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Journal J Neuroinflammation

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Aging triggers an upregulation of a multitude of cytokines in the male and especially the female rodent hippocampus but more discrete changes in other brain regions.

Latarsha Porcher, Sophie Bruckmeier, Steven D Burbano, Julie E Finnell, Nicole Gorny, Jennifer Klett, Susan K Wood, Michy P Kelly,

<h4>Background</h4>Despite widespread acceptance that neuroinflammation contributes to age-related cognitive decline, studies comparing protein expression of cytokines in the young versus old brains are surprisingly limited in terms of the number of cytokines and brain regions studied. Complicating matters, discrepancies abound-particularly for interleukin 6 (IL-6)-possibly due to differences in sex, species/strain, ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):219]

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Inhibition of microglial β-glucocerebrosidase hampers the microglia-mediated antioxidant and protective response in neurons.

Electra Brunialti, Alessandro Villa, Marianna Mekhaeil, Federica Mornata, Elisabetta Vegeto, Adriana Maggi, Donato A Di Monte, Paolo Ciana,

<h4>Background</h4>Homozygotic mutations in the GBA gene cause Gaucher's disease; moreover, both patients and heterozygotic carriers have been associated with 20- to 30-fold increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. In homozygosis, these mutations impair the activity of β-glucocerebrosidase, the enzyme encoded by GBA, and generate a lysosomal disorder in macrophages, which ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):220]

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IL-1β and HMGB1 are anti-neurogenic to endogenous neural stem cells in the sclerotic epileptic human hippocampus.

Malik Zaben, Niels Haan, Feras Sharouf, Aminul Ahmed, Lars E Sundstrom, William P Gray,

<h4>Background</h4>The dentate gyrus exhibits life-long neurogenesis of granule-cell neurons, supporting hippocampal dependent learning and memory. Both temporal lobe epilepsy patients and animal models frequently have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory difficulties and show evidence of reduced neurogenesis. Animal and human temporal lobe epilepsy studies have also shown strong innate immune system ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):218]

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Tauroursodeoxycholic acid alleviates secondary injury in spinal cord injury mice by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammatory response.

Yonghui Hou, Jiyao Luan, Taida Huang, Tiancheng Deng, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jiheng Zhan, Dan Luo, Yu Hou, Liangliang Xu, Dingkun Lin,

<h4>Background</h4>Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid derivative, which has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in different neurological disease models. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of TUDCA on spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of TUDCA ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):216]

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HSF1 is involved in suppressing A1 phenotype conversion of astrocytes following spinal cord injury in rats.

Lilan Li, Yu Li, Bingqiang He, Hui Li, Huiyuan Ji, Yingjie Wang, Zhenjie Zhu, Yuming Hu, Yue Zhou, Ting Yang, Chunshuai Sun, Ying Yuan, Yongjun Wang,

<h4>Background</h4>Two activation states of reactive astrocytes termed A1 and A2 subtypes emerge at the lesion sites following spinal cord injury (SCI). A1 astrocytes are known to be neurotoxic that participate in neuropathogenesis, whereas A2 astrocytes have been assigned the neuroprotective activity. Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) plays roles in ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):205]

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High-fat diet increases gliosis and immediate early gene expression in APOE3 mice, but not APOE4 mice.

Nahdia S Jones, Katarina Q Watson, G William Rebeck,

<h4>Background</h4>APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and obesity is a strong environmental risk factor for AD. These factors result in multiple central nervous system (CNS) disturbances and significantly increase chances of AD. Since over 20% of the US population carry the APOE4 allele and over ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):214]

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Galantamine prevents and reverses neuroimmune induction and loss of adult hippocampal neurogenesis following adolescent alcohol exposure.

Victoria Macht, Ryan Vetreno, Natalie Elchert, Fulton Crews,

<h4>Background</h4>Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, a reduction which persists throughout adulthood despite abstinence. This loss of neurogenesis, indicated by reduced doublecortin+ immunoreactivity (DCX+IR), is paralleled by an increase in hippocampal proinflammatory signaling cascades. As galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that galantamine ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):212]

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Autophagy protein NRBF2 attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress via promoting autophagosome maturation by interacting with Rab7 after SAH.

Hanhai Zeng, Huaijun Chen, Min Li, Jianfeng Zhuang, Yucong Peng, Hang Zhou, Chaoran Xu, Qian Yu, Xiongjie Fu, Shenglong Cao, Jing Cai, Feng Yan, Gao Chen,

<h4>Background</h4>Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is the first to show that activation of autophagy protein nuclear receptor binding factor 2 (NRBF2) could reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated inflammation and oxidative stress after SAH.<h4>Methods</h4>Male ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):210]

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Kynurenine pathway in post-mortem prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in schizophrenia: relationship with monoamines and symptomatology.

Amira Ben Afia, Èlia Vila, Karina S MacDowell, Aida Ormazabal, Juan C Leza, Josep M Haro, Rafael Artuch, Belén Ramos, Borja Garcia-Bueno,

<h4>Background</h4>The cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit has been implicated in the emergence of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ). The kynurenine pathway (KP) has been linked to alterations in glutamatergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission and to SZ symptomatology through the production of the metabolites quinolinic acid (QA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA).<h4>Methods</h4>This work describes alterations in ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):198]

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LncRNA HOXA-AS2 regulates microglial polarization via recruitment of PRC2 and epigenetic modification of PGC-1α expression.

Xiaodong Yang, Yi Zhang, Yimeng Chen, Xiaoqin He, Yiwei Qian, Shaoqing Xu, Chao Gao, Chengjun Mo, Shengdi Chen, Qin Xiao,

<h4>Background</h4>Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD), and it exerts proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the M1/M2 polarization phenotype. Hence, promoting microglia toward the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype is a potential therapeutic approach for PD. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):197]

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TLR7 is expressed by support cells, but not sensory neurons, in ganglia.

Becky J Proskocil, Karol Wai, Katherine M Lebold, Mason A Norgard, Katherine A Michaelis, Ubaldo De La Torre, Madeline Cook, Daniel L Marks, Allison D Fryer, David B Jacoby, Matthew G Drake,

<h4>Background</h4>Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an innate immune receptor that detects viral single-stranded RNA and triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type 1 interferons in immune cells. TLR7 agonists also modulate sensory nerve function by increasing neuronal excitability, although studies are conflicting whether sensory neurons specifically express TLR7. This ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):209]

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1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protects retinal ganglion cells in glaucomatous mice.

Francesca Lazzara, Rosario Amato, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Federica Conti, Tsung-Han Chou, Vittorio Porciatti, Filippo Drago, Claudio Bucolo,

<h4>Background</h4>Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of function and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. Neuroinflammation is recognized as one of the causes of glaucoma, and currently no treatment is addressing this mechanism. We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):206]

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EETs/sEHi alleviates nociception by blocking the crosslink between endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuroinflammation in a central poststroke pain model.

Tongtong Liu, Ting Li, Xuhui Chen, Zuofan Li, Miaomiao Feng, Wenlong Yao, Li Wan, Chuanhan Zhang, Yue Zhang,

<h4>Background</h4>Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a chronic and intolerable neuropathic pain syndrome following a cerebral vascular insult, which negatively impacts the quality of life of stroke survivors but currently lacks efficacious treatments. Though its underlying mechanism remains unclear, clinical features of hyperalgesia and allodynia indicate central sensitization due to excessive ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):211]

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Rapid morphologic changes to microglial cells and upregulation of mixed microglial activation state markers induced by P2X7 receptor stimulation and increased intraocular pressure.

Keith E Campagno, Wennan Lu, Assraa Hassan Jassim, Farraj Albalawi, Aurora Cenaj, Huen-Yee Tso, Sophia P Clark, Puttipong Sripinun, Néstor Más Gómez, Claire H Mitchell,

<h4>Background</h4>The identification of endogenous signals that lead to microglial activation is a key step in understanding neuroinflammatory cascades. As ATP release accompanies mechanical strain to neural tissue, and as the P2X7 receptor for ATP is expressed on microglial cells, we examined the morphological and molecular consequences of P2X7 receptor stimulation ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):217]

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The role of interferon regulatory factor 8 for retinal tissue homeostasis and development of choroidal neovascularisation.

Peipei Zhang, Anja Schlecht, Julian Wolf, Stefaniya Boneva, Yannik Laich, Jana Koch, Franziska Ludwig, Myriam Boeck, Adrian Thien, Carmen Härdtner, Katrin Kierdorf, Hansjürgen Agostini, Günther Schlunck, Marco Prinz, Ingo Hilgendorf, Peter Wieghofer, Clemens Lange,

<h4>Background</h4>Microglia cells represent the resident innate immune cells of the retina and are important for retinal development and tissue homeostasis. However, dysfunctional microglia can have a negative impact on the structural and functional integrity of the retina under native and pathological conditions.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we examined interferon-regulatory factor 8 (Irf8)-deficient ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):215]

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Regulatory T cells protect against brain damage by alleviating inflammatory response in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

Xue Ma, Chuan Qin, Man Chen, Hai-Han Yu, Yun-Hui Chu, Ting-Jun Chen, Dale B Bosco, Long-Jun Wu, Bi-Tao Bu, Wei Wang, Dai-Shi Tian,

<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is mainly an anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) autoantibodies-mediated idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Systemic and local inflammatory responses play a key role in the pathophysiology of NMOSD. However, the role of the crucial immunomodulators CD4<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup> forkhead box P3<sup>+</sup> (Foxp3) regulatory ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):201]

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Plasma inflammatory cytokines and treatment-resistant depression with comorbid pain: improvement by ketamine.

Yanling Zhou, Chengyu Wang, Xiaofeng Lan, Hanqiu Li, Ziyuan Chao, Yuping Ning,

<h4>Background</h4>Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and pain frequently coexist clinically. Ketamine has analgesic and antidepressant effects, but few studies have evaluated individual differences in antidepressant outcomes to repeated ketamine in TRD patients with comorbid pain. Our aims were to determine the difference in ketamine's antidepressant effects in TRD patients with or without ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):200]

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Brain profiling in murine colitis and human epilepsy reveals neutrophils and TNFα as mediators of neuronal hyperexcitability.

Sarah E Barnes, Kristy A Zera, Geoffrey T Ivison, Marion S Buckwalter, Edgar G Engleman,

<h4>Background</h4>Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease frequently experience neurological complications including epilepsy, depression, attention deficit disorders, migraines, and dementia. However, the mechanistic basis for these associations is unknown. Given that many patients are unresponsive to existing medications or experience debilitating side effects, novel therapeutics that target ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):199]

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Small extracellular vesicles encapsulating CCL2 from activated astrocytes induce microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury.

Yuluo Rong, Chengyue Ji, Zhuanghui Wang, Xuhui Ge, Jiaxing Wang, Wu Ye, Pengyu Tang, Dongdong Jiang, Jin Fan, Guoyong Yin, Wei Liu, Weihua Cai,

<h4>Background</h4>Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe traumatic disease which causes high disability and mortality rates. The molecular pathological features after spinal cord injury mainly involve the inflammatory response, microglial and neuronal apoptosis, abnormal proliferation of astrocytes, and the formation of glial scars. However, the microenvironmental changes after spinal cord ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):196]

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MD2 contributes to the pathogenesis of perioperative neurocognitive disorder via the regulation of α5GABAA receptors in aged mice.

Wenqiang Zuo, Jianshuai Zhao, Jinming Zhang, Zongping Fang, Jiao Deng, Ze Fan, Yaru Guo, Jing Han, Wugang Hou, Hailong Dong, Feifei Xu, Lize Xiong,

<h4>Background</h4>Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) is a long-term postoperative complication in elderly surgical patients. The underlying mechanism of PND is unclear, and no effective therapies are currently available. It is believed that neuroinflammation plays an important role in triggering PND. The secreted glycoprotein myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) functions as an ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):204]

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Innate immune responses after stimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in ex vivo microglial cultures and an in vivo model using mice with reduced microglia.

James A Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James F Striebel, Bruce Chesebro,

<h4>Background</h4>Past experiments studying innate immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) utilized microglia obtained from neonatal mouse brain, which differ developmentally from adult microglia. These differences might impact our current understanding of the role of microglia in CNS development, function, and disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Cytokine protein secretion was compared in ex vivo P3 ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):194]

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Dexamethasone enhances the efficacy of atorvastatin in inhibiting excessively inflammation-induced abnormal angiogenesis by regulating macrophages.

Zhitao Gong, Daqiang Zhan, Meng Nie, Xiaochun Li, Chuang Gao, Xuanhui Liu, Tangtang Xiang, Jiangyuan Yuan, Weiwei Jiang, Jinhao Huang, Wei Quan, Dong Wang, Ye Tian, Hengjie Yuan, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang,

<h4>Background</h4>We have recently showed that atorvastatin (ATO) combined with low dose of dexamethasone (DEX) was more efficacious in treating patients with chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) than ATO monotherapy. This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the improved efficacy of this combined therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Mass spectrometry was performed to quantitatively ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):203]

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Sex difference in the interrelationship between TNF-α and oxidative stress status in first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia.

Minghuan Zhu, Zhenjing Liu, Yanhong Guo, Mst Sadia Sultana, Kang Wu, Xiaoe Lang, Qinyu Lv, Xiao Huang, Zhenghui Yi, Zezhi Li,

<h4>Background</h4>Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulated TNF-α and oxidative stress (OxS) contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Additionally, previous evidence has demonstrated sex differences in many aspects of schizophrenia including clinical characteristics, cytokines, and OxS markers. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study investigating sex differences in ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):202]

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Plasma neurofilament light chain level predicts outcomes in stroke patients receiving endovascular thrombectomy.

Chih-Hao Chen, Hai-Jui Chu, Yi-Ting Hwang, Yen-Heng Lin, Chung-Wei Lee, Sung-Chun Tang, Jiann-Shing Jeng,

<h4>Background</h4>Timely endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) significantly improves outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusion type. However, whether certain central nervous system-specific plasma biomarkers correlate with the outcomes is unknown. We evaluated the temporal changes and prognostic roles of the levels of these biomarkers in patients with ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):195]

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Sex differences and similarities in the neuroimmune response to central administration of poly I:C.

Caitlin K Posillico, Rosa E Garcia-Hernandez, Natalie C Tronson,

<h4>Background</h4>The neuroimmune system is required for normal neural processes, including modulation of cognition, emotion, and adaptive behaviors. Aberrant neuroimmune activation is associated with dysregulation of memory and emotion, though the precise mechanisms at play are complex and highly context dependent. Sex differences in neuroimmune activation and function further complicate our ... Read more >>

J Neuroinflammation (Journal of neuroinflammation)
[2021, 18(1):193]

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