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Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis

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High genetic similarity between non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from paired blood and stool samples of children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Marie-France Phoba, Barbara Barbé, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Van Puyvelde, Annelies Post, Wesley Mattheus, Stijn Deborggraeve, Octavie Lunguya, Jan Jacobs,

BACKGROUND:Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis are a major cause of bloodstream infections in children in sub-Saharan Africa but their reservoir is unknown. We compared pairs of NTS blood and stool isolates (with the same NTS serotype recovered in the same patient) for genetic similarity. METHODS:Between November 2013 and ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008377]

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Anopheles sundaicus  complex and the presence of Anopheles epiroticus in Indonesia.

Din Syafruddin, Yulia E Lestari, Dendi H Permana, Puji B S Asih, Brandyce St Laurent, Siti Zubaidah, Ismail E Rozi, Sully Kosasih, Shinta, Supratman Sukowati, Lukman Hakim, Edhi Haryanto, Wibowo Mangunwardoyo, Michael J Bangs, Neil F Lobo,

Anopheles sundaicus s.l. is an important malaria vector primarily found in coastal landscapes of western and central Indonesia. The species complex has a wide geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and exhibits ecological and behavioural variability over its range. Studies on understanding the distribution of different members in the ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008385]

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Cryptosporidiosis should be designated as a tropical disease by the US Food and Drug Administration.

Robert K M Choy, Christopher D Huston,

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008252]

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First identification of genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Microsporidia) among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Mozambique.

Aly S Muadica, Augusto E Messa, Alejandro Dashti, Sooria Balasegaram, Mónica Santin, Filomena Manjate, Percina Chirinda, Marcelino Garrine, Delfino Vubil, Sozinho Acácio, Pamela C Köster, Begoña Bailo, Tacilta Nhampossa, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Jason M Mwenda, Inácio Mandomando, David Carmena,

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a human pathogen with a broad range of animal hosts. Initially, E. bieneusi was considered an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, mainly HIV-infected patients, but it has been increasingly reported in apparently healthy individuals globally. As in other African countries, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008419]

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Impact of the social context on the prognosis of Chagas disease patients: Multilevel analysis of a Brazilian cohort.

Ariela Mota Ferreira, Éster Cerdeira Sabino, Lea Campos de Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Clareci Silva Cardoso, Antônio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Renata Fiúza Damasceno, Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes, Desirée Sant' Ana Haikal,

The present study aims to investigate how the social context contributes to the prognosis of Chagas disease (CD). This is a multilevel study that considered individual and contextual data. Individual data came from a Brazilian cohort study that followed 1,637 patients who lived in 21 municipalities to which CD is ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008399]

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Identifying thresholds to classify moderate-to-heavy soil-transmitted helminth intensity infections for FECPAKG2, McMaster, Mini-FLOTAC and qPCR.

Bruno Levecke, Piet Cools, Marco Albonico, Shaali Ame, Cécile Angebault, Mio Ayana, Jerzy M Behnke, Jeffrey M Bethony, Giuseppe Cringoli, Daniel Dana, Bertrand Guillard, Nguyen Thi Viet Hoa, Gagandeep Kang, Deepthi Kattula, Jennifer Keiser, Andrew C Kotze, Leonardo F Matoso, Maria P Maurelli, James S McCarthy, Zeleke Mekonnen, Greg Mirams, Antonio Montresor, Rodrigo Corrêa Oliveira, Maria V Periago, Simone A Pinto, Laura Rinaldi, Somphou Sayasone, Laurentine Sumo, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, Dang Thi Cam Thach, Eurion Thomas, Ahmed Zeynudin, Jaco J Verweij, Johnny Vlaminck, Jozef Vercruysse,

World Health Organization (WHO) has defined moderate-to-heavy intensity (M&HI) infections with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) based on specific values of eggs per gram of stool, as measured by the Kato-Katz method. There are a variety of novel microscopy and ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008296]

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Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: A threat to elimination program.

Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda, Bhawana Singh, Dhiraj Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Prasoon Madhukar, Shreya Upadhyay, Om Prakash Singh, Shyam Sundar,

Leishmaniasis remains a public health concern around the world that primarily affects poor folks of the developing world spanning across 98 countries with mortality of 0.2 million to 0.4 million annually. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the late skin manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It has been reported that ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008221]

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Linking longitudinal and cross-sectional biomarker data to understand host-pathogen dynamics: Leptospira in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) as a case study.

K C Prager, Michael G Buhnerkempe, Denise J Greig, Anthony J Orr, Eric D Jensen, Forrest Gomez, Renee L Galloway, Qingzhong Wu, Frances M D Gulland, James O Lloyd-Smith,

Confronted with the challenge of understanding population-level processes, disease ecologists and epidemiologists often simplify quantitative data into distinct physiological states (e.g. susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered). However, data defining these states often fall along a spectrum rather than into clear categories. Hence, the host-pathogen relationship is more accurately defined using quantitative ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008407]

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Abortive vampire bat rabies infections in Peruvian peridomestic livestock.

Julio A Benavides, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lauren C Godino, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar, Nino Ruby, Elizabeth Rojas-Paniagua, Carlos Shiva, Nestor Falcon, Daniel G Streicker,

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008194]

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Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever viruses circulating in Pakistan during 2019.

Massab Umair, Adnan Khurshid, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Ribqa Akhtar, Muhammad Salman, Aamer Ikram,

Being an endemic country for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), this study aimed to explore the genetic diversity of CCHF virus (CCHFV) detected in Pakistan during 2019. Serum samples from patients with clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever attending tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan were tested for CCHFV RNA using real-time ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008238]

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The potential impact of human visceral leishmaniasis vaccines on population incidence.

Epke A Le Rutte, Luc E Coffeng, Stefano Malvolti, Paul M Kaye, Sake J de Vlas,

Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vaccines are currently under development and there is a need to understand their potential impact on population wide VL incidence. We implement four characteristics from different human VL vaccine candidates into two published VL transmission model variants to estimate the potential impact of these vaccine characteristics ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008468]

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Volunteer based approach to dog vaccination campaigns to eliminate human rabies: Lessons from Laikipia County, Kenya.

Adam W Ferguson, Dishon Muloi, Dedan K Ngatia, Wangechi Kiongo, Duncan M Kimuyu, Paul W Webala, Moses O Olum, Mathew Muturi, Samuel M Thumbi, Rosie Woodroffe, Lucy Murugi, Eric M Fèvre, Suzan Murray, Dino J Martins,

BACKGROUND:An estimated 59,000 people die from rabies annually, with 99% of those deaths attributable to bites from domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). This preventable Neglected Tropical Disease has a large impact across continental Africa, especially for rural populations living in close contact with livestock and wildlife. Mass vaccinations of domestic ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008260]

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Detection of arboviruses in mosquitoes: Evidence of circulation of chikungunya virus in Iran.

Hasan Bakhshi, Laurence Mousson, Sara Moutailler, Marie Vazeille, Géraldine Piorkowski, Sedigheh Zakeri, Abbasali Raz, Xavier de Lamballerie, Navid Dinparast-Djadid, Anna-Bella Failloux,

Mosquitoes are vectors of viruses affecting animal and human health. In Iran, the prevalence of mosquito-borne viruses remains poorly investigated. Once infected, mosquito females are infected for all their life making virus detections possible at early steps before infections are reported in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we used a ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008135]

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Genome-wide mapping using new AFLP markers to explore intraspecific variation among pathogenic Sporothrix species.

Jamile Ambrósio de Carvalho, Ferry Hagen, Matthew C Fisher, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Anderson Messias Rodrigues,

Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix species, of which the main aetiological agents are S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, and S. globosa. Infection occurs after a traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules in mammals' skin and can follow either a classic route through traumatic inoculation by plant debris (e.g., ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008330]

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Retraction: Melioidosis: Clinical impact and public health threat in the tropics.

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PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008441]

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A randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of individual versus household treatment for Scabies in Lambaréné, Gabon.

Julian Matthewman, Rella Zoleko Manego, Lia Betty Dimessa Mbadinga, Hana Šinkovec, Katrin Völker, Malik Akinosho, Christian Haedrich, Jeanne Tardif d'Hamonville, Bertrand Lell, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Michael Ramharter, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma,

BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether individual treatment of scabies is similarly effective compared to household treatment. This study compared these two treatment strategies with topical benzyl benzoate for treating scabies in Lambaréné, Gabon. METHODS:Participants presenting with uncomplicated scabies were randomized into either the Individual Treatment group, where only the affected participants ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008423]

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Liver fluke infections by Amphimerus sp. (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae) in definitive and fish intermediate hosts in Manabí province, Ecuador.

Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Gabriela Valverde-Muñoz, Manuel Calvopina, Maira Rojas, William Cevallos, Hideo Kumazawa, Hidekazu Takagi, Hiromu Sugiyama,

Amphimerus sp. is a fluke that dwells in the biliary tracts of vertebrate definitive hosts including humans, domestic, and wild mammals in Latin America. Opisthorchiid liver infections are rarely studied in the Americas confirming its status as a neglected tropical disease. In Ecuador, small trematode eggs were reported in human ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008286]

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Knowledge, attitudes and bite prevention practices and estimation of productivity of vector breeding sites using a Habitat Suitability Score (HSS) among households with confirmed dengue in the 2014 outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Daniel Msellemu, Tegemeo Gavana, Hassan Ngonyani, Yeromin P Mlacha, Prosper Chaki, Sarah J Moore,

BACKGROUND:The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics has increased dramatically throughout the tropics in the past 40 years due to unplanned urbanization, globalization and lack of effective mosquito control. The commercial capital of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, is now experiencing regular dengue outbreaks. Three dengue serotypes have been detected in ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0007278]

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Future schistosome hybridizations: Will all Schistosoma haematobium hybrids please stand-up!

J Russell Stothard, Sekeleghe A Kayuni, Mohammad H Al-Harbi, Janelisa Musaya, Bonnie L Webster,

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008201]

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Pharmacological inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) induces global transcriptional deregulation and ultrastructural alterations that impair viability in Schistosoma mansoni.

Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Murilo Sena Amaral, Adriana S A Pereira, Gilbert Oliveira Silveira, David da Silva Pires, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Frank J Dekker, Dante Rotili, Antonello Mai, Eduardo José Lopes-Torres, Dina Robaa, Wolfgang Sippl, Raymond J Pierce, M Teresa Borrello, A Ganesan, Julien Lancelot, Silvana Thiengo, Monica Ammon Fernandez, Amanda Roberta Revoredo Vicentino, Marina Moraes Mourão, Fernanda Sales Coelho, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié,

Treatment and control of schistosomiasis still rely on only one effective drug, praziquantel (PZQ) and, due to mass treatment, the increasing risk of selecting for schistosome strains that are resistant to PZQ has alerted investigators to the urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies. The histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs) represent promising ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(7):e0008332]

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Comorbidities associated with non- healing of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients.

Brahmaiah Upputuri, Aparna Srikantam, Raja Sriswan Mamidi,

BACKGROUND:Non-healing plantar ulcers are one of the significant causes of disability in leprosy patients. Plantar ulcers often take months or years to heal, affecting the patient's quality of life. Presence of comorbid conditions in these patients can delay wound healing. The study aimed to evaluate the role of associated comorbid ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008393]

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Etiology of acute Gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age in Bucaramanga, Colombia: A case-control study.

Ana E Farfán-García, Aamer Imdad, Chengxian Zhang, Mónica Y Arias-Guerrero, Nayibe T Sánchez-Álvarez, Junaid Iqbal, Adriana E Hernández-Gamboa, James C Slaughter, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte,

BACKGROUND:Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries where limited access to potable water, poor sanitation, deficient hygiene, and food product contamination are prevalent. Research on the changing etiology of AGE and associated risk factors ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008375]

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Expansions of chemosensory gene orthologs among selected tsetse fly species and their expressions in Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly.

Joy M Kabaka, Benson M Wachira, Clarence M Mang'era, Martin K Rono, Ahmed Hassanali, Sylvance O Okoth, Vincent O Oduol, Rosaline W Macharia, Grace A Murilla, Paul O Mireji,

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008341]

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Opisthorchis felineus infection, risks, and morbidity in rural Western Siberia, Russian Federation.

Olga S Fedorova, Marina M Fedotova, Olga I Zvonareva, Sofia V Mazeina, Yulia V Kovshirina, Tatiana S Sokolova, Ekaterina A Golovach, Anna E Kovshirina, Uliana V Konovalova, Ivan L Kolomeets, Sergey S Gutor, Vyacheslav A Petrov, Jan Hattendorf, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Peter Odermatt,

BACKGROUND:The liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus, is widely distributed throughout Europe and large parts of the Russian Federation. In Western Siberia, information about opisthorchiasis is lacking although infection may lead to severe liver and bile duct diseases. We aimed to assess the current prevalence of O. felineus infection along with associated ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008421]

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Access to Chagas disease treatment in the United States after the regulatory approval of benznidazole.

Kota Yoshioka, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, James H Maguire, Michael R Reich,

Approximately 300,000 persons in the United States (US) are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan that causes Chagas disease, but less than 1% are estimated to have received antiparasitic treatment. Benznidazole was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of T. cruzi infection in 2017 and ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2020, 14(6):e0008398]

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