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Memory specific to temporal features of sound is formed by cue-selective enhancements in temporal coding enabled by inhibition of an epigenetic regulator.

Elena K Rotondo, Kasia M Bieszczad,

Recent investigation of memory-related functions in the auditory system have capitalized on the use of memory-modulating molecules to probe the relationship between memory and its substrates in auditory system coding. For example, epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate gene expression necessary for memory consolidation, are powerful modulators of learning-induced neuroplasticity and long-term ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Somatostatin-positive Interneurons Contribute to Seizures in SCN8A Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Eric R Wengert, Raquel M Miralles, Kyle C A Wedgwood, Pravin K Wagley, Samantha M Strohm, Payal S Panchal, Abrar Majidi Idrissi, Ian C Wenker, Jeremy A Thompson, Ronald P Gaykema, Manoj K Patel,

<i>SCN8A</i> epileptic encephalopathy is a devastating epilepsy syndrome caused by mutant <i>SCN8A</i> which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Na<sub>V</sub>1.6. To date, it is unclear if and how inhibitory interneurons, which express Na<sub>V</sub>1.6, influence disease pathology. Using both sexes of a transgenic mouse model of <i>SCN8A</i> encephalopathy, we found that selective ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Sex differences in protein kinase A signaling of the latent postoperative pain sensitization that is masked by kappa opioid receptors in the spinal cord.

Paramita Basu, Lilian Custodio-Patsey, Pranav Prasoon, Bret N Smith, Bradley K Taylor,

Latent pain sensitization (LS) engages pronociceptive signaling pathways in the dorsal horn that include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) → adenylyl cyclase-1 (AC1) → protein kinase A (PKA) and Exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (Epac). To determine whether these pathways operate similarly between males and females or are under the inhibitory ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Cognitive and neural state dynamics of narrative comprehension.

Hayoung Song, Bo-Yong Park, Hyunjin Park, Won Mok Shim,

Narrative comprehension involves a constant interplay of the accumulation of incoming events and their integration into a coherent structure. This study characterizes cognitive states during narrative comprehension and the network-level reconfiguration occurring dynamically in the functional brain. We presented movie clips of temporally scrambled sequences to human participants (male and ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Trial-to-trial variability of spiking delay activity in prefrontal cortex constrains burst-coding models of working memory.

Daming Li, Christos Constantinidis, John D Murray,

A hallmark neuronal correlate of working memory (WM) is stimulus-selective spiking activity of neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) during mnemonic delays. These observations have motivated an influential computational modeling framework in which WM is supported by persistent activity. Recently this framework has been challenged by arguments that observed persistent activity ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Hippocampal inputs in the prelimbic cortex curb fear after extinction.

Weronika Szadzinska, Konrad Danielewski, Kacper Kondrakiewicz, Karolina Andraka, Evgeni Nikolaev, Marta Mikosz, Ewelina Knapska,

In contrast to easily formed fear memories, fear extinction requires prolonged training. The prelimbic cortex (PL), which integrates signals from brain structures involved in fear conditioning and extinction such as the ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and the basolateral amygdala (BL), is necessary for fear memory retrieval. Little is known, however, about ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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A neurocomputational model for intrinsic reward.

Benjamin Chew, Bastien Blain, Raymond J Dolan, Robb B Rutledge,

Standard economic indicators provide an incomplete picture of what we value both as individuals and as a society. Furthermore, canonical macroeconomic measures, such as GDP, do not account for non-market activities (e.g., cooking, childcare) that nevertheless impact well-being. Here, we introduce a computational tool that measures the affective value of ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Dynamic Heterogeneity Shapes Patterns of Spiral Ganglion Activity.

Jeffrey Parra-Munevar, Charles E Morse, Mark R Plummer, Robin L Davis,

Neural response properties that typify primary sensory afferents are critical to fully appreciate because they establish and, ultimately, represent the fundamental coding design used for higher-level processing. Studies illuminating the center-surround receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells, for example, were ground-breaking because they determined the foundation of visual form detection. ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Multivariate Analysis of Electrophysiological Signals Reveals the Time Course of Precision Grasps Programs: Evidence for Non-hierarchical Evolution of Grasp Control.

Lin Lawrence Guo, Yazan Shamli Oghli, Adam Frost, Matthias Niemeier,

Current understanding of the neural processes underlying human grasping suggests that grasp computations involve gradients of higher- to lower-level representations and, relatedly, visual to motor processes. However, it is unclear whether these processes evolve in a strictly canonical manner from higher to intermediate, and to lower levels given that this ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Slo2/KNa Channels in Drosophila Protect Against Spontaneous and Induced Seizure-like Behavior Associated with an Increased Persistent Na+ Current.

Nathan Byers, Eu-Teum Hahm, Susan Tsunoda,

Na<sup>+</sup>-sensitivity is a unique feature of Na<sup>+</sup>-activated K<sup>+</sup> (K<sub>Na</sub>) channels, making them naturally suited to counter a sudden influx in Na<sup>+</sup> ions. As such, it has long been suggested that K<sub>Na</sub> channels may serve a protective function against excessive excitation associated with neuronal injury and disease. This hypothesis, however, has ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Generalizable EEG encoding models with naturalistic audiovisual stimuli.

Maansi Desai, Jade Holder, Cassandra Villarreal, Nat Clark, Brittany Hoang, Liberty S Hamilton,

In natural conversations, listeners must attend to what others are saying while ignoring extraneous background sounds. Recent studies have used encoding models to predict electroencephalography (EEG) responses to speech in noise-free listening situations, sometimes referred to as "speech tracking". Researchers have analyzed how speech tracking changes with different types of ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Hippocampal connectivity with retrosplenial cortex is linked to neocortical tau accumulation and memory function.

Jacob Ziontz, Jenna N Adams, Theresa M Harrison, Suzanne L Baker, William J Jagust,

The mechanisms underlying accumulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related tau pathology outside of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in older adults are unknown but crucial to understanding cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies strongly implicates neural connectivity in the propagation of tau in humans, but ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Metabolic control of sensory neuron survival by the p75 neurotrophin receptor in Schwann cells.

Rose M Follis, Chhavy Tep, Thiago C Genaro-Mattos, Mi Lyang Kim, Jae Cheon Ryu, Vivianne E Morrison, Jonah R Chan, Ned Porter, Bruce D Carter, Sung Ok Yoon,

We report that the neurotrophin receptor p75 contributes to sensory neuron survival through the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in Schwann cells. Selective deletion of p75 in mouse Schwann cells of either sex resulted in a 30% loss of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and diminished thermal sensitivity. P75 regulates Schwann ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Reliable sensory processing in mouse visual cortex through cooperative interactions between somatostatin and parvalbumin interneurons.

Rajeev V Rikhye, Murat Yildirim, Ming Hu, Vincent Breton-Provencher, Mriganka Sur,

Intrinsic neuronal variability significantly limits information encoding in the primary visual cortex (V1). However, under certain conditions, neurons can respond reliably with highly precise responses to the same visual stimuli from trial to trial. This suggests that there exist intrinsic neural circuit mechanisms that dynamically modulate the inter-trial variability of ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Critical Role of Astrocyte NAD+ Glycohydrolase in Myelin Injury and Regeneration.

Monica R Langley, Chan-Il Choi, Thais R Peclat, Yong Guo, Whitney Simon, Hyesook Yoon, Laurel Kleppe, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Claudia C S Chini, Eduardo N Chini, Isobel A Scarisbrick,

Western-style diets cause disruptions in myelinating cells and astrocytes within the mouse central nervous system (CNS). CD38 shows increased expression in the cuprizone and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of demyelination; in addition, CD38 is the main nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD<sup>+</sup>)-depleting enzyme in the CNS. Altered NAD<sup>+</sup> metabolism is linked to ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Central nervous system hypomyelination disrupts axonal conduction and behaviour in larval zebrafish.

M E Madden, D Suminaite, E Ortiz, J E Early, S Koudelka, M R Livesey, I H Bianco, M Granato, D A Lyons,

Myelination is essential for central nervous system (CNS) formation, health and function. As a model organism, larval zebrafish have been extensively employed to investigate the molecular and cellular basis of CNS myelination, due to their genetic tractability and suitability for non-invasive live cell imaging. However, it has not been assessed ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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CDKL5 deficiency augments inhibitory input into the dentate gyrus that can be reversed by deep brain stimulation.

Shuang Hao, Qi Wang, Bin Tang, Zhenyu Wu, Tingting Yang, Jianrong Tang,

Cognitive impairment is a core feature of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early epileptic seizures, intellectual disability, and autistic behaviors. Although loss of CDKL5 affects a number of molecular pathways, very little has been discovered about the physiological effects of these changes on the neural ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, :]

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Selective manipulation of G-protein γ7 subunit in mice provides new insights into striatal control of motor behavior.

Gloria Brunori, Oliver B Pelletier, Anna M Stauffer, Janet D Robishaw,

Stimulatory coupling of dopamine D<sub>1</sub> (D<sub>1</sub>R) and adenosine A<sub>2A</sub> receptors (A<sub>2A</sub>R) to adenylyl cyclase within the striatum is mediated through a specific Gα<sub>olf</sub>β<sub>2</sub>γ<sub>7</sub> heterotrimer to ultimately modulate motor behaviors. To dissect the individual roles of the Gα<sub>olf</sub>β<sub>2</sub>γ<sub>7</sub> heterotrimer in different populations of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), we produced and characterized ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Studying independent Kcna6 knock-out mice reveals toxicity of exogenous LacZ to central nociceptor terminals and differential effects of Kv1.6 on acute and neuropathic pain sensation.

L J Peck, R Patel, P Diaz, Y M Wintle, A H Dickenson, A J Todd, M Calvo, Dlh Bennett,

The potassium channel Kv1.6 has recently been implicated as a major modulatory channel subunit expressed in primary nociceptors. Furthermore, its expression at juxtaparanodes (JXP) of myelinated primary afferents is induced following traumatic nerve injury as part of an endogenous mechanism to reduce hyperexcitability and pain-related hypersensitivity. In this study we ... Read more >>

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Cognitive control promotes either honesty or dishonesty, depending on one's moral default.

Sebastian P H Speer, Ale Smidts, Maarten A S Boksem,

Cognitive control is crucially involved in making (dis)honest decisions. However, the precise nature of this role has been hotly debated. Is honesty an intuitive response or is willpower needed to override an intuitive inclination to cheat? A reconciliation of these conflicting views proposes that cognitive control enables dishonest participants to ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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STK25 and MST3 have overlapping roles to regulate Rho GTPases during cortical development.

Tohru Matsuki, Akio Iio, Masashi Ueda, Yumi Tsuneura, Brian W Howell, Atsuo Nakayama,

Precise control of neuronal migration is required for the laminar organization of the neocortex and critical for brain function. We previously reported that the acute disruption of the <i>Stk25</i> gene (<i>Stk25 conditional knockout (cKO)</i>) during mouse embryogenesis causes anomalous neuronal migration in the neocortex, but paradoxically the <i>Stk25</i> cKO did ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Constructing others' beliefs from one's own using medial frontal cortex.

Nils Kolling, Marius Braunsdorf, Suhas Vijayakumar, Harold Bekkering, Ivan Toni, Rogier B Mars,

Many daily choices are based on one's own knowledge. However, when predicting other people's behavior, we need to consider the differences between our knowledge and other people's presumed knowledge. Social agents need a mechanism to use privileged information for their own behavior but exclude it from predictions of others. Using ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Tonotopic specializations in number, size, and reversal potential of GABAergic inputs fine-tune temporal coding at avian cochlear nucleus.

Mohammed Al-Yaari, Chikao Onogi, Rei Yamada, Ryota Adachi, Daiya Kondo, Hiroshi Kuba,

GABAergic inhibition in neurons plays a critical role in determining the output of neural circuits. Neurons in avian nucleus magnocellularis (NM) utilize several tonotopic-region-dependent specializations to relay the timing information of sound in the auditory nerve to higher auditory nuclei. Previously, we showed that feedforward GABAergic inhibition in NM has ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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The Glymphatic System: A Novel Component of Fundamental Neurobiology.

Lauren M Hablitz, Maiken Nedergaard,

Throughout the body, lymphatic fluid movement supports critical functions including clearance of excess fluid and metabolic waste. The glymphatic system is the analog of the lymphatic system in the CNS. As such, the glymphatic system plays a key role in regulating directional interstitial fluid movement, waste clearance, and, potentially, brain ... Read more >>

J Neurosci (The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience)
[2021, 41(37):7698-7711]

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Posterodorsal medial amygdala regulation of female social behavior: GABA vs Glutamate projections.

Caroline S Johnson, Weizhe Hong, Paul E Micevych,

Social behaviors, including reproductive behaviors, often display sexual dimorphism. Lordosis, the measure of female sexual receptivity, is one of the most apparent sexually dimorphic reproductive behaviors. Lordosis is regulated by estrogen and progesterone acting within a hypothalamic-limbic circuit, consisting of the arcuate, medial preoptic, and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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