ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1008018]

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Transposon-insertion sequencing screens unveil requirements for EHEC growth and intestinal colonization.

Alyson R Warr, Troy P Hubbard, Diana Munera, Carlos J Blondel, Pia Abel Zur Wiesch, Sören Abel, Xiaoxue Wang, Brigid M Davis, Matthew K Waldor,

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is an important food-borne pathogen that colonizes the colon. Transposon-insertion sequencing (TIS) was used to identify genes required for EHEC and E. coli K-12 growth in vitro and for EHEC growth in vivo in the infant rabbit colon. Surprisingly, many conserved loci contribute to EHEC's ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007652]

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Correction: Signal transduction pathway mediated by the novel regulator LoiA for low oxygen tension induced Salmonella Typhimurium invasion.

Lingyan Jiang, Lu Feng, Bin Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Peisheng Wang, Xiaohan Jiang, Lei Wang,

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006429.]. ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007997]

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Cyclic-di-GMP binds to histidine kinase RavS to control RavS-RavR phosphotransfer and regulates the bacterial lifestyle transition between virulence and swimming.

Shou-Ting Cheng, Fang-Fang Wang, Wei Qian,

The two-component signalling system (TCS) comprising a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR) is the predominant bacterial sense-and-response machinery. Because bacterial cells usually encode a number of TCSs to adapt to various ecological niches, the specificity of a TCS is in the centre of regulation. Specificity of TCS ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007952]

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Ring finger protein 121 is a potent regulator of adeno-associated viral genome transcription.

Victoria J Madigan, Julianne A Yuziuk, Anna M Chiarella, Tyne O Tyson, Rita M Meganck, Zachary C Elmore, Longping V Tse, Nathaniel A Hathaway, Aravind Asokan,

Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are Dependoparvoviruses that have shown promise as recombinant vectors for gene therapy. While infectious pathways of AAV are well studied, gaps remain in our understanding of host factors affecting vector genome expression. Here, we map the role of ring finger protein 121 (RNF121), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007988]

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Inducible LGALS3BP/90K activates antiviral innate immune responses by targeting TRAF6 and TRAF3 complex.

Gang Xu, Zhangchuan Xia, Feiyan Deng, Lin Liu, Qiming Wang, Yi Yu, Fubing Wang, Chengliang Zhu, Weiyong Liu, Zhikui Cheng, Ying Zhu, Li Zhou, Yi Zhang, Mengji Lu, Shi Liu,

The galectin 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP, also known as 90K) is a ubiquitous multifunctional secreted glycoprotein originally identified in cancer progression. It remains unclear how 90K functions in innate immunity during viral infections. In this study, we found that viral infections resulted in elevated levels of 90K. Further studies demonstrated ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1008002]

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Convergent evolution in the mechanisms of ACBD3 recruitment to picornavirus replication sites.

Vladimira Horova, Heyrhyoung Lyoo, Bartosz Różycki, Dominika Chalupska, Miroslav Smola, Jana Humpolickova, Jeroen R P M Strating, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Evzen Boura, Martin Klima,

Enteroviruses, members of the family of picornaviruses, are the most common viral infectious agents in humans causing a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from mild respiratory illnesses to life-threatening infections. To efficiently replicate within the host cell, enteroviruses hijack several host factors, such as ACBD3. ACBD3 facilitates replication of various ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007962]

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CD8 T cells targeting adapted epitopes in chronic HIV infection promote dendritic cell maturation and CD4 T cell trans-infection.

Kai Qin, Sushma Boppana, Victor Y Du, Jonathan M Carlson, Ling Yue, Dario A Dilernia, Eric Hunter, Robbie B Mailliard, Simon A Mallal, Anju Bansal, Paul A Goepfert,

HIV-1 frequently escapes from CD8 T cell responses via HLA-I restricted adaptation, leading to the accumulation of adapted epitopes (AE). We previously demonstrated that AE compromise CD8 T cell responses during acute infection and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Here, we examined the impact of AE on CD8 T ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007970]

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Parasite-microbe-host interactions and cancer risk.

Nolwenn M Dheilly, Paul W Ewald, Paul J Brindley, Raina N Fichorova, Frédéric Thomas,

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007912]

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Helicobacter pylori and colorectal cancer-A bacterium going abroad?

Julia Butt, Meira Epplein,

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007861]

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Identification of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 miRNA-mRNA hybrids reveals miRNA target conservation among gammaherpesviruses including host translation and protein modification machinery.

Whitney L Bullard, Mehmet Kara, Lauren A Gay, Sunantha Sethuraman, Yiping Wang, Shreya Nirmalan, Alim Esemenli, April Feswick, Brett A Hoffman, Rolf Renne, Scott A Tibbetts,

Gammaherpesviruses, including the human pathogens Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), establish lifelong latent infection in B cells and are associated with a variety of tumors. In addition to protein coding genes, these viruses encode numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) within their genomes. While putative host targets of EBV and ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007843]

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Fas-associated factor 1 Mediates NADPH Oxidase-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Proinflammatory Responses in Macrophages against Listeria Infection.

Tae-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Jae-Hoon Kim, C Y Hewawaduge, Kiramage Chathuranga, W A Gayan Chathuranga, Pathum Ekanayaka, H M S M Wijerathne, Chul-Joong Kim, Eunhee Kim, Jong-Soo Lee,

Fas-associated factor 1 is a death-promoting protein that induces apoptosis by interacting with the Fas receptor. Until now, FAF1 was reported to interact potentially with diverse proteins and to function as a negative and/or positive regulator of several cellular possesses. However, the role of FAF1 in defense against bacterial infection ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1008004]

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Genetic transduction by phages and chromosomal islands: The new and noncanonical.

Yin Ning Chiang, José R Penadés, John Chen,

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007878]

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Human bornavirus research: Back on track!

Dennis Rubbenstroth, Kore Schlottau, Martin Schwemmle, Jürgen Rissland, Martin Beer,

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007873]

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NS2B/NS3 mutations enhance the infectivity of genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus in amplifying hosts.

Yi-Chin Fan, Jian-Jong Liang, Jo-Mei Chen, Jen-Wei Lin, Yi-Ying Chen, Kuan-Hsuan Su, Chang-Chi Lin, Wu-Chun Tu, Ming-Tang Chiou, Shan-Chia Ou, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Yi-Ling Lin, Shyan-Song Chiou,

Genotype I (GI) virus has replaced genotype III (GIII) virus as the dominant Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the epidemic area of Asia. The mechanism underlying the genotype replacement remains unclear. Therefore, we focused our current study on investigating the roles of mosquito vector and amplifying host(s) in JEV genotype ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007992]

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Bipartite interface of the measles virus phosphoprotein X domain with the large polymerase protein regulates viral polymerase dynamics.

Venice Du Pont, Yi Jiang, Richard K Plemper,

Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious, re-emerging, major human pathogen. Replication requires a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) consisting of the large (L) polymerase protein complexed with the homo-tetrameric phosphoprotein (P). In addition, P mediates interaction with the nucleoprotein (N)-encapsidated viral RNA genome. The nature of the P:L interface ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007995]

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The NDV-3A vaccine protects mice from multidrug resistant Candida auris infection.

Shakti Singh, Priya Uppuluri, Zeinab Mamouei, Abdullah Alqarihi, Hana Elhassan, Samuel French, Shawn R Lockhart, Tom Chiller, John E Edwards, Ashraf S Ibrahim,

Candida auris is an emerging, multi-drug resistant, health care-associated fungal pathogen. Its predominant prevalence in hospitals and nursing homes indicates its ability to adhere to and colonize the skin, or persist in an environment outside the host-a trait unique from other Candida species. Besides being associated globally with life-threatening disseminated ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007460]

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In vivo proteomics identifies the competence regulon and AliB oligopeptide transporter as pathogenic factors in pneumococcal meningitis.

Frank Schmidt, Niamatullah Kakar, Tanja C Meyer, Maren Depke, Ilias Masouris, Gerhard Burchhardt, Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Vishnu Dhople, Leiv S Håvarstein, Zhi Sun, Robert L Moritz, Uwe Völker, Uwe Koedel, Sven Hammerschmidt,

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is a leading cause of severe bacterial meningitis in many countries worldwide. To characterize the repertoire of fitness and virulence factors predominantly expressed during meningitis we performed niche-specific analysis of the in vivo proteome in a mouse meningitis model, in which bacteria are directly inoculated into the ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(7):e1007987]

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Equine arteritis virus long-term persistence is orchestrated by CD8+ T lymphocyte transcription factors, inhibitory receptors, and the CXCL16/CXCR6 axis.

Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, R Frank Cook, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya,

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the unique ability to establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and be sexually transmitted. Previous studies showed that long-term persistent infection is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene (CXCL16S) and that persistence is maintained despite the presence of ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(7):e1007950]

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Essential role of GEXP15, a specific Protein Phosphatase type 1 partner, in Plasmodium berghei in asexual erythrocytic proliferation and transmission.

Thomas Hollin, Caroline De Witte, Aline Fréville, Ida Chiara Guerrera, Cerina Chhuon, Jean-Michel Saliou, Fabien Herbert, Christine Pierrot, Jamal Khalife,

The essential and distinct functions of Protein Phosphatase type 1 (PP1) catalytic subunit in eukaryotes are exclusively achieved through its interaction with a myriad of regulatory partners. In this work, we report the molecular and functional characterization of Gametocyte EXported Protein 15 (GEXP15), a Plasmodium specific protein, as a regulator ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(7):e1007973]

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Primary infection with dengue or Zika virus does not affect the severity of heterologous secondary infection in macaques.

Meghan E Breitbach, Christina M Newman, Dawn M Dudley, Laurel M Stewart, Matthew T Aliota, Michelle R Koenig, Phoenix M Shepherd, Keisuke Yamamoto, Chelsea M Crooks, Ginger Young, Matthew R Semler, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Holly Heimsath, Emma L Mohr, Jens Eichkoff, Wendy Newton, Eric Peterson, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Sallie R Permar, Hansi Dean, Saverio Capuano, Jorge E Osorio, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor,

Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are genetically and antigenically related flaviviruses that now co-circulate in much of the tropical and subtropical world. The rapid emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015 and 2016, and its recent associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome, birth defects, and fetal loss have led ... Read more >>

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007766]

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Evolution of negative immune regulators.

Steven A Frank, Paul Schmid-Hempel,

PLoS Pathog. (PLoS pathogens)
[2019, 15(8):e1007913]

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