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Journal Microorganisms

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Bifidobacterium β-Glucosidase Activity and Fermentation of Dietary Plant Glucosides Is Species and Strain Specific.

Nikol Modrackova, Eva Vlkova, Vaclav Tejnecky, Clarissa Schwab, Vera Neuzil-Bunesova,

Dietary plant glucosides are phytochemicals whose bioactivity and bioavailability can be modified by glucoside hydrolase activity of intestinal microbiota through the release of acylglycones. Bifidobacteria are gut commensals whose genomic potential indicates host-adaption as they possess a diverse set of glycosyl hydrolases giving access to a variety of dietary glycans. ... Read more >>

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Combined Application of Bacteriophages and Carvacrol in the Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Planktonic and Biofilm Forms.

Peien Ni, Lei Wang, Bohan Deng, Songtao Jiu, Chao Ma, Caixi Zhang, Adelaide Almeida, Dapeng Wang, Wenping Xu, Shiping Wang,

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causative agent of the bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.). Phage therapy has been suggested as a viable alternative approach to controlling this disease, but its efficacy is limited by the emergence of phage-resistant mutants. Carvacrol is an essential oil that may be ... Read more >>

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FurA-Dependent Microcystin Synthesis under Copper Stress in Microcystis aeruginosa.

Yuanyuan Chen, Jiaojiao Yin, Jin Wei, Xuezhen Zhang,

Massive blooms of cyanobacteria frequently occur with microcystin (MC) production. Cyanobacteria are exposed to copper stresses such as copper algaecides which are often used to remove cyanobacterial blooms. However, copper increased the MC production of cyanobacteria, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the relationship between copper ... Read more >>

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Novel 2D and 3D Assays to Determine the Activity of Anti-Leishmanial Drugs.

Alec O'Keeffe, Christine Hale, James A Cotton, Vanessa Yardley, Kapish Gupta, Abhishek Ananthanarayanan, Sudaxshina Murdan, Simon L Croft,

The discovery of novel anti-leishmanial compounds remains essential as current treatments have known limitations and there are insufficient novel compounds in development. We have investigated three complex and physiologically relevant in vitro assays, including: (i) a media perfusion based cell culture model, (ii) two 3D cell culture models, and (iii) ... Read more >>

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Industrial Performance of Several Lachancea thermotolerans Strains for pH Control in White Wines from Warm Areas.

Cristian Vaquero, Iris Loira, María Antonia Bañuelos, José María Heras, Rafael Cuerda, Antonio Morata,

In the current scenario of climatic warming, the over-ripening of grapes increases the sugar content, producing flat and alcoholic wines with low acidity, high pH and low freshness. Additionally, a high pH makes wines more chemically and microbiologically unstable, requiring a higher sulphite content for preservation. Some strains of Lachancea ... Read more >>

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Infections of Deep Hand and Wrist Compartments.

Konstantinos N Malizos, Zoe K Papadopoulou, Anna N Ziogkou, Nikolaos Rigopoulos, Efstratios D Athanaselis, Socrates E Varitimidis, Zoe C Dailiana,

The human hand is the most exposed part of the body to highest risk for injuries, loss of the skin integrity, and to the inoculation of bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β-haemolytic, and gram-negative. In case of an infection, the mobile anatomical structures and the synovial membranes in close ... Read more >>

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Probiotic Cocktail Identified by Microbial Network Analysis Inhibits Growth, Virulence Gene Expression, and Host Cell Colonization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci.

Wei-Sheng Sun, Yuarn-Jang Lee, Kun-Nan Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Ho, Shiuh-Bin Fang,

The prevalence of vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE) carrier-state has been increasing in patients of intensive care unit and it would be a public health threat. Different research groups conducted decolonizing VRE with probiotic and the results were controversial. Therefore, a systemic approach to search for the probiotic species capable of ... Read more >>

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Spatial Variation in Bacterioplankton Communities in the Pearl River, South China: Impacts of Land Use and Physicochemical Factors.

Lei Zhou, Weiyuan Chen, Jijia Sun, Li Liu, Xiande Huang,

River ecosystems are critical for human and environmental health, with bacterioplankton playing a vital role in biogeochemical cycles. Unveiling the spatial patterns of bacterioplankton communities in relation to environmental factors is important for understanding the processes of microbial variation and functional maintenance. However, our understanding of the correlations among bacterioplankton ... Read more >>

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Soil Bacterial Diversity and Potential Functions Are Regulated by Long-Term Conservation Tillage and Straw Mulching.

Chang Liu, Lingling Li, Junhong Xie, Jeffrey A Coulter, Renzhi Zhang, Zhuzhu Luo, Liqun Cai, Linlin Wang, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan,

Soil physiochemical properties are regulated by cropping practices, but little is known about how tillage influences soil microbial community diversity and functions. Here, we assessed soil bacterial community assembly and functional profiles in relation to tillage. Soils, collected in 2018 from a 17-year field experiment in northwestern China, were analyzed ... Read more >>

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Intercropping with Potato-Onion Enhanced the Soil Microbial Diversity of Tomato.

Naihui Li, Danmei Gao, Xingang Zhou, Shaocan Chen, Chunxia Li, Fengzhi Wu,

Intercropping can achieve sustainable agricultural development by increasing plant diversity. In this study, we investigated the effects of tomato monoculture and tomato/potato-onion intercropping systems on tomato seedling growth and changes of soil microbial communities in greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the intercropping with potato-onion increased tomato seedling biomass. Compared with ... Read more >>

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Gallstone Disease and Microbiome.

Irina N Grigor'eva, Tatyana I Romanova,

Gallstone disease (GSD) has, for many years, remained a high-cost, socially significant public health problem. Over the past decade, a number of studies have been carried out-both in humans and in animal models-confirming the role of the microbiota in various sections of the gastrointestinal tract as a new link in ... Read more >>

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NetMet: A Network-Based Tool for Predicting Metabolic Capacities of Microbial Species and their Interactions.

Ofir Tal, Gopinath Selvaraj, Shlomit Medina, Shany Ofaim, Shiri Freilich,

Metabolic conversions allow organisms to produce a set of essential metabolites from the available nutrients in an environment, frequently requiring metabolic exchanges among co-inhabiting organisms. Genomic-based metabolic simulations are being increasingly applied for exploring metabolic capacities, considering different environments and different combinations of microorganisms. NetMet is a web-based tool and ... Read more >>

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An Intertwined Network of Regulation Controls Membrane Permeability Including Drug Influx and Efflux in Enterobacteriaceae.

Aurélie Ferrand, Julia Vergalli, Jean-Marie Pagès, Anne Davin-Regli,

The transport of small molecules across membranes is a pivotal step for controlling the drug concentration into the bacterial cell and it efficiently contributes to the antibiotic susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae. Two types of membrane transports, passive and active, usually represented by porins and efflux pumps, are involved in this process. ... Read more >>

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Inhibiting Methanogenesis Stimulated de novo Synthesis of Microbial Amino Acids in Mixed Rumen Batch Cultures Growing on Starch but Not on Cellulose.

Emilio M Ungerfeld, M Fernanda Aedo, Camila Muñoz, Natalie L Urrutia, Emilio D Martínez, Marcelo Saldivia,

Ameliorating methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants would have environmental benefits, but it is necessary to redirect metabolic hydrogen ([H]) toward useful sinks to also benefit animal productivity. We hypothesized that inhibiting rumen methanogenesis would increase de novo synthesis of microbial amino acids (AA) as an alternative [H] sink if sufficient ... Read more >>

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Selection and Evaluation of Staphylococcus xylosus as a Biocontrol Agent against Toxigenic Moulds in a Dry-Cured Ham Model System.

Eva Cebrián, Félix Núñez, Fernando J Gálvez, Josué Delgado, Elena Bermúdez, Mar Rodríguez,

Toxigenic moulds can develop on the surface of dry-cured meat products during ripening due to their ecological conditions, which constitutes a risk for consumers. A promising strategy to control this hazard is the use of antifungal microorganisms usually found in these foods. However, to date, the effectiveness of gram-positive catalase-positive ... Read more >>

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Virulence Potential of a Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain Belonging to the Emerging Clonal Group ST101-B1 Isolated from Bloodstream Infection.

Ana Carolina M Santos, Rosa M Silva, Tiago B Valiatti, Fernanda F Santos, José F Santos-Neto, Rodrigo Cayô, Ana P Streling, Carolina S Nodari, Ana C Gales, Milton Y Nishiyama-Jr, Eneas Carvalho, Tânia A T Gomes,

Escherichia coli EC121 is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain isolated from a bloodstream infection of an inpatient with persistent gastroenteritis and T-zone lymphoma that died due to septic shock. Despite causing an extraintestinal infection, previous studies showed that it did not have the usual characteristics of an extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. ... Read more >>

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Overexpression of lpxT Gene in Escherichia coli Inhibits Cell Division and Causes Envelope Defects without Changing the Overall Phosphorylation Level of Lipid A.

Federica A Falchi, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Roberto Pizzoccheri, Gianluca Casino, Moira Paroni, Francesca Forti, Antonio Molinaro, Federica Briani,

LpxT is an inner membrane protein that transfers a phosphate group from the essential lipid undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (C-55PP) to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide, generating a lipid A tris-phosphorylated species. The protein is encoded by the non-essential lpxT gene, which is conserved in distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. In this ... Read more >>

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Dry-Caribbean Bacillus spp. Strains Ameliorate Drought Stress in Maize by a Strain-Specific Antioxidant Response Modulation.

Andres Moreno-Galván, Felipe A Romero-Perdomo, German Estrada-Bonilla, Carlos Henrique Salvino Gadelha Meneses, Ruth R Bonilla,

Drought is a global problem for crop productivity. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate five dry-Caribbean Bacillus spp. strains in drought stress amelioration in maize plants. Maize seeds were single-strain inoculated and sown in pots under greenhouse conditions. After 12 days, plants were subjected to 33 days ... Read more >>

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Lanthanide-Dependent Methanol and Formaldehyde Oxidation in Methylobacterium aquaticum Strain 22A.

Patcha Yanpirat, Yukari Nakatsuji, Shota Hiraga, Yoshiko Fujitani, Terumi Izumi, Sachiko Masuda, Ryoji Mitsui, Tomoyuki Nakagawa, Akio Tani,

Lanthanides (Ln) are an essential cofactor for XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) in Gram-negative methylotrophs. The Ln3+ dependency of XoxF has expanded knowledge and raised new questions in methylotrophy, including the differences in characteristics of XoxF-type MDHs, their regulation, and the methylotrophic metabolism including formaldehyde oxidation. In this study, we genetically ... Read more >>

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Composting Reduces the Vitality of H9N2 in Poultry Manure and EMCV in Pig Manure Allowing for an Environmentally Friendly Use of These Animal Wastes: A Preliminary Study.

Kwang-Hwa Jeong, Dong-Jun Lee, Dong-Hyun Lee, Balasubramani Ravindran, Soon Woong Chang, Hupenyu Allan Mupambwa, Myung-Gyu Lee, Hee-Kwon Ahn,

In our study, we monitored the inactivation of two important viruses that are critical in animal husbandry throughout the world. To evaluate the influence of the composting process on inactivation of avian influenza virus (H9N2) in poultry manure compost (PMC) and Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in pig (swine) manure compost (SMC), ... Read more >>

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Cultivable Bacterial Communities in Brines from Perennially Ice-Covered and Pristine Antarctic Lakes: Ecological and Biotechnological Implications.

Carmen Rizzo, Antonella Conte, Maurizio Azzaro, Maria Papale, Alessandro C Rappazzo, Dario Battistel, Marco Roman, Angelina Lo Giudice, Mauro Guglielmin,

The diversity and biotechnological potentialities of bacterial isolates from brines of three Antarctic lakes of the Northern Victoria Land (namely Boulder Clay and Tarn Flat areas) were first explored. Cultivable bacterial communities were analysed mainly in terms of bacterial response to contaminants (i.e., antibiotics and heavy metals) and oxidation of ... Read more >>

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Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Identification of Lactobacillus by MALDI-TOF MS- Preliminary Study.

Joanna Bucka-Kolendo, Barbara Sokołowska, Stanisław Winiarczyk,

In the present study, we assessed the ability of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to identify microbial strains subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a stress factor. Protein changes induced by HHP can affect the identification of microorganisms when the identification technique is based on ... Read more >>

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Salmonella Heterogeneously Expresses Flagellin during Colonization of Plants.

Azhar A Zarkani, Nieves López-Pagán, Maja Grimm, María Antonia Sánchez-Romero, Javier Ruiz-Albert, Carmen R Beuzón, Adam Schikora,

Minimally processed or fresh fruits and vegetables are unfortunately linked to an increasing number of food-borne diseases, such as salmonellosis. One of the relevant virulence factors during the initial phases of the infection process is the bacterial flagellum. Although its function is well studied in animal systems, contradictory results have ... Read more >>

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The Evaluation of Egg-Parasitic Fungi Paraboeremia taiwanensis and Samsoniella sp. for the Biological Control of Meloidogyne enterolobii on Chinese Cabbage.

Yu-Jie Liang, Hiran A Ariyawansa, J Ole Becker, Jiue-In Yang,

Meloidogyne enterolobii, an aggressive plant-parasitic nematode, has been causing great yield loss worldwide in recent years. With no resistant Chinese cabbage cultivar available currently, a biological control strategy is needed to offer an eco-friendly option for sustainable farming. In this study, the nematode suppression efficacy of two newly isolated fungi, ... Read more >>

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Pathogenesis-Targeted Preventive Strategies for Multidrug Resistant Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Narrative Review.

Antonella Cotoia, Savino Spadaro, Guido Gambetti, Despoina Koulenti, Gilda Cinnella,

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), accounting for relevant morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients, especially when caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms. The rising problem of MDR etiologies, which has led to a reduction in treatment options, have increased ... Read more >>

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