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Journal Nutrients

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Strategies for Reducing Salt and Sugar Intakes in Individuals at Increased Cardiometabolic Risk.

Valentina Ponzo, Marianna Pellegrini, Paola Costelli, Laura Vázquez-Araújo, Lucía Gayoso, Chiara D'Eusebio, Ezio Ghigo, Simona Bo,

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the first causes of death worldwide. Reduction in the dietary intake of salt and sugars is important lifestyle advice that is useful for NCD prevention. However, the simple recommendations of reducing salt and sugars by healthcare professionals are often ineffective; innovative strategies are therefore necessary. This ... Read more >>

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Food Labeling: Analysis, Understanding, and Perception.

Daniela Martini, Davide Menozzi,

Food labels are the first informative tool found by the customers during shopping, and are informative in terms of ingredients, nutrient content, and the presence of allergens of the selected product [...]. ... Read more >>

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Bovine Colostrum: Its Constituents and Uses.

Raymond John Playford, Michael James Weiser,

Colostrum is the milk produced during the first few days after birth and contains high levels of immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides, and growth factors. Colostrum is important for supporting the growth, development, and immunologic defence of neonates. Colostrum is naturally packaged in a combination that helps prevent its destruction and maintain ... Read more >>

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Effects of Cistanche tubulosa Wight Extract on Locomotive Syndrome: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

Yuna Inada, Chihiro Tohda, Ximeng Yang,

In an aging society, preventing dysfunction and restoring function of the locomotive organs are necessary for long-term quality of life. Few interventional studies have investigated supplementation for locomotive syndrome. Additionally, very few interventional clinical studies on locomotive syndrome have been performed as placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind studies. We previously found that ... Read more >>

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Ayurvedic Herbal Preparation Supplementation Does Not Improve Metabolic Health in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Subjects; Observations from a Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial.

Diederik Esser, Juri Matualatupauw, Ric C H de Vos, Ron Wehrens, Jos van der Stappen, Ingrid van der Meer, Lydia A Afman,

The increased usage of alternative Ayurvedic treatments as potential health-beneficial therapies emphasizes the importance of studying its efficacy in sound placebo-controlled intervention trials. An example of such a traditional Ayurvedic herbal preparation is Mohana Choorna, a mixture composed of 20 different herbs and used to prevent and treat type 2-diabetes ... Read more >>

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Association of Testosterone-Related Dietary Pattern with Testicular Function among Adult Men: A Cross-Sectional Health Screening Study in Taiwan.

Adi-Lukas Kurniawan, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao, Rathi Paramastri, Hsiu-An Lee, Pao-Chin Lai, Nan-Chen Hsieh, Shu-Fang Vivienne Wu,

Diets could play an important role in testicular function, but studies on how adherence to the dietary patterns influences human testicular function in Asian countries are scarce. Herein, we examined the association between testosterone-related dietary patterns and testicular function among adult men in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study recruited 3283 men ... Read more >>

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Effects of Caloric Restriction Diet on Arterial Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction.

Nicola Di Daniele, Giulia Marrone, Manuela Di Lauro, Francesca Di Daniele, Daniela Palazzetti, Cristina Guerriero, Annalisa Noce,

The most common manifestation of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is the presence of arterial hypertension (AH), which impacts on endothelial dysfunction. CV risk is associated with high values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and depends on the presence of risk factors, both modifiable and not modifiable, such as overweight, obesity, ... Read more >>

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Mechanisms of Dietary Sodium-Induced Impairments in Endothelial Function and Potential Countermeasures.

Jordan C Patik, Shannon L Lennon, William B Farquhar, David G Edwards,

Despite decades of efforts to reduce sodium intake, excess dietary sodium remains commonplace, and contributes to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effects on blood pressure. An increasing amount of research suggests that high-sodium diets lead to reduced nitric oxide-mediated endothelial function, even in the absence of a ... Read more >>

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Pathophysiological Basis for Nutraceutical Supplementation in Heart Failure: A Comprehensive Review.

Vincenzo Mollace, Giuseppe M C Rosano, Stefan D Anker, Andrew J S Coats, Petar Seferovic, Rocco Mollace, Annamaria Tavernese, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Jessica Maiuolo, Roberta Macrì, Francesca Bosco, Marcello Chiocchi, Francesco Romeo, Marco Metra, Maurizio Volterrani,

There is evidence demonstrating that heart failure (HF) occurs in 1-2% of the global population and is often accompanied by comorbidities which contribute to increasing the prevalence of the disease, the rate of hospitalization and the mortality. Although recent advances in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have led to a ... Read more >>

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Protective Effects of Medicinal Plant Decoctions on Macrophages in the Context of Atherosclerosis.

Eloïse Checkouri, Stéphane Ramin-Mangata, Nicolas Diotel, Wildriss Viranaicken, Claude Marodon, Franck Reignier, Christine Robert-Da Silva, Olivier Meilhac,

Atherosclerosis is a hallmark of most cardiovascular diseases. The implication of macrophages in this pathology is widely documented, notably for their contribution to lipid accumulation within the arterial wall, associated with oxidative stress and inflammation processes. In order to prevent or limit the atherosclerosis damage, nutritional approaches and medicinal plant-based ... Read more >>

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Polyphenols and Human Health: The Role of Bioavailability.

Chiara Di Lorenzo, Francesca Colombo, Simone Biella, Creina Stockley, Patrizia Restani,

Polyphenols are a group of phytochemicals with potential health-promoting effects. They are classified as flavonoid (flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, and anthocyanins) and non-flavonoid molecules (phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, lignans, stilbenes, and tannins). Although an increasing number of trials have shown a correlation among polyphenol consumption and a reduction in ... Read more >>

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Associations of Skipping Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner with Weight Gain and Overweight/Obesity in University Students: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Ryohei Yamamoto, Ryohei Tomi, Maki Shinzawa, Ryuichi Yoshimura, Shingo Ozaki, Kaori Nakanishi, Seiko Ide, Izumi Nagatomo, Makoto Nishida, Keiko Yamauchi-Takihara, Takashi Kudo, Toshiki Moriyama,

Although multiple studies have identified skipping breakfast as a risk factor for weight gain, there is limited evidence on the clinical impact of skipping lunch and dinner on weight gain. This retrospective cohort study including 17,573 male and 8860 female university students at a national university in Japan, assessed the ... Read more >>

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Higher Intakes of Potassium and Magnesium, but Not Lower Sodium, Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in the Framingham Offspring Study.

R Taylor Pickering, M Loring Bradlee, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore,

We explored the dose-response relations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the Framingham Offspring Study, as well as the combined effects of these minerals. Analyses included 2362 30-64 year-old men and women free of CVD at baseline. Cox proportional-hazards models were used estimate adjusted ... Read more >>

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Reporting of Perinatal Outcomes in Probiotic Randomized Controlled Trials. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Íñigo María Pérez-Castillo, Rafael Fernández-Castillo, Agustín Lasserrot-Cuadrado, José Luís Gallo-Vallejo, Ana María Rojas-Carvajal, María José Aguilar-Cordero,

The use of probiotic microorganisms in clinical practice has increased in recent years and a significant number of pregnant women are regular consumers of these products. However, probiotics might modulate the immune system, and whether or not this modulation is beneficial for perinatal outcomes is unclear. We performed a systematic ... Read more >>

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Eat Your Broccoli: Oxidative Stress, NRF2, and Sulforaphane in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Scott E Liebman, Thu H Le,

The mainstay of therapy for chronic kidney disease is control of blood pressure and proteinuria through the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) that were introduced more than 20 years ago. Yet, many chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients still progress to end-stage kidney disease-the ultimate ... Read more >>

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Association of Circulating Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Its Dietary Determinants with the Risk of Kidney Graft Failure: Results of the TransplantLines Cohort Study.

Jose L Flores-Guerrero, Maryse C J Osté, Paula B Baraldi, Margery A Connelly, Erwin Garcia, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart,

Due to the critical shortage of kidneys for transplantation, the identification of modifiable factors related to graft failure is highly desirable. The role of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in graft failure remains undetermined. Here, we investigated the clinical utility of TMAO and its dietary determinants for graft failure prediction in renal transplant ... Read more >>

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A Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Yan Yi Koay, Gerald Chen Jie Tan, Sonia Chew Wen Phang, J-Ian Ho, Pei Fen Chuar, Loon Shin Ho, Badariah Ahmad, Khalid Abdul Kadir,

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a debilitating complication of diabetes, which develops in 40% of the diabetic population and is responsible for up to 50% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Tocotrienols have shown to be a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic agent in animal and clinical studies. This study evaluated ... Read more >>

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Vitamin D Modulation of the Innate Immune Response to Paediatric Respiratory Pathogens Associated with Acute Lower Respiratory Infections.

Amy S Bleakley, Paul V Licciardi, Michael J Binks,

Vitamin D is an essential component of immune function and childhood deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs). Globally, the leading childhood respiratory pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus and the influenza virus. There is a growing body of evidence describing the innate ... Read more >>

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The Potential Properties of Natural Compounds in Cardiac Stem Cell Activation: Their Role in Myocardial Regeneration.

Cristina Carresi, Miriam Scicchitano, Federica Scarano, Roberta Macrì, Francesca Bosco, Saverio Nucera, Stefano Ruga, Maria Caterina Zito, Rocco Mollace, Lorenza Guarnieri, Anna Rita Coppoletta, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Jessica Maiuolo, Ernesto Palma, Vincenzo Mollace,

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and many other cardiac disorders, cause about 30% of deaths globally; representing one of the main health problems worldwide. Among CVDs, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality ... Read more >>

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Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Longitudinal Studies.

Julia Wicherski, Sabrina Schlesinger, Florian Fischer,

Globally, increasing rates of obesity are one of the most important health issues. The association between breakfast skipping and body weight is contradictory between cross-sectional and interventional studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize this association based on observational longitudinal studies. We included prospective studies on breakfast skipping ... Read more >>

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Effects of School-Based Exercise and Nutrition Intervention on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Overweight Adolescent Girls.

Špela Bogataj, Nebojša Trajković, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Vedrana Sember,

Regular exercise during school hours is encouraged since childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Moreover, a great majority of adolescents do not meet the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The present study aimed to determine the effects of school-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and nutrition intervention on body composition and ... Read more >>

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Effects of Late-Life Caloric Restriction on Age-Related Alterations in the Rat Cortex and Hippocampus.

Claudia Tonini, Marco Segatto, Francesca Martino, Luisa Cigliano, Martina Nazzaro, Laura Barberio, Maurizio Mandalà, Valentina Pallottini,

<h4>Background</h4>A major problem of aging is the disruption of metabolic homeostasis. This is particularly relevant in the brain where it provokes neurodegeneration. Caloric restriction is a physiologic intervention known to delay the deleterious consequences of aging in several species ranging from yeast to mammals. To date, most studies on experimental ... Read more >>

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Maternal Folic Acid Deficiency Is Associated to Developing Nasal and Palate Malformations in Mice.

Estela Maldonado, Elena Martínez-Sanz, Teresa Partearroyo, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz,

Craniofacial development requires extremely fine-tuned developmental coordination of multiple specialized tissues. It has been evidenced that a folate deficiency (vitamin B<sub>9</sub>), or its synthetic form, folic acid (FA), in maternal diet could trigger multiple craniofacial malformations as oral clefts, tongue, or mandible abnormalities. In this study, a folic acid-deficient (FAD) ... Read more >>

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Changes of Taste, Smell and Eating Behavior in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: Associations with PROP Phenotypes and Polymorphisms in the Odorant-Binding Protein OBPIIa and CD36 Receptor Genes.

Melania Melis, Stefano Pintus, Mariano Mastinu, Giovanni Fantola, Roberto Moroni, Marta Yanina Pepino, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa,

Bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for severe obesity and related comorbidities. Although patients who underwent bariatric surgery report changes of taste and smell perception, results from sensory studies are discrepant and limited. Here, we assessed taste and smell functions in 51 patients before, one month, and six ... Read more >>

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Current Evidence on the Role of the Gut Microbiome in ADHD Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Implications.

Ana Checa-Ros, Antonio Jeréz-Calero, Antonio Molina-Carballo, Cristina Campoy, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos,

Studies suggest that the bidirectional relationship existent between the gut microbiome (GM) and the central nervous system (CNS), or so-called the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA), is involved in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases in children and adults. In pediatric age, most studies have focused on patients with autism. However, evidence of the role ... Read more >>

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