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The Enigmatic Capsid Protein of an Encephalitic Rubivirus.

Pratyush Kumar Das, Margaret Kielian,

The genus <i>Rubivirus</i> was previously comprised of a single member, Rubella virus (RuV), which is spread by airborne or maternal-fetal transmission and only infects humans (1).…. ... Read more >>

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Viral mediated tethering to SEL1L facilitates ER-associated degradation of IRE1.

Florian Hinte, Jendrik Müller, Wolfram Brune,

The unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) are two essential components of the quality control system for proteins in the secretory pathway. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, UPR sensors such as IRE1 induce the expression of ERAD genes, thereby increasing protein export from the ... Read more >>

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Novel Lytic Phages Protect Cells and Mice against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection.

Feng Chen, Xingjun Cheng, Jianbo Li, Xiefang Yuan, Xiuhua Huang, Mao Lian, Wenfang Li, Tianfang Huang, Yaliu Xie, Jie Liu, Pan Gao, Xiawei Wei, Zhenling Wang, Min Wu,

With the fast emergence of serious antibiotic resistance and the lagged discovery of novel antibacterial drugs, phage therapy for pathogenic bacterial infections has acquired great attention in the clinics. However, development of therapeutic phages also faces tough challenges, such as laborious screening and time to generate effective phage drugs since ... Read more >>

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Koala Retrovirus in Northern Australia Shows a Mixture of Stable Endogenization and Exogenous Lineage Diversification within Fragmented Koala Populations.

Bonnie L Quigley, Alistair Melzer, William Ellis, Galit Tzipori, Karen Nilsson, Olusola Olagoke, Amy Robbins, Jonathan Hanger, Peter Timms,

The koala population in northern Australia has become increasingly fragmented due to natural and man-made barriers and interventions. This situation has created a unique opportunity to study both endogenous and exogenous koala retrovirus (KoRV). To determine the impact that population isolation has had on KoRV diversity in Queensland, 272 koalas ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, :]

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EXPRESSION OF E8^E2 IS REQUIRED FOR WART FORMATION BY MOUSE PAPILLOMAVIRUS 1 IN VIVO.

Frank Stubenrauch, Elke Straub, Katrin Klein, Daniela Kramer, Thomas Iftner, Margaret Wong, Richard B S Roden,

Human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 and E2 proteins activate genome replication. E2 also modulates viral gene expression and is involved in the segregation of viral genomes. In addition to full length E2, almost all PV share the ability to encode an E8^E2 protein, that is a fusion of E8 with the ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Comparison of Subgenomic and Total RNA in SARS-CoV-2 Challenged Rhesus Macaques.

Gabriel Dagotto, Noe B Mercado, David R Martinez, Yixuan J Hou, Joseph P Nkolola, Robert H Carnahan, James E Crowe, Ralph S Baric, Dan H Barouch,

Respiratory virus challenge studies involve administration of the challenge virus and sampling to assess for protection from the same anatomical locations. It can therefore be difficult to differentiate actively replicating virus from input challenge virus. For SARS-CoV-2, specific monitoring of actively replicating virus is critical to investigate the protective and ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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pH-Induced Conformational Changes of Human Bocavirus Capsids.

Mengxiao Luo, Mario Mietzsch, Paul Chipman, Kangkang Song, Chen Xu, John Spear, Duncan Sousa, Robert McKenna, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna,

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) and HBoV2-4 infect children and immunocompromised individuals, resulting in respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, respectively. Using cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction, the HBoV2 capsid structure was determined to 2.7 Å resolution at pH 7.4 and compared to the previously determined HBoV1, HBoV3, and HBoV4 structures. Consistent with ... Read more >>

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The time for COVID-19 vaccination.

Esteban Domingo, Celia Perales,

The composition and dynamics of viral mutant spectra in infected individuals advice that to avoid selection of SARS-CoV-2 escape mutants, vaccination campaigns for COVID-19 should be launched when disease incidence is low. ... Read more >>

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Interactions with Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria Induce HIV-1 Latency in Macrophages through Altered Transcription Factor Recruitment to the LTR.

Gregory A Viglianti, Vicente Planelles, Timothy M Hanley,

Macrophages are infected by HIV-1 <i>in vivo</i> and contribute to both viral spread and pathogenesis. Recent human and animal studies suggest that HIV-1-infected macrophages serve as a reservoir that contributes to HIV-1 persistence during anti-retroviral therapy. The ability of macrophages to serve as persistent viral reservoirs is likely influenced by ... Read more >>

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Experimental Reptarenavirus Infection of Boa constrictor and Python regius.

U Hetzel, Y Korzyukov, S Keller, L Szirovicza, T Pesch, O Vapalahti, A Kipar, J Hepojoki,

Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) causes losses in captive snake populations globally. BIBD is associated with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs), which mainly comprise reptarenavirus nucleoprotein (NP). In 2017, BIBD was reproduced by cardiac injection of boas and pythons with reptarenaviruses, thus demonstrating a causative link between reptarenavirus ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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The immunological impact of adenovirus early genes on vaccine-induced responses in mice and nonhuman primates.

Kotou Sangare, Iskra Tuero, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Tanya Hoang, Leia K Miller-Novak, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David J Venzon, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Michael A Thomas,

Adenovirus (Ad) is being explored for use in the prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious diseases and cancers. Ad with a deletion in early region 3 (<i>ΔE3</i>) provokes a stronger immune response than Ad with deletions in early regions 1 and E3 (<i>ΔE1/ΔE3</i>). The ΔE1/ΔE3 Ads are more ... Read more >>

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Prohibitin-1 Contributes to Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 via the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway.

Mizuki Watanabe, Jun Arii, Kosuke Takeshima, Ayano Fukui, Masayuki Shimojima, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Masaaki Oyama, Takeharu Minamitani, Teruhito Yasui, Yuji Kubota, Mutsuhiro Takekawa, Isao Kosugi, Yuhei Maruzuru, Naoto Koyanagi, Akihisa Kato, Yasuko Mori, Yasushi Kawaguchi,

Viral cell-to-cell spread, a method employed by several viral families for entrance via cell junctions, is highly relevant to the pathogenesis of various viral infections. Cell-to-cell spread of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is known to depend greatly on envelope glycoprotein E (gE). However, the molecular mechanism by which gE ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, 95(3):]

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Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Engages CD83 and Promotes Pulmonary Injury.

Ning Ma, Xingjie Li, Hongyu Jiang, Yulong Dai, Guofeng Xu, Zongde Zhang,

Influenza A viruses cause severe respiratory illnesses in humans and animals. Overreaction of the innate immune response to influenza virus infection results in hypercytokinemia, which is responsible for mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanism by which influenza induces hypercytokinemia is not fully understood. In this study, we established a mouse-adapted ... Read more >>

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[2021, 95(3):]

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Characterization of Localization and Export Signals of Bovine Torovirus Nucleocapsid Protein Responsible for Extensive Nuclear and Nucleolar Accumulation and Their Importance for Virus Growth.

Makoto Ujike, Yukako Kawachi, Yui Matsunaga, Yuka Etho, Hideki Asanuma, Wataru Kamitani, Fumihiro Taguchi,

<i>Torovirus</i> (ToV) has recently been classified into the new family <i>Tobaniviridae</i>, although historically, it belonged to the <i>Coronavirus</i> (CoV) family. The nucleocapsid (N) proteins of CoVs are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, where the viruses replicate, but in some cases the proteins are partially located in the nucleolus. Many studies ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, 95(3):]

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Chikungunya Virus Replication Rate Determines the Capacity of Crossing Tissue Barriers in Mosquitoes.

Fernando Merwaiss, Claudia V Filomatori, Yasutsugu Susuki, Eugenia S Bardossy, Diego E Alvarez, María-Carla Saleh,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging and rapidly spreading pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. The emergence of new epidemic variants of the virus is associated with genetic evolutionary traits, including duplication of repeated RNA elements in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) that seemingly favor transmission by mosquitoes. The transmission potential of ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, 95(3):]

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GRK2 mediates β-arrestin interactions with 5-HT2 receptors for JC polyomavirus endocytosis.

Colleen L Mayberry, Michael P Wilczek, Tristan M Fong, Sarah L Nichols, Melissa S Maginnis,

JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population, establishing a lifelong, asymptomatic infection in the kidney of healthy individuals. People that become severely immunocompromised may experience JCPyV reactivation, which can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a neurodegenerative disease. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, PML results in fatality ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, :]

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A Potent anti-Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Neutralizing Antibody Induction Associated with a Germline Immunoglobulin Gene Polymorphism in Rhesus Macaques.

Saori Matsuoka, Takeo Kuwata, Hiroshi Ishii, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Masato Sano, Midori Okazaki, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Mikiko Shimizu, Shuzo Matsushita, Yohei Seki, Akatsuki Saito, Hiromi Sakawaki, Vanessa M Hirsch, Tomoyuki Miura, Hirofumi Akari, Tetsuro Matano,

Virus infection induces B cells with a wide variety of B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires. Patterns of induced BCR repertoires are different in individuals, while the underlying mechanism causing this difference remains largely unclear. In particular, the impact of germ line BCR immunoglobulin (Ig) gene polymorphism on B cell/antibody induction ... Read more >>

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Consequences of Phosphorylation in a Mononegavirales Polymerase-Cofactor System.

Joseph R Gould, Shihong Qiu, Qiao Shang, Terje Dokland, Tomoaki Ogino, Chad M Petit, Todd J Green,

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a member of the order <i>Mononegavirales</i>, which consists of viruses with a genome of nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA. Many insights into the molecular biology of NNS viruses were first made in VSV, which is often studied as a prototype for members of this order. Like ... Read more >>

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Novel Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus 1 VC2 Promotes Long-Lasting, Systemic Anti-melanoma Tumor Immune Responses and Increased Survival in an Immunocompetent B16F10-Derived Mouse Melanoma Model.

Ifeanyi Kingsley Uche, Natalie Fowlkes, Luan Vu, Tatiane Watanabe, Mariano Carossino, Rafiq Nabi, Fabio Del Piero, Jared S Rudd, Konstantin G Kousoulas, Paul J F Rider,

Oncolytic virotherapy (OVT) is now understood to be an immunotherapy that uses viral infection to liberate tumor antigens in an immunogenic context to promote the development of antitumor immune responses. The only currently FDA-approved oncolytic virotherapy, T-Vec, is a modified type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). While T-Vec is associated ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, 95(3):]

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Human Cytomegalovirus Interactions with the Basement Membrane Protein Nidogen 1.

Man I Kuan, Hannah K Jaeger, Onesmo B Balemba, John M O'Dowd, Deborah Duricka, Holger Hannemann, Emmerentia Marx, Natacha Teissier, Liliana Gabrielli, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Elizabeth M Keithley, Elizabeth A Fortunato,

In 2000, we reported that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induced specific damage on chromosome 1. The capacity of the virus to induce DNA breaks indicated potent interaction between viral proteins and these loci. We have fine mapped the 1q42 breaksite. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoded in close proximity revealed virus-induced downregulation ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
[2021, 95(3):]

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CD34+ Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Subsets Exhibit Differential Ability To Maintain Human Cytomegalovirus Latency and Persistence.

Lindsey B Crawford, Meaghan H Hancock, Hillary M Struthers, Daniel N Streblow, Andrew D Yurochko, Patrizia Caposio, Felicia D Goodrum, Jay A Nelson,

In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive patients, CD34<sup>+</sup> hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) provide an important source of latent virus that reactivates following cellular differentiation into tissue macrophages. Multiple groups have used primary CD34<sup>+</sup> HPCs to investigate mechanisms of viral latency. However, analyses of mechanisms of HCMV latency have been hampered by the ... Read more >>

J Virol (Journal of virology)
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Systematic Assessment of Antiviral Potency, Breadth, and Synergy of Triple Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Combinations against Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Viruses.

Stella J Berendam, Tiffany M Styles, Papa K Morgan-Asiedu, DeAnna Tenney, Amit Kumar, Veronica Obregon-Perko, Katharine J Bar, Kevin O Saunders, Sampa Santra, Kristina De Paris, Georgia D Tomaras, Ann Chahroudi, Sallie R Permar, Rama R Amara, Genevieve G Fouda,

Daily burden and clinical toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) emphasize the need for alternative strategies to induce long-term human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remission upon ART cessation. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can both neutralize free virions and mediate effector functions against infected cells and therefore represent a leading immunotherapeutic approach. ... Read more >>

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Identification of an Antiretroviral Small Molecule That Appears To Be a Host-Targeting Inhibitor of HIV-1 Assembly.

Jonathan C Reed, Dennis Solas, Anatoliy Kitaygorodskyy, Beverly Freeman, Dylan T B Ressler, Daryl J Phuong, J Victor Swain, Kent Matlack, Clarence R Hurt, Vishwanath R Lingappa, Jaisri R Lingappa,

Given the projected increase in multidrug-resistant HIV-1, there is an urgent need for development of antiretrovirals that act on virus life cycle stages not targeted by drugs currently in use. Host-targeting compounds are of particular interest because they can offer a high barrier to resistance. Here, we report identification of ... Read more >>

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Marek's Disease Virus Requires Both Copies of the Inverted Repeat Regions for Efficient In Vivo Replication and Pathogenesis.

Tereza Vychodil, Andelé M Conradie, Jakob Trimpert, Amr Aswad, Luca D Bertzbach, Benedikt B Kaufer,

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus of chickens. The MDV genome consists of two unique regions that are both flanked by inverted repeat regions. These repeats harbor several genes involved in virus replication and pathogenesis, but it remains unclear why MDV and other herpesviruses harbor these large sequence ... Read more >>

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs dampen the cytokine and antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Jennifer S Chen, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Ryan D Chow, Jin Wei, Renata B Filler, Stephanie C Eisenbarth, Craig B Wilen,

Identifying drugs that regulate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its symptoms has been a pressing area of investigation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are frequently used for the relief of pain and inflammation, could modulate both SARS-CoV-2 infection and ... Read more >>

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