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Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis

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Field evaluation of the gut microbiome composition of pre-school and school-aged children in Tha Song Yang, Thailand, following oral MDA for STH infections.

Katharina Stracke, Poom Adisakwattana, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Akkarin Poodeepiyasawat, Paron Dekumyoy, Kittipong Chaisiri, Alexandra Roth Schulze, Stephen Wilcox, Harin Karunajeewa, Rebecca J Traub, Aaron R Jex,

Soil-transmitted helminths, such as roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.), are gastrointestinal parasites that occur predominantly in low- to middle-income countries worldwide and disproportionally impact children. Depending on the STH species, health status of the host and infection intensity, direct impacts of these ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009597]

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Active case detection methods for crusted scabies and leprosy: A systematic review.

Miriam Glennie, Karen Gardner, Michelle Dowden, Bart J Currie,

<h4>Background</h4>Crusted scabies is endemic in some remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia and carries a high mortality risk. Improvement in active case detection (ACD) for crusted scabies is hampered by a lack of evidence about best practice. We therefore conducted a systematic review of ACD methods ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009577]

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Miltefosine enhances infectivity of a miltefosine-resistant Leishmania infantum strain by attenuating its innate immune recognition.

Dimitri Bulté, Lieselotte Van Bockstal, Laura Dirkx, Magali Van den Kerkhof, Carl De Trez, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Sarah Hendrickx, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon,

<h4>Background</h4>Miltefosine (MIL) is currently the only oral drug available to treat visceral leishmaniasis but its use as first-line monotherapy has been compromised by an increasing treatment failure. Despite the scarce number of resistant clinical isolates, MIL-resistance by mutations in a single aminophospholipid transporter gene can easily be selected in a ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009622]

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Microbes increase thermal sensitivity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with the potential to change disease distributions.

Fhallon Ware-Gilmore, Carla M Sgrò, Zhiyong Xi, Heverton L C Dutra, Matthew J Jones, Katriona Shea, Matthew D Hall, Matthew B Thomas, Elizabeth A McGraw,

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of many disease-causing viruses, including dengue (DENV), Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As consequences of climate change, we expect an increase in both global mean temperatures and extreme climatic events. When temperatures fluctuate, mosquito vectors will be increasingly exposed to temperatures beyond ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009548]

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"Chagas Express XXI": A new ArtScience social technology for health and science education-A case study in Brazilian endemic areas of Chagas disease with an active search of chronic cases.

Tania C Araujo-Jorge, Roberto R Ferreira, Rita C M Rocha, Thallyta M Vieira, Nancy D Costa, Luzia L Santos, Josefa O Silva, Marcelo O Mendes, Juliana A Silva, Erik J Costa, Rodrigo Mexas, Jonathan G Oliveira, Ana M Suarez-Fontes, Teresa C M Gonçalves, Catarina M Lopes, Marcio L Mello, Cristina X A Borges, Luciana R Garzoni, Daniel Gibaldi, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Marcos A Vannier-Santos,

<h4>Background</h4>Chagas Disease (CD) affects 6-7 million people worldwide and is related to poverty-promoting conditions. Chronic asymptomatic cases are mostly invisible to health systems. Aiming (1) to translate CD discoveries into education/information practices to raise alertness and empowerment of affected people; and (2) to perform an active search of CD cases, ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009534]

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Staging liver fibrosis after severe yellow fever with ultrasound elastography in Brazil: A six-month follow-up study.

Yuri Costa Sarno Neves, Victor Augusto Camarinha de Castro-Lima, Davi Jorge Fontoura Solla, Vivian Simone de Medeiros Ogata, Fernando Linhares Pereira, Jordana Machado Araujo, Ana Catharina Seixas Nastri, Yeh-Li Ho, Maria Cristina Chammas,

<h4>Background</h4>Yellow fever (YF) is a hemorrhagic disease caused by an arbovirus endemic in South America, with recent outbreaks in the last years. Severe cases exhibit fulminant hepatitis, but there are no studies regarding its late-term effects on liver parenchyma. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009594]

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In vitro activity of SPR719 against Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium chimaera.

Sacha J Pidot, Jessica L Porter, Troy Lister, Timothy P Stinear,

Nontuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infections are increasing in prevalence across the world. In many cases, treatment options for these infections are limited. However, there has been progress in recent years in the development of new antimycobacterial drugs. Here, we investigate the in vitro activity of SPR719, a novel aminobenzimidazole antibiotic and ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009636]

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Linked surveillance and genetic data uncovers programmatically relevant geographic scale of Guinea worm transmission in Chad.

Jessica V Ribado, Nancy Li, Elizabeth Thiele, Hil Lyons, James A Cotton, Adam Weiss, Philippe Tchindebet Ouakou, Tchonfienet Moundai, Hubert Zirimwabagabo, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Joshua L Proctor,

<h4>Background</h4>Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) was detected in Chad in 2010 after a supposed ten-year absence, posing a challenge to the global eradication effort. Initiation of a village-based surveillance system in 2012 revealed a substantial number of dogs infected with Guinea worm, raising questions about paratenic hosts and cross-species transmission.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009609]

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The impact of dengue illness on social distancing and caregiving behavior.

Kathryn L Schaber, Amy C Morrison, William H Elson, Helvio Astete-Vega, Jhonny J Córdova-López, Esther Jennifer Ríos López, W Lorena Quiroz Flores, Alfonso S Vizcarra Santillan, Thomas W Scott, Lance A Waller, Uriel Kitron, Christopher M Barker, T Alex Perkins, Alan L Rothman, Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec, John P Elder, Valerie A Paz-Soldan,

<h4>Background</h4>Human mobility among residential locations can drive dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics. Recently, it was shown that individuals with symptomatic DENV infection exhibit significant changes in their mobility patterns, spending more time at home during illness. This change in mobility is predicted to increase the risk of acquiring infection for ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009614]

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A novel vehicle-mounted sticky trap; an effective sampling tool for savannah tsetse flies Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and Glossina morsitans centralis Machado.

Jackson Muyobela, Christian W W Pirk, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Njelembo J Mbewe, Catherine L Sole,

<h4>Background</h4>Black screen fly round (BFR) is a mobile sampling method for Glossina morsitans. This technique relies on the ability of operator(s) to capture flies landing on the screen with hand nets. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a vehicle-mounted sticky panel trap (VST) that is independent of the operator's ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009620]

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Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus-Leishmania major co-infection modulates innate inflammatory response favoring myeloid cell infections and skin hyperinflammation.

Ellen Heirwegh, Emily MacLean, Jinlei He, Shaden Kamhawi, Selena M Sagan, Martin Olivier,

<h4>Background</h4>The leishmaniases are a group of sandfly-transmitted diseases caused by species of the protozoan parasite, Leishmania. With an annual incidence of 1 million cases, 1 billion people living in Leishmania-endemic regions, and nearly 30,000 deaths each year, leishmaniasis is a major global public health concern. While phlebotomine sandflies are well-known ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009638]

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Cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination in Puerto Rico.

Guido España, Andrew J Leidner, Stephen H Waterman, T Alex Perkins,

An effective and widely used vaccine could reduce the burden of dengue virus (DENV) around the world. DENV is endemic in Puerto Rico, where the dengue vaccine CYD-TDV is currently under consideration as a control measure. CYD-TDV has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials in vaccinees who had prior dengue virus ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009606]

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Burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in India based on data from cross-sectional serosurveys, 2017 and 2019-20.

Devika Shanmugasundaram, Shally Awasthi, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, S Geetha, Manish Jain, Shikha Malik, Bhupeshwari Patel, Himabindu Singh, Shalini Tripathi, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Anjoo Agarwal, Rajeswari Bonu, Shuchi Jain, Saubhagya Kumar Jena, J Priyasree, K Pushpalatha, Syed Ali, Debasis Biswas, Amita Jain, Rahul Narang, Sudha Madhuri, Suji George, Ojas Kaduskar, G Kiruthika, R Sabarinathan, Gajanan Sapakal, Nivedita Gupta, Manoj V Murhekar,

<h4>Background</h4>India has set a goal to eliminate measles and rubella/Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) by 2023. Towards this goal, India conducted nationwide supplementary immunization activity (SIA) with measles-rubella containing vaccine (MRCV) targeting children aged between 9 months to <15 years and established a hospital-based sentinel surveillance for CRS. Reliable data about ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009608]

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Dipeptidyl peptidase III as a DNA marker to investigate epidemiology and taxonomy of Old World Leishmania species.

Insaf Bel Hadj Ali, Hamed Chouaieb, Yusr Saadi Ben Aoun, Emna Harigua-Souiai, Hejer Souguir, Alia Yaacoub, Oussaïma El Dbouni, Zoubir Harrat, Maowia M Mukhtar, Moncef Ben Said, Nabil Haddad, Akila Fathallah-Mili, Ikram Guizani,

<h4>Background</h4>Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPPIII) member of M49 peptidase family is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase that cleaves dipeptides sequentially from the N-terminus of its substrates. In Leishmania, DPPIII, was reported with other peptidases to play a significant role in parasites' growth and survival. In a previous study, we used a coding sequence ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009530]

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The burden of skin disease and eye disease due to onchocerciasis in countries formerly under the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control mandate for 1990, 2020, and 2030.

Natalie V S Vinkeles Melchers, Wilma A Stolk, Welmoed van Loon, Belén Pedrique, Roel Bakker, Michele E Murdoch, Sake J de Vlas, Luc E Coffeng,

<h4>Background</h4>Onchocerciasis ("river blindness") can cause severe morbidity, including vision loss and various skin manifestations, and is targeted for elimination using ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA). We calculated the number of people with Onchocerca volvulus infection and onchocercal skin and eye disease as well as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost from ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009604]

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Rate-of-Kill (RoK) assays to triage large compound sets for Chagas disease drug discovery: Application to GSK Chagas Box.

Juan Cantizani, Pablo Gamallo, Ignacio Cotillo, Raquel Alvarez-Velilla, Julio Martin,

Chagas disease (CD) is a human disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Whilst endemic in Latin America, the disease is spread around the world due to migration flows, being estimated that 8 million people are infected worldwide and over 10,000 people die yearly of complications linked to CD. Current chemotherapeutics is ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009602]

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A review of the leishmanin skin test: A neglected test for a neglected disease.

Jessica Carstens-Kass, Kayla Paulini, Patrick Lypaczewski, Greg Matlashewski,

The leishmanin skin test (LST) has been used for decades to detect exposure and immunity to the parasite Leishmania, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. In the LST, Leishmania antigen (leishmanin) is intradermally injected into the forearm. In an individual who has been previously infected, a delayed-type ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009531]

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Mapping survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases towards mass drug administration in The Gambia.

Yaya Camara, Bakary Sanneh, Ebrima Joof, Abdoulie M Sanyang, Sana M Sambou, Alhagie Papa Sey, Fatou O Sowe, Amadou Woury Jallow, Balla Jatta, Sharmila Lareef-Jah, Sainey Sanneh, Flobert Njiokou, Abdoulie Jack, Serign Jawo Ceesay, Chinyere Ukaga,

<h4>Background</h4>A national mapping survey of schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) was conducted in The Gambia in May, 2015. The survey aimed at establishing endemicity of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases to inform decisions on program planning and implementation of mass drug administration (MDA).<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>A cross-section of 10,434 eligible school aged ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009462]

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Addressing antimicrobial resistance by improving access and quality of care-A review of the literature from East Africa.

Kathrin Loosli, Alicia Davis, Adrian Muwonge, Tiziana Lembo,

Universal access to healthcare, including quality medicines, is a fundamental human right but is still out of reach for many in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An existing framework capturing variability of access to healthcare in low-resource settings includes the 5 dimensions: availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability. This framework ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009529]

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The Myanmar military coup: Propelling the 2030 milestones for neglected tropical diseases further out of reach.

Bethany Moos, Russell Roberts, Mo Aye,

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009532]

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Epidemiological and numerical simulation of rabies spreading from canines to various human populations in mainland China.

Wen-Gao Lu, Danni Ai, Hong Song, Yuan Xie, Shuqing Liu, Wuyang Zhu, Jian Yang,

<h4>Background</h4>The mortality of humans due to rabies in China has been declining in recent years, but it is still a significant public health problem. According to the global framework, China strives to achieve the goal of eliminating human rabies before 2030.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed the epidemiology of human deaths from rabies in ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009527]

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Distribution and natural infection status of synantrophic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, reveals new epidemiological scenarios for chagas disease in the Highlands of Colombia.

Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Manuel Medina, Sara Zuluaga, María Isabel Blanco, Rodrigo Caro, Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Virgilio Beltrán, Samanta Cc Xavier, Omar Triana-Chavez,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Updating the distribution and natural infection status of triatomine bugs is critical for planning, prioritizing, and implementing strategies to control Chagas disease (CD), especially after vector reduction programs. After carrying out a control program, the Department of Boyaca contains the highest number of Colombian municipalities certified by PAHO to be ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009574]

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Evolution, systematics and historical biogeography of sand flies of the subgenus Paraphlebotomus (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotomus) inferred using restriction-site associated DNA markers.

Astrid Cruaud, Véronique Lehrter, Guenaëlle Genson, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Jérôme Depaquit,

Phlebotomine sand flies are the main natural vectors of Leishmania, which cause visceral and tegumentary tropical diseases worldwide. However, their taxonomy and evolutionary history remain poorly studied. Indeed, as for many human disease vectors, their small size is a challenge for morphological and molecular works. Here, we successfully amplified unbiased ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009479]

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The discovery of a novel series of compounds with single-dose efficacy against juvenile and adult Schistosoma species.

J Mark F Gardner, Nuha R Mansour, Andrew S Bell, Helena Helmby, Quentin Bickle,

Treatment and control of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug, praziquantel, but this is not ideal for several reasons including lack of potency against the juvenile stage of the parasite, dose size, and risk of resistance. We have optimised the properties of a series of compounds we discovered through high ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009490]

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Emergent canine visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina: Comparative diagnostics and relevance to proliferation of human disease.

Kyoko Fujisawa, Charlotte Silcott-Niles, Poppy Simonson, Daniela Lamattina, Cristian A Humeres, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Pascal Mertens, Caroline Thunissen, Victoria O'Rourke, Magdalena Pańczuk, James A Whitworth, Oscar Daniel Salomón, Michael A Miles,

<h4>Background</h4>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic protozoal vector-borne disease that is a major public health challenge. In Argentina, canine (CVL) and human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) have recently emerged. There is a lack of standardised diagnostic tests for CVL, which hinders control of CVL and HVL.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Sampling was carried out in ... Read more >>

PLoS Negl Trop Dis (PLoS neglected tropical diseases)
[2021, 15(7):e0009552]

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