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A semi-automated machine learning-aided approach to quantitative analysis of centrosomes and microtubule organization.

Divya Ganapathi Sankaran, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Bailey L McCurdy, Bharath Hariharan, Chad G Pearson,

Microtubules (MTs) promote important cellular functions including migration, intracellular trafficking, and chromosome segregation. The centrosome, comprised of two centrioles surrounded by the pericentriolar material (PCM), is the cell's central MT-organizing center. Centrosomes in cancer cells are commonly numerically amplified. However, the question of how the amplification of centrosomes alters MT ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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PP2ACdc55 dephosphorylates Pds1 and inhibits spindle elongation in S. cerevisiae.

Shoily Khondker, Sam Kajjo, Devon Chandler-Brown, Jan Skotheim, Adam Rudner, Amy Ikui,

PP2ACdc55 (the form of protein phosphatase 2A containing Cdc55) regulates cell cycle progression by reversing cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)- and polo-like kinase (Cdc5)-dependent phosphorylation events. In S. cerevisiae, Cdk1 phosphorylates securin (Pds1), which facilitates Pds1 binding and inhibits separase (Esp1). During anaphase, Esp1 cleaves the cohesin subunit Scc1 and promotes spindle ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Conserved regions of budding yeast Tim22 have a role in structural organization of the carrier translocase.

Abhishek Kumar, Srujan Kumar Matta, Patrick D'Silva,

Mitochondrial biogenesis requires efficient sorting of various proteins into different mitochondrial sub-compartments, mediated by dedicated protein machinery present in the outer and inner membrane. Among them, the TIM22 complex enables the integration of complex membrane proteins with internal targeting signals into the inner membrane. Although the Tim22 protein forms the ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Disease-associated keratin mutations reduce traction forces and compromise adhesion and collective migration.

Sachiko Fujiwara, Shinji Deguchi, Thomas M Magin,

Keratin intermediate filament (IF) proteins constitute the major cytoskeletal components in epithelial cells. Missense mutations in keratin 5 (K5; also known as KRT5) or keratin 14 (K14; also known as KRT14), highly expressed in the basal epidermis, cause the severe skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS). EBS-associated mutations disrupt ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Osmotic gradients induce stable dome morphogenesis on extracellular matrix.

Sumire Ishida-Ishihara, Masakazu Akiyama, Kazuya Furusawa, Isao Naguro, Hiroki Ryuno, Takamichi Sushida, Seiichiro Ishihara, Hisashi Haga,

One of the fundamental processes in morphogenesis is dome formation, but many of the mechanisms involved are unexplored. Previous in vitro studies showed that an osmotic gradient is the driving factor of dome formation. However, these investigations were performed without extracellular matrix (ECM), which provides structural support to morphogenesis. With ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Vesicular and uncoated Rab1-dependent cargo carriers facilitate ER to Golgi transport.

Laura M Westrate, Melissa J Hoyer, Michael J Nash, Gia K Voeltz,

Secretory cargo is recognized, concentrated and trafficked from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites (ERES) to the Golgi. Cargo export from the ER begins when a series of highly conserved COPII coat proteins accumulate at the ER and regulate the formation of cargo-loaded COPII vesicles. In animal cells, capturing live de ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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H3K9me3 maintenance on a human artificial chromosome is required for segregation but not centromere epigenetic memory.

Nuno M C Martins, Fernanda Cisneros-Soberanis, Elisa Pesenti, Natalia Y Kochanova, Wei-Hao Shang, Tetsuya Hori, Takahiro Nagase, Hiroshi Kimura, Vladimir Larionov, Hiroshi Masumoto, Tatsuo Fukagawa, William C Earnshaw,

Most eukaryotic centromeres are located within heterochromatic regions. Paradoxically, heterochromatin can also antagonize de novo centromere formation, and some centromeres lack it altogether. In order to investigate the importance of heterochromatin at centromeres, we used epigenetic engineering of a synthetic alphoidtetO human artificial chromosome (HAC), to which chimeric proteins can ... Read more >>

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RGS4 controls secretion of von Willebrand factor to the subendothelial matrix.

Francesca Patella, Daniel F Cutler,

The haemostatic protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) exists in plasma and subendothelial pools. The plasma pools are secreted from endothelial storage granules, Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), by basal secretion with a contribution from agonist-stimulated secretion, and the subendothelial pool is secreted into the subendothelial matrix by a constitutive pathway not involving ... Read more >>

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[2020, 133(14):]

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Chromokinesin KIF4A teams up with stathmin 1 to regulate abscission in a SUMO-dependent manner.

Sabine A G Cuijpers, Edwin Willemstein, Jan G Ruppert, Daphne M van Elsland, William C Earnshaw, Alfred C O Vertegaal,

Cell division ends when two daughter cells physically separate via abscission, the cleavage of the intercellular bridge. It is not clear how the anti-parallel microtubule bundles bridging daughter cells are severed. Here, we present a novel abscission mechanism. We identified chromokinesin KIF4A, which is adjacent to the midbody during cytokinesis, ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Cardiolipin is required for membrane docking of mitochondrial ribosomes and protein synthesis.

Richard G Lee, Junjie Gao, Stefan J Siira, Anne-Marie Shearwood, Judith A Ermer, Vinzenz Hofferek, James C Mathews, Minghao Zheng, Gavin E Reid, Oliver Rackham, Aleksandra Filipovska,

The mitochondrial inner membrane contains a unique phospholipid known as cardiolipin (CL), which stabilises the protein complexes embedded in the membrane and supports its overall structure. Recent evidence indicates that the mitochondrial ribosome may associate with the inner membrane to facilitate co-translational insertion of the hydrophobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Decidual glycodelin-A polarizes human monocytes into a decidual macrophage-like phenotype through Siglec-7.

Madhavi Vijayan, Cheuk-Lun Lee, Vera H H Wong, Xia Wang, Kungfeng Bai, Jian Wu, Hannu Koistinen, Markku Seppälä, Kai-Fai Lee, William S B Yeung, Ernest H Y Ng, Philip C N Chiu,

Decidual macrophages constitute 20-30% of the total leukocytes in the uterus of pregnant women, regulating the maternal immune tolerance and placenta development. Abnormal number or activities of decidual macrophages (dMs) are associated with fetal loss and pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Monocytes differentiate into dMs in a decidua-specific microenvironment. Despite ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Staufen1 localizes to the mitotic spindle and controls the localization of RNA populations to the spindle.

Sami Hassine, Florence Bonnet-Magnaval, Louis Philip Benoit Bouvrette, Bellastrid Doran, Mehdi Ghram, Mathieu Bouthillette, Eric Lecuyer, Luc DesGroseillers,

Staufen1 (STAU1) is an RNA-binding protein involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. We report that a large fraction of STAU1 localizes to the mitotic spindle in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells and in non-transformed hTERT-RPE1 cells. Spindle-associated STAU1 partly co-localizes with ribosomes and active sites of translation. We mapped the ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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The Na+ pump Ena1 is a yeast Epsin-specific cargo requiring its ubiquitination/phosphorylation sites for internalization.

Arpita Sen, Wen-Chieh Hsieh, Claudia B Hanna, Chuan-Chih Hsu, McKeith Pearson, W Andy Tao, R Claudio Aguilar,

It is well-known that in addition to its classical role in protein turnover, ubiquitination is required for a variety of membrane protein sorting events. However, and despite substantial progress in the field, a long-standing question remains: given that all ubiquitin units are identical, how do different elements of the sorting ... Read more >>

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TMEM147 interacts with Lamin B Receptor, regulates its localization and levels, and affects cholesterol homeostasis.

Andri Christodoulou, Giannis Maimaris, Andri Makrigiorgi, Evelina Charidemou, Christian Lüchtenborg, Antonis Ververis, Renos Georgiou, Carsten W Lederer, Christof Haffner, Britta Brügger, Niovi Santama,

The structurally and functionally complex Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) hosts critical processes including lipid synthesis. Here, we focus on the functional characterization of transmembrane protein TMEM147 and report that it localizes at the ER and nuclear envelope in HeLa cells. Silencing of TMEM147 drastically reduces the level of lamin B receptor ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, :]

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The ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 - much more than a proteasome-targeting signal.

Annette Aichem, Marcus Groettrup,

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10) also called ubiquitin D (UBD) is a member of the ubiquitin-like modifier (ULM) family. The FAT10 gene is localized in the MHC class I locus and FAT10 protein expression is mainly restricted to cells and organs of the immune system. In all ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Endothelial protective factors BMP9 and BMP10 inhibit CCL2 release by human vascular endothelial cells.

Paul D Upton, John E S Park, Patricia M De Souza, Rachel J Davies, Mark J D Griffiths, Stephen J Wort, Nicholas W Morrell,

Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 are circulating ligands that mediate endothelial cell (EC) protection via complexes of the type I receptor ALK1 and the type II receptors activin type-IIA receptor (ACTR-IIA) and bone morphogenetic type II receptor (BMPR-II). We previously demonstrated that BMP9 induces the expression of interleukin-6, ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Histone modification dynamics as revealed by multicolor immunofluorescence-based single-cell analysis.

Yoko Hayashi-Takanaka, Yuto Kina, Fumiaki Nakamura, Leontine E Becking, Yoichi Nakao, Takahiro Nagase, Naohito Nozaki, Hiroshi Kimura,

Post-translational modifications on histones can be stable epigenetic marks or transient signals that can occur in response to internal and external stimuli. Levels of histone modifications fluctuate during the cell cycle and vary among different cell types. Here, we describe a simple system to monitor the levels of multiple histone ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Lymphocyte perform reverse adhesive haptotaxis mediated by integrins LFA-1.

Xuan Luo, Valentine Seveau de Noray, Laurene Aoun, Martine Biarnes-Pelicot, Pierre-Olivier Strale, Vincent Studer, Marie-Pierre Valignat, Olivier Theodoly,

Cell Guidance by anchored molecules, or haptotaxis, is crucial in development, immunology and cancer. Adhesive haptotaxis, or guidance by adhesion molecules, is well established for mesenchymal cells like fibroblasts, whereas its existence remains unreported for amoeboid cells that require less or no adhesion to migrate. We show here in vitro ... Read more >>

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[2020, :]

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Mitochondrial dynamics during spermatogenesis.

Grigor Varuzhanyan, David C Chan,

Mitochondrial fusion and fission (mitochondrial dynamics) are homeostatic processes that safeguard normal cellular function. This relationship is especially strong in tissues with constitutively high energy demands, such as brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Less is known about the role of mitochondrial dynamics in developmental systems that involve changes in metabolic ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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GDNF drives rapid tubule morphogenesis in a novel 3D in vitro model for ADPKD.

Eryn E Dixon, Demetrios S Maxim, Victoria L Halperin Kuhns, Allison C Lane-Harris, Patricia Outeda, Andrew J Ewald, Terry J Watnick, Paul A Welling, Owen M Woodward,

Cystogenesis is a morphological consequence of numerous genetic diseases of the epithelium. In the kidney, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the program of altered cell and tubule morphology are obscured by secondary effects of cyst expansion. Here, we developed a new 3D tubuloid system to isolate the rapid changes in protein ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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FAT10 localises in dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures and contributes to their disassembly.

Richard Schregle, Stefanie Mueller, Daniel F Legler, Jérémie Rossy, Wolfgang A Krueger, Marcus Groettrup,

Dendritic cell (DC) aggresome-like induced structures (DALIS) are protein aggregates of polyubiquitylated proteins that form transiently during DC maturation. DALIS scatter randomly throughout the cytosol and serve as antigen storage sites synchronising DC maturation and antigen presentation. Maturation of DCs is accompanied by the induction of the ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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FocalPlane - a meeting place for the microscopy minded.

Sharon Ahmad, Christos Kyprianou, Michael Way,

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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Gain-of-function genetic screen of the kinome reveals BRSK2 as an inhibitor of the NRF2 transcription factor.

Tigist Y Tamir, Brittany M Bowman, Megan J Agajanian, Dennis Goldfarb, Travis P Schrank, Trent Stohrer, Andrew E Hale, Priscila F Siesser, Seth J Weir, Ryan M Murphy, Kyle M LaPak, Bernard E Weissman, Nathaniel J Moorman, M Ben Major,

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2, also known as NRF2) is a transcription factor and master regulator of cellular antioxidant response. Aberrantly high NRF2-dependent transcription is recurrent in human cancer, but conversely NRF2 activity diminishes with age and in neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Although NRF2-activating drugs are clinically beneficial, ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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A heterodimeric SNX4--SNX7 SNX-BAR autophagy complex coordinates ATG9A trafficking for efficient autophagosome assembly.

Zuriñe Antón, Virginie M S Betin, Boris Simonetti, Colin J Traer, Naomi Attar, Peter J Cullen, Jon D Lane,

The sorting nexins (SNXs) are a family of peripheral membrane proteins that direct protein trafficking decisions within the endocytic network. Emerging evidence in yeast and mammalian cells implicates a subgroup of SNXs in selective and non-selective forms of autophagy. Using siRNA and CRISPR-Cas9, we demonstrate that the SNX-BAR protein SNX4 ... Read more >>

J. Cell. Sci. (Journal of cell science)
[2020, 133(14):]

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The C-terminal helix of BubR1 is essential for CENP-E-dependent chromosome alignment.

Thibault Legal, Daniel Hayward, Agata Gluszek-Kustusz, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Christos Spanos, Juri Rappsilber, Ulrike Gruneberg, Julie P I Welburn,

During cell division, misaligned chromosomes are captured and aligned by motors before their segregation. The CENP-E motor is recruited to polar unattached kinetochores, to facilitate chromosome alignment. The spindle checkpoint protein BubR1 has been reported as a CENP-E interacting partner, but to what extent BubR1 contributes to CENP-E localization at ... Read more >>

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