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Supporting Community Members with Low Socioeconomic Status Engage in Physical Activity during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Nilanga Aki Bandara, Balpreet Sasan, Nathan Li, Nicholas Feng, Xuan Randy Zhou,

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2215]

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Cardiovascular Endurance Modifies the Link between Subjective Sleep Quality and Entorhinal Cortex Thickness in Younger Adults.

Junyeon Won, Alfonso J Alfini, J Carson Smith,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Poor sleep is linked to impaired cognitive function, cortical brain atrophy, and lower cortical thickness. Independently, higher cardiovascular endurance has neuroprotective effects. It remains in question, however, whether cardiovascular endurance moderates the relationship between sleep and brain health. The aims of this study included the following: 1) the association between ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2131-2139]

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Changing Stride Frequency Alters Average Joint Power and Power Distributions during Ground Contact and Leg Swing in Running.

Wannes Swinnen, Ine Mylle, Wouter Hoogkamer, Friedl DE Groote, Benedicte Vanwanseele,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Runners naturally adopt a stride frequency closely corresponding with the stride frequency that minimizes energy consumption. Although the concept of self-optimization is well recognized, we lack mechanistic insight into the association between stride frequency and energy consumption. Altering stride frequency affects lower extremity joint power; however, these alterations are different ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2111-2118]

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High Specialization among Female Youth Soccer Players Is Associated with an Increased Likelihood of Serious Injury.

Michelle Xiao, Jacie L Lemos, Calvin E Hwang, Seth L Sherman, Marc R Safran, Geoffrey D Abrams,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to assess the associations between serious injury (≥3-month time loss) and level of specialization among high-level female soccer players and to compare the specialization and college commitment ages of female youth soccer players to Division I college and professional soccer athletes.<h4>Methods</h4>Youth, college, and professional female soccer players ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2086-2092]

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The Effect of Aerobic Training and Increasing Nonexercise Physical Activity on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.

Damon L Swift, Tyara R Nevels, Chelsey A Solar, Patricia M Brophy, Joshua E McGee, Savanna B Brewer, Angela Clark, Joseph A Houmard, Lesley D Lutes,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Epidemiological studies suggest that sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality independent of meeting physical activity guidelines. However, limited evidence of this relationship is available from prospective interventions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the combined effect of aerobic training and increasing nonexercise physical ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2152-2163]

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Appetite and Energy Intake Regulation in Response to Acute Exercise.

Tanya M Halliday, Mollie H White, Allison K Hild, Molly B Conroy, Edward L Melanson, Marc-Andre Cornier,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to determine if energy intake and appetite regulation differ in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise (REx) versus aerobic exercise (AEx).<h4>Methods</h4>Physically inactive adults (n = 24, 35% ± 2% body fat, 50% female) completed three conditions: AEx (walking at 65%-70% heart rate max for 45 ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2173-2181]

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Effect of Aerobic Exercise-induced Weight Loss on the Components of Daily Energy Expenditure.

Nicholas T Broskey, Corby K Martin, Jeffrey H Burton, Timothy S Church, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Exercise usually results in less weight loss than expected. This suggests increased energy intake and/or deceased expenditure counteract the energy deficit induced by exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in components of daily energy expenditure (doubly labeled water and room calorimetry) after 24 wk of exercise ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2164-2172]

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Associations between Device-measured Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health in the Transition to Early Adulthood.

Gregore I Mielke, Ana M B Menezes, Bruna Gonçalves C DA Silva, Ulf Ekelund, Inacio Crochemore-Silva, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Helen Gonçalves, Wendy J Brown,

<h4>Purposes</h4>The aims of this study were to investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity and cardiometabolic health in the transition to adulthood.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analyzed (n = 2280). Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) (measured using a triaxial accelerometer) and cardiometabolic health ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2076-2085]

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The Impact of 6-Month Land versus Water Walking on Cerebrovascular Function in the Aging Brain.

Daniel J Green, Kurt Smith, Barbara A Maslen, Kay L Cox, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Carmela F Pestell, Louise H Naylor, Philip N Ainslie, Howard H Carter,

<h4>Introduction</h4>To examine the hypothesis that exercise training induces adaptation in cerebrovascular function, we recruited 63 older adults (62 ± 7 yr, 46 females) to undertake 24 wk of either land walking or water walking, or participate in a nonexercise control group. This is the first multi-interventional study to perform a ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2093-2100]

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Physical Activity, Menstrual History, and Bone Microarchitecture in Female Athletes with Multiple Bone Stress Injuries.

Sara E Rudolph, Signe Caksa, Sarah Gehman, Margaret Garrahan, Julie M Hughes, Adam S Tenforde, Kathryn E Ackerman, Mary L Bouxsein, Kristin L Popp,

<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine differences in health and physical activity history, bone density, microarchitecture, and strength among female athletes with a history of multiple BSI, athletes with ≤1 BSI, and nonathletes.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled 101 women (age, 18-32 yr) for this cross-sectional study: nonathlete controls (n = 17) and athletes with a history of ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2182-2189]

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Rehabilitation of the Hand and Upper Extremity - 2 Volume Set, 7th Edition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2216]

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Neuromechanics of Middle-Distance Running Fatigue: A Key Role of the Plantarflexors?

Jasmin Willer, Sam J Allen, Richard J Burden, Jonathan P Folland,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to investigate the changes in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation during a high-intensity run to fatigue (HIRF).<h4>Methods</h4>Eighteen male and female competitive middle-distance runners performed a HIRF on an instrumented treadmill at a constant but unsustainable middle-distance speed (~3 min) based on a preceding maximum oxygen ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2119-2130]

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Effects of Overweight and Obesity on Running Mechanics in Children.

Bradley J Bowser, Kristen Roles,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study is to determine differences in running mechanics between healthy weight (HW) children and children classified as OW/OB.<h4>Methods</h4>Forty-two children (17 OW/OB, 25 HW) ran overground while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded using a motion capture system and force plate. Kinematic variables of interest included stance ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2101-2110]

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High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Amine Ghram, Yaser Jenab, Rahman Soori, Siroos Choobineh, Ali Hosseinsabet, Sepideh Niyazi, Shapoor Shirani, Akbar Shafiee, Arash Jalali, Carl J Lavie, Ulrik Wisløff,

<h4>Purpose</h4>High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be safe and effective in cardiovascular diseases. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of HIIT for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The present randomized controlled trial (RCT) therefore examined the efficiency and safety of HIIT in patients with acute ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2037-2044]

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Clinical Education in Physical Therapy: The Evolution from Student to Clinical Instructor and Beyond.

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2216]

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The Human Muscle Size and Strength Relationship: Effects of Architecture, Muscle Force, and Measurement Location.

Thomas G Balshaw, Thomas M Maden-Wilkinson, Garry J Massey, Jonathan P Folland,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to determine the best muscle size index of muscle strength by establishing if incorporating muscle architecture measurements improved the human muscle size-strength relationship. The influence of calculating muscle force and the location of anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) measurements on this relationship were also examined.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty-two recreationally active men ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2140-2151]

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Musculoskeletal Responses to Exercise Plus Nutrition in Men with Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation: A 12-Month RCT.

Jack Dalla Via, Patrick J Owen, Robin M Daly, Niamh L Mundell, Patricia M Livingston, Timo Rantalainen, Stephen J Foulkes, Jeremy L Millar, Declan G Murphy, Steve F Fraser,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer has multiple adverse effects on musculoskeletal health. This 12-month randomized controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of multicomponent exercise training combined with whey protein, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), structure and strength, body composition, muscle strength, and ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2054-2065]

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Neuromuscular Correlates of the Contralateral Stretch-induced Strength Loss.

Giuseppe Coratella, Emiliano Cè, Christian Doria, Marta Borrelli, Stefano Longo, Fabio Esposito,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The current study investigated the effects of unilateral passive stretching on the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the force-generating capacity of the contralateral muscle.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-six healthy men underwent unilateral passive stretching of the plantarflexors (5 × 45 s on + 15 s off; total stretching time, 225 s). Before and after the ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2066-2075]

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Kefir Is a Viable Exercise Recovery Beverage for Cancer Survivors Enrolled in a Structured Exercise Program.

Peter Smoak, Nicholas Harman, Victoria Flores, Jacob Kisiolek, Nicholas A Pullen, Jonathan Lisano, Reid Hayward, Laura K Stewart,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study investigated the effects of 12 wk of postexercise kefir consumption in cancer survivors who have undergone chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>All participants were enrolled in a structured exercise training program and separated into kefir (KEF) or control (CON) treatment groups. KEF consumed 8 oz. of kefir after exercise sessions ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2045-2053]

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Effects of Marathon Running on Cognition and Retinal Vascularization: A Longitudinal Observational Study.

Astrid Roeh, Julia Schoenfeld, Raffaela Raab, Viola Landes, Irina Papazova, Bernhard Haller, Wolfgang Strube, Martin Halle, Peter Falkai, Alkomiet Hasan, Johannes Scherr,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Physical activity has beneficial effects on both cardiovascular and neurocognitive parameters, and these two modalities are known to interact at rest. However, findings on their interaction during exercise are inconclusive.<h4>Purpose</h4>Therefore, this longitudinal study aimed to investigate the effects of different forms of exercise (training period, marathon race, and recovery period) ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2207-2214]

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Heat Tolerance and Occupational Heat Exposure Limits in Older Men with and without Type 2 Diabetes or Hypertension.

Sean R Notley, Ashley P Akerman, Brian J Friesen, Martin P Poirier, Ronald J Sigal, Andreas D Flouris, Pierre Boulay, Emma McCourt, Marcel Ruzicka, Glen P Kenny,

<h4>Purpose</h4>To mitigate rises in core temperature >1°C, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommends upper limits for heat stress (action limit values [ALV]), defined by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and a worker's metabolic rate. However, these limits are based on data from young men and are assumed to ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2196-2206]

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Thermoregulatory Responses with Size-matched Simulated Torso or Limb Skin Grafts.

Matthew N Cramer, M U Huang, Mads Fischer, Gilbert Moralez, Craig G Crandall,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to test the hypothesis that a simulated burn injury on the torso will be no more or less detrimental to core temperature control than on the limbs during uncompensable exercise-heat stress.<h4>Methods</h4>Nine nonburned individuals (7 men, 2 women) completed the protocol. On separate occasions, burn injuries of identical ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2190-2195]

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Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Responses to Different Types of Short-Term Exercise Training and Detraining in Middle-Age Men.

Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, Tim Snijders, Miguel S Conceição, Bridget E Radford, Ryan G Timmins, Brooke L Devlin, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera,

<h4>Introduction</h4>Whether short-term, single-mode exercise training can improve physical fitness before a period of reduced physical activity (e.g., postsurgery recovery) is not well characterized in clinical populations or middle-age adults. We investigated skeletal muscle adaptive responses after endurance exercise training (ENT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or resistance exercise training (RET), and ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(10):2023-2036]

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Everything Moves: How Biotensegrity Informs Human Movement.

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(9):2015-2016]

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Background Inactivity Blunts Metabolic Adaptations to Intense Short-Term Training.

Heath M Burton, Anthony S Wolfe, Emre Vardarli, Remzi Satiroglu, Edward F Coyle,

<h4>Purpose</h4>This study determined if the level of background physical inactivity (steps per day) influences the acute and short-term adaptations to intense aerobic training.<h4>Methods</h4>Sixteen untrained participants (23.6 ± 1.7 yr) completed intense (80%-90% V˙O2peak) short-term training (5 bouts of exercise over 9 d) while taking either 4767 ± 377 steps per ... Read more >>

Med Sci Sports Exerc (Medicine and science in sports and exercise)
[2021, 53(9):1937-1944]

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