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Endolysosome iron restricts Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation by increasing HIV-1 Tat oligomerization and β-catenin expression.

Nabab Khan, Peter W Halcrow, Leo K Lakpa, Mohd Rehan, Xuesong Chen, Jonathan D Geiger,

HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is required for HIV-1 replication, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HIV-1 Tat can enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis where it can reside in endolysosomes; upon its escape from these acidic organelles, HIV-1 Tat can enter the ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, :]

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Reduced neuronal population in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in infant macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

Alexandra Haddad, Brittany Voth, Janiya Brooks, Melanie Swang, Heather Carryl, Norah Algarzae, Shane Taylor, Camryn Parker, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke,

Pediatric HIV infection remains a global health crisis with an estimated 150,000 new mother-to-child (MTCT) infections each year. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved childhood survival, but only an estimated 53% of children worldwide have access to treatment. Adding to the health crisis is the neurological impact of HIV on the ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with mild clinical conditions and detection of archetype-like JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid.

Kosuke Iwami, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masaaki Matsushima, Azusa Nagai, Shinichi Shirai, Sho Nakakubo, Ikuko Takahashi-Iwata, Masafumi Yamada, Ichiro Yabe,

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a poor prognosis and is primarily caused by JC virus (JCV) with a mutation called prototype. We encountered a case of PML with moderate progression and analyzed the mutational patterns of JCV in the cerebrospinal fluid ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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A unique case of Miller Fisher-Guillain-Barré overlap syndrome in a liver transplant recipient.

Claudia Ramirez-Sanchez, Rehan Syed, Angela Meier, Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta, Diana J Hylton, Mahnaz Taremi,

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an ascending demyelinating polyneuropathy often associated with recent infection. Miller Fisher syndrome represents a variant with predominant facial and cranial nerve involvement, although Miller Fisher and Guillain-Barré overlap syndromes can occur. Guillain-Barré spectrum syndromes have been thought to be rare among solid organ transplant recipients. We ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, :]

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Herpes simplex encephalitis in patients receiving chemotherapy and whole-brain radiation therapy.

Nir Hersh, Israel Steiner, Tali Siegal, Felix Benninger,

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a very severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused mainly by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and occasionally by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). After relapse or drug-resistant to chemotherapy, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is a mainstay of treatment in patients ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, :]

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Components of metabolic syndrome associated with lower neurocognitive performance in youth with perinatally acquired HIV and youth who are HIV-exposed uninfected.

Stephanie Shiau, Wendy Yu, Denise L Jacobson, Sharon Nichols, Elizabeth J McFarland, Janet S Chen, Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Karen Surowiec, Mitchell E Geffner, Jennifer Jao, ,

We investigated the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components [abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides (TG), low HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure (BP), and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG)] with neurocognitive impairment in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (YPHIV) or who are perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (YPHEU). This was an observational study with ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, :]

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Extensive longitudinal myelitis due to cytomegalovirus infection.

Rihab Ben Dhia, Mouna Aissi, Mariem Mhiri, Mahbouba Frih Ayed,

Neurological cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections especially extensive longitudinal myelitis are extremely rare in immunocompetent adults. However, we hereby report a case of cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral myelitis caused by CMV infection in a healthy adult patient. The patient was treated properly and had a good outcome. The etiopathogenesis and the prognostic ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Longitudinal telomere length profile does not reflect HIV and childhood trauma impacts on cognitive function in South African women.

Jacqueline Samantha Womersley, Georgina Spies, Gerard Tromp, Soraya Seedat, Sian Megan Joanna Hemmings,

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) present a challenge in South Africa where the burden of HIV infection is the highest. Identification of biological correlates of HAND is required to improve diagnosis and inform interventions. Telomeres maintain genomic integrity and their shortening is a marker of biological aging sensitive to environmental influences. ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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A wide spectrum of neurological manifestations in pediatrics patients with the COVID-19 infection: a case series.

Mariana Braatz Krueger, Raquel Carvalho Montenegro, Pablo Picasso de Araújo Coimbra, Luanna de Queiroz Lemos, Regiane Martins Fiorenza, Carla Jéssica da Silva Fernandes, Mariana Santos Leite Pessoa, Cleonísio Leite Rodrigues, Camilla Gomes da Cruz, Verlene de Araújo Verdiano, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Pedro Braga-Neto, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto,

Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients can also be found in the pediatric population, but they are usually described as mild symptoms. Herein, we described a case series of four pediatric patients with severe and highly heterogeneous central and peripheral nervous system manifestations. The objective was to report neurological manifestations of ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, :]

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Covid-19 post-infectious acute transverse myelitis responsive to corticosteroid therapy: report of two clinical cases.

Thaís de Maria Frota Vasconcelos, Danilo Nunes Oliveira, Glauber de Menezes Ferreira, Fabrícia Carneiro Torres, José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Pedro Braga-Neto, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto,

SARS-COV-2 infection has affected millions of individuals with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including central and peripheral nervous systems through several mechanisms. A rare but potentially severe manifestation of this virus is transverse myelitis. Herein, we report on two patients who developed paraparesis, sensory deficit, and autonomic changes on ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Long-term sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis-related white matter injury: correlation of neuropsychological outcome and diffusion tensor imaging.

Gorky Medhi, Anish Kapadia, Subhendu Parida, Dhanya C, B S Bagepalli, Netravathi M, Keshav Kumar, Arun Kumar Gupta, Jitender Saini,

The pathophysiology of the memory impairment following Herpes Simplex virus encephalitis is not yet established and understood. This study attempts to elucidate the role of white matter injury and its impact on neuropsychological outcome in patients with history of Herpes Simplex virus encephalitis. This is a single-institution prospective study assessing ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):601-608]

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Risk factors for neurological complications in children with Flavivirus infection.

Aline Almeida Bentes, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli, Paula Eillanny Silva Marinho, Ana Paula Correa Crispim, Karina Soares Loutfi, Eisler Cristiane Carvalho Viegas, Erna Geessien Kroon,

This study aims to characterize the acute neurological manifestations caused by DENV, ZIKV, and YFV during hospitalization; identify the risk factors associated with persistent neurological complications after discharge; and evaluate the time to resolution during clinical follow-up. A prospective study evaluated 505 children, between March 2014 and July 2019, hospitalized ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):609-615]

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Does antiretroviral therapy alter the course of Parkinson's disease in people living with HIV?

Ferzana Hassan Amod, Ahmed Iqbal Bhigjee, Anand Moodley,

South Africa has the world's largest antiretroviral programme which has resulted in an increase in life expectancy in persons living with HIV. Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. No data has been published in this setting with regards to the interaction between PD and people infected with HIV. ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):595-600]

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Chronic fatigue syndrome: an emerging sequela in COVID-19 survivors?

Elisa Mantovani, Sara Mariotto, Daniele Gabbiani, Gianluigi Dorelli, Silvia Bozzetti, Angela Federico, Serena Zanzoni, Domenico Girelli, Ernesto Crisafulli, Sergio Ferrari, Stefano Tamburin,

SARS-CoV-2 survivors may report persistent symptoms that resemble myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We explored (a) ME/CFS-like symptom prevalence and (b) whether axonal, inflammatory, and/or lung changes may contribute to ME/CFS-like symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 survivors through clinical, neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological, lung function assessment, and serum neurofilament light chain, an axonal damage ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):631-637]

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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicated by rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis presenting with neurovascular thrombosis: a case report and review of literature.

Vahid Reza Ostovan, Shirin Rezapanah, Zahra Behzadi, Leila Hosseini, Reza Jahangiri, Mohammad Hossein Anbardar, Mahtab Rostami,

Among the ever-increasing literature of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there have been reports on several complications in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as secondary bacterial and fungal infections. We report a 61-year-old woman with a past history of diabetes mellitus who presented to our hospital suffering ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):644-649]

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The importance of thinking about Guillain-Barré syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic: a case with pure dysautonomic presentation.

Erica Biassoni, Andrea Assini, Ilaria Gandoglia, Luana Benedetti, Silvia Boni, Emanuele Pontali, Marcello Feasi, Federica Gandolfo, Massimo Del Sette,

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a peripheral nervous system disease caused by an immune-mediated inflammatory mechanism, usually triggered by a previous infectious process or vaccine; its typical presentation is a rapid and progressive bilateral limb hyposthenia, associated with sensory deficits and reduction or absence of osteotendinous reflexes. However, also autonomic nervous ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):662-665]

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Improvement in depressive symptoms after antiretroviral therapy initiation in people with HIV in Rakai, Uganda.

Noeline Nakasujja, Alyssa C Vecchio, Deanna Saylor, Sarah Lofgren, Gertrude Nakigozi, David R Boulware, Alice Kisakye, James Batte, Richard Mayanja, Aggrey Anok, Steven J Reynolds, Thomas C Quinn, Carlos A Pardo, Anupama Kumar, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, Leah H Rubin,

Depression is common following HIV infection and often improves after ART initiation. We aimed to identify distinct dimensions of depression that change following ART initiation in persons with HIV (PWH) with minimal comorbidities (e.g., illicit substance use) and no psychiatric medication use. We expected that dimensional changes in improvements in ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):519-530]

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Rates of cognitive impairment in a South African cohort of people with HIV: variation by definitional criteria and lack of association with neuroimaging biomarkers.

Anna J Dreyer, Sam Nightingale, Jodi M Heaps-Woodruff, Michelle Henry, Hetta Gouse, Robert H Paul, Kevin G F Thomas, John A Joska,

There is wide variation in the reported prevalence of cognitive impairment in people with HIV (PWH). Part of this variation may be attributable to different studies using different methods of combining neuropsychological test scores to classify participants as either cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Our aim was to determine, in a ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):579-594]

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Nanoparticles and nanoformulated drugs as promising delivery system in treatment of microbial-induced CNS infection: a systematic review of literature.

Ali Lashkari, Reza Ranjbar,

Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a global health problem with high rate of mortality and associated morbidities. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa parasites are the main cause of CNS infection. Various medications are currently used for treatment of brain infections, but most of them do not have enough efficiency ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):542-549]

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Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants.

Xue-Lin Li, Jinming Han, Zhong-Rui Yan, Bing-Wei Zhang, Hai-Yang Wang,

Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinicoradiologic syndrome typically characterized by transient mild encephalitis or encephalopathy with reversible lesions being found in the splenium of corpus callosum (SCC) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A variety of pathogens including influenza virus, rotavirus, and adenovirus associated with MERS ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):638-643]

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Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging patterns of extensive Chikungunya virus-associated myelitis.

Fernanda Cristina Rueda-Lopes, Luiz Celso Hygino da Cruz, Fabrícia Lima Fontes, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Orlando da Costa Ferreira Junior, Renato Santana de Aguiar, Claudia Cristina Ferreira Vasconcelos, Osvaldo José Moreira do Nascimento, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon,

Chikungunya fever is an arbovirus infection transmitted by the same mosquito vector of dengue and Zika virus. Besides high fever, common clinical symptoms include articular pain and general malaise. Neurological involvement is unusual, but some patients may develop peripheral and central nervous system involvement, including meningoencephalitis, myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):616-625]

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Psychometric utility of the international HIV dementia scale and Montreal Cognitive Assessment in HIV-associated asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment.

Stephen L Aita, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Saowaluck Yasri, Amaraporn Rerkasem, Kittipan Rerkasem, Janejit Choovuthayakorn, Somsanguan Ausayakhun, Kevin Robertson, Robert M Roth, Nathaniel M Robbins,

There is a growing need for brief screening measures for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). We compared two commonly used measures (the Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] and the International HIV Dementia Scale [IHDS]) in their ability to identify asymptomatic HAND (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment [ANI]). Participants included 74 Thai PLWH: ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):568-578]

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Neurological disease caused by Oropouche virus in northern Brazil: should it be included in the scope of clinical neurological diseases?

Jannifer O Chiang, Rafael S Azevedo, Maria C A Justino, Haroldo J Matos, Hideraldo L S Cabeça, Sandro P Silva, Daniele F Henriques, Eliana V P Silva, Gabriela S S Andrade, Pedro Fc Vasconcelos, Lívia C Martins, Raimunda S S Azevedo,

We describe two neurological cases of Oropouche virus infection in northern Brazil, where the virus is endemic but neglected as a pathogen. This study reiterates the necessity of developing protocols for diagnosing infections and training medical personnel to recognize the pathogenicity of Oropouche virus in neurological infections. ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):626-630]

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Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and domain-specific neurocognitive performance in adults with HIV.

Karen Volpe, David Samuels, Asha Kallianpur, Ronald Ellis, Donald Franklin, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, Todd Hulgan,

Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) is an important cause of morbidity in persons with HIV (PWH). In the high-energy environment of the central nervous system, mitochondria contribute to neuroinflammation and aging, which may ultimately drive the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with health outcomes in PWH. ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):557-567]

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COVID-19 leukoencephalopathy with subacute magnetic resonance imaging findings of vasculitis and demyelination.

Ali Vahedi, Sean Apap Mangion, Eli Silber, Naomi Sibtain, Julie Chandra,

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) commonly results in a respiratory illness in symptomatic patients; however, those critically ill can develop a leukoencephalopathy. We describe two patients who had novel subacute MRI findings in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leukoencephalopathy, which we hypothesize could implicate a potent ... Read more >>

J Neurovirol (Journal of neurovirology)
[2021, 27(4):656-661]

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