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Rapid geomagnetic changes inferred from Earth observations and numerical simulations.

Christopher J Davies, Catherine G Constable,

Extreme variations in the direction of Earth's magnetic field contain important information regarding the operation of the geodynamo. Paleomagnetic studies have reported rapid directional changes reaching 1° yr-1, although the observations are controversial and their relation to physical processes in Earth's core unknown. Here we show excellent agreement between amplitudes and ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3371]

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Contactless probing of polycrystalline methane hydrate at pore scale suggests weaker tensile properties than thought.

Dyhia Atig, Daniel Broseta, Jean-Michel Pereira, Ross Brown,

Methane hydrate is widely distributed in the pores of marine sediments or permafrost soils, contributing to their mechanical properties. Yet the tensile properties of the hydrate at pore scales remain almost completely unknown, notably the influence of grain size on its own cohesion. Here we grow thin films of the ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3379]

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Two-dimensional optomechanical crystal cavity with high quantum cooperativity.

Hengjiang Ren, Matthew H Matheny, Gregory S MacCabe, Jie Luo, Hannes Pfeifer, Mohammad Mirhosseini, Oskar Painter,

Optomechanical systems offer new opportunities in quantum information processing and quantum sensing. Many solid-state quantum devices operate at millikelvin temperatures-however, it has proven challenging to operate nanoscale optomechanical devices at these ultralow temperatures due to their limited thermal conductance and parasitic optical absorption. Here, we present a two-dimensional optomechanical crystal ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3373]

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Author Correction: Naturally-occurring cholesterol analogues in lipid nanoparticles induce polymorphic shape and enhance intracellular delivery of mRNA.

Siddharth Patel, N Ashwanikumar, Ema Robinson, Yan Xia, Cosmin Mihai, Joseph P Griffith, Shangguo Hou, Adam A Esposito, Tatiana Ketova, Kevin Welsher, John L Joyal, Örn Almarsson, Gaurav Sahay,

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3435]

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Astrocytic Ca2+ signaling is reduced during sleep and is involved in the regulation of slow wave sleep.

Laura Bojarskaite, Daniel M Bjørnstad, Klas H Pettersen, Céline Cunen, Gudmund Horn Hermansen, Knut Sindre Åbjørsbråten, Anna R Chambers, Rolf Sprengel, Koen Vervaeke, Wannan Tang, Rune Enger, Erlend A Nagelhus,

Astrocytic Ca2+ signaling has been intensively studied in health and disease but has not been quantified during natural sleep. Here, we employ an activity-based algorithm to assess astrocytic Ca2+ signals in the neocortex of awake and naturally sleeping mice while monitoring neuronal Ca2+ activity, brain rhythms and behavior. We show ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3240]

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Pre-clinical study of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells for Parkinson's disease.

Daisuke Doi, Hiroaki Magotani, Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, Megumi Ikeda, Satoe Hiramatsu, Kenji Yoshida, Naoki Amano, Masaki Nomura, Masafumi Umekage, Asuka Morizane, Jun Takahashi,

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons are an expected source for cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD). The regulatory criteria for the clinical application of these therapies, however, have not been established. Here we show the results of our pre-clinical study, in which we evaluate the safety and ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3369]

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Structural insight into mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane protein biogenesis.

Kathryn A Diederichs, Xiaodan Ni, Sarah E Rollauer, Istvan Botos, Xiaofeng Tan, Martin S King, Edmund R S Kunji, Jiansen Jiang, Susan K Buchanan,

In mitochondria, β-barrel outer membrane proteins mediate protein import, metabolite transport, lipid transport, and biogenesis. The Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) complex consists of three proteins that assemble as a 1:1:1 complex to fold β-barrel proteins and insert them into the mitochondrial outer membrane. We report cryoEM structures of the ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3290]

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A thermally activated and highly miscible dopant for n-type organic thermoelectrics.

Chi-Yuan Yang, Yi-Fan Ding, Dazhen Huang, Jue Wang, Ze-Fan Yao, Chun-Xi Huang, Yang Lu, Hio-Ieng Un, Fang-Dong Zhuang, Jin-Hu Dou, Chong-An Di, Daoben Zhu, Jie-Yu Wang, Ting Lei, Jian Pei,

N-doping plays an irreplaceable role in controlling the electron concentration of organic semiconductors thus to improve performance of organic semiconductor devices. However, compared with many mature p-doping methods, n-doping of organic semiconductor is still of challenges. In particular, dopant stability/processability, counterion-semiconductor immiscibility and doping induced microstructure non-uniformity have restricted the ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3292]

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Collective dipole effects in ionic transport under electric fields.

N Salles, L Martin-Samos, S de Gironcoli, L Giacomazzi, M Valant, A Hemeryck, P Blaise, B Sklenard, N Richard,

In the context of ionic transport in solids, the variation of a migration barrier height under electric fields is traditionally assumed to be equal to the classical electric work of a point charge that carries the transport charge. However, how reliable is this phenomenological model and how does it fare ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3330]

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Polymer physics indicates chromatin folding variability across single-cells results from state degeneracy in phase separation.

Mattia Conte, Luca Fiorillo, Simona Bianco, Andrea M Chiariello, Andrea Esposito, Mario Nicodemi,

The spatial organization of chromosomes has key functional roles, yet how chromosomes fold remains poorly understood at the single-molecule level. Here, we employ models of polymer physics to investigate DNA loci in human HCT116 and IMR90 wild-type and cohesin depleted cells. Model predictions on single-molecule structures are validated against single-cell ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3289]

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Decisions bias future choices by modifying hippocampal associative memories.

Lennart Luettgau, Claus Tempelmann, Luca Franziska Kaiser, Gerhard Jocham,

Decision-making is guided by memories of option values. However, retrieving items from memory renders them malleable. Here, we show that merely retrieving values from memory and making a choice between options is sufficient both to induce changes to stimulus-reward associations in the hippocampus and to bias future decision-making. After allowing ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3318]

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Subsurface chemical nanoidentification by nano-FTIR spectroscopy.

Lars Mester, Alexander A Govyadinov, Shu Chen, Monika Goikoetxea, Rainer Hillenbrand,

Nano-FTIR spectroscopy based on Fourier transform infrared near-field spectroscopy allows for label-free chemical nanocharacterization of organic and inorganic composite surfaces. The potential capability for subsurface material analysis, however, is largely unexplored terrain. Here, we demonstrate nano-FTIR spectroscopy of subsurface organic layers, revealing that nano-FTIR spectra from thin surface layers differ ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3359]

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Comprehensive identification of mRNA isoforms reveals the diversity of neural cell-surface molecules with roles in retinal development and disease.

Thomas A Ray, Kelly Cochran, Chris Kozlowski, Jingjing Wang, Graham Alexander, Martha A Cady, William J Spencer, Philip A Ruzycki, Brian S Clark, Annelies Laeremans, Ming-Xiao He, Xiaoming Wang, Emily Park, Ying Hao, Alessandro Iannaccone, Gary Hu, Olivier Fedrigo, Nikolai P Skiba, Vadim Y Arshavsky, Jeremy N Kay,

Genes encoding cell-surface proteins control nervous system development and are implicated in neurological disorders. These genes produce alternative mRNA isoforms which remain poorly characterized, impeding understanding of how disease-associated mutations cause pathology. Here we introduce a strategy to define complete portfolios of full-length isoforms encoded by individual genes. Applying this ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3328]

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Observation of Weyl fermions in a magnetic non-centrosymmetric crystal.

Daniel S Sanchez, Guoqing Chang, Ilya Belopolski, Hong Lu, Jia-Xin Yin, Nasser Alidoust, Xitong Xu, Tyler A Cochran, Xiao Zhang, Yi Bian, Songtian S Zhang, Yi-Yuan Liu, Jie Ma, Guang Bian, Hsin Lin, Su-Yang Xu, Shuang Jia, M Zahid Hasan,

The absence of inversion symmetry in non-centrosymmetric materials has a fundamental role in the emergence of a vast number of fascinating phenomena, like ferroelectricity, second harmonic generation, and Weyl fermions. The removal of time-reversal symmetry in such systems further extends the variety of observable magneto-electric and topological effects. Here we ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3356]

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Characterization of an alternative BAK-binding site for BH3 peptides.

Kaiqin Ye, Wei X Meng, Hongbin Sun, Bo Wu, Meng Chen, Yuan-Ping Pang, Jia Gao, Hongzhi Wang, Junfeng Wang, Scott H Kaufmann, Haiming Dai,

Many cellular stresses are transduced into apoptotic signals through modification or up-regulation of the BH3-only subfamily of BCL2 proteins. Through direct or indirect mechanisms, these proteins activate BAK and BAX to permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. While the BH3-only proteins BIM, PUMA, and tBID have been confirmed to directly activate ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3301]

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An ecological framework to understand the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation.

Yandong Xiao, Marco Tulio Angulo, Songyang Lao, Scott T Weiss, Yang-Yu Liu,

Human gut microbiota plays critical roles in physiology and disease. Our understanding of ecological principles that govern the dynamics and resilience of this highly complex ecosystem remains rudimentary. This knowledge gap becomes more problematic as new approaches to modifying this ecosystem, such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), are being developed ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3329]

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Manipulating interstitial carbon atoms in the nickel octahedral site for highly efficient hydrogenation of alkyne.

Yiming Niu, Xing Huang, Yongzhao Wang, Ming Xu, Junnan Chen, Shuliang Xu, Marc-Georg Willinger, Wei Zhang, Min Wei, Bingsen Zhang,

Light elements in the interstitial site of transition metals have strong influence on heterogeneous catalysis via either expression of surface structures or even direct participation into reaction. Interstitial atoms are generally metastable with a strong environmental dependence, setting up giant challenges in controlling of heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we show that ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3324]

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Germline de novo mutation rates on exons versus introns in humans.

Miguel Rodriguez-Galindo, Sònia Casillas, Donate Weghorn, Antonio Barbadilla,

A main assumption of molecular population genetics is that genomic mutation rate does not depend on sequence function. Challenging this assumption, a recent study has found a reduction in the mutation rate in exons compared to introns in somatic cells, ascribed to an enhanced exonic mismatch repair system activity. If ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3304]

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Rationally inattentive intertemporal choice.

Samuel J Gershman, Rahul Bhui,

Discounting of future rewards is traditionally interpreted as evidence for an intrinsic preference in favor of sooner rewards. However, temporal discounting can also arise from internal uncertainty in value representations of future events, if one assumes that noisy mental simulations of the future are rationally combined with prior beliefs. Here, ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3365]

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Predicting and affecting response to cancer therapy based on pathway-level biomarkers.

Rotem Ben-Hamo, Adi Jacob Berger, Nancy Gavert, Mendy Miller, Guy Pines, Roni Oren, Eli Pikarsky, Cyril H Benes, Tzahi Neuman, Yaara Zwang, Sol Efroni, Gad Getz, Ravid Straussman,

Identifying robust, patient-specific, and predictive biomarkers presents a major obstacle in precision oncology. To optimize patient-specific therapeutic strategies, here we couple pathway knowledge with large-scale drug sensitivity, RNAi, and CRISPR-Cas9 screening data from 460 cell lines. Pathway activity levels are found to be strong predictive biomarkers for the essentiality of ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3296]

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Fully stretchable active-matrix organic light-emitting electrochemical cell array.

Jia Liu, Jiechen Wang, Zhitao Zhang, Francisco Molina-Lopez, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Bob C Schroeder, Xuzhou Yan, Yitian Zeng, Oliver Zhao, Helen Tran, Ting Lei, Yang Lu, Yi-Xuan Wang, Jeffrey B-H Tok, Reinhold Dauskardt, Jong Won Chung, Youngjun Yun, Zhenan Bao,

Intrinsically and fully stretchable active-matrix-driven displays are an important element to skin electronics that can be applied to many emerging fields, such as wearable electronics, consumer electronics and biomedical devices. Here, we show for the first time a fully stretchable active-matrix-driven organic light-emitting electrochemical cell array. Briefly, it is comprised ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3362]

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Ultra-fast vortex motion in a direct-write Nb-C superconductor.

O V Dobrovolskiy, D Yu Vodolazov, F Porrati, R Sachser, V M Bevz, M Yu Mikhailov, A V Chumak, M Huth,

The ultra-fast dynamics of superconducting vortices harbors rich physics generic to nonequilibrium collective systems. The phenomenon of flux-flow instability (FFI), however, prevents its exploration and sets practical limits for the use of vortices in various applications. To suppress the FFI, a superconductor should exhibit a rarely achieved combination of properties: ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3291]

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Butyrate producing colonic Clostridiales metabolise human milk oligosaccharides and cross feed on mucin via conserved pathways.

Michael Jakob Pichler, Chihaya Yamada, Bashar Shuoker, Camila Alvarez-Silva, Aina Gotoh, Maria Louise Leth, Erwin Schoof, Toshihiko Katoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Takane Katayama, Chunsheng Jin, Niclas G Karlsson, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Shinya Fushinobu, Maher Abou Hachem,

The early life human gut microbiota exerts life-long health effects on the host, but the mechanisms underpinning its assembly remain elusive. Particularly, the early colonization of Clostridiales from the Roseburia-Eubacterium group, associated with protection from colorectal cancer, immune- and metabolic disorders is enigmatic. Here, we describe catabolic pathways that support ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3285]

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Stable machine-learning parameterization of subgrid processes for climate modeling at a range of resolutions.

Janni Yuval, Paul A O'Gorman,

Global climate models represent small-scale processes such as convection using subgrid models known as parameterizations, and these parameterizations contribute substantially to uncertainty in climate projections. Machine learning of new parameterizations from high-resolution model output is a promising approach, but such parameterizations have been prone to issues of instability and climate ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3295]

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Mechanistic insights into chromatin targeting by leukemic NUP98-PHF23 fusion.

Yi Zhang, Yiran Guo, Sheryl M Gough, Jinyong Zhang, Kendra R Vann, Kuai Li, Ling Cai, Xiaobing Shi, Peter D Aplan, Gang Greg Wang, Tatiana G Kutateladze,

Chromosomal NUP98-PHF23 translocation is associated with an aggressive form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and poor survival rate. Here, we report the molecular mechanisms by which NUP98-PHF23 recognizes the histone mark H3K4me3 and is inhibited by small molecule compounds, including disulfiram that directly targets the PHD finger of PHF23 (PHF23PHD). ... Read more >>

Nat Commun (Nature communications)
[2020, 11(1):3339]

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