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Evaluation of Drimys winteri (Canelo) Essential Oil as Insecticide against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

Jocelyne Tampe, Javier Espinoza, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz, Mónica Rubilar,

Adverse effects caused by synthetic pesticides have increased interest in plant-derived insecticidal compounds, in particular essential oils, as a more compatible and ecofriendly alternative for pest control of economic importance. For this reason, the essential oil isolated from leaves and shoots of Drimys winteri (J.R. Forster & G. Forster)-also named ... Read more >>

Insects (Insects)
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Adult Mosquitoes Infected with Bacteria Early in Life Have Stronger Antimicrobial Responses and More Hemocytes after Reinfection Later in Life.

Joseph C Powers, Raymar Turangan, Bryan A Joosse, Julián F Hillyer,

The immunological strategies employed by insects to overcome infection vary with the type of infection and may change with experience. We investigated how a bacterial infection in the hemocoel of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, prepares the immune system to face a subsequent bacterial infection. For this, adult female ... Read more >>

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Interactions of Metarhizium brunneum-7 with Phytophagous Mites Following Different Application Strategies.

Dana Ment, Sukirtha Raman, Shira Gal, David Ezra, Eric Palevsky,

Metarhizium brunneum is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus known to be virulent against Acari. We investigated Metarhizium brunneum-7 (Mb7) interactions in three systems of phytophagous mites and their respective plant hosts: Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana) and the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora; common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the two-spotted spider mite ... Read more >>

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What Can the Bacterial Community of Atta sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758) Tell Us about the Habitats in Which This Ant Species Evolves?

Manuela de Oliveira Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Maria Santina Castro Morini, Odair Correa Bueno,

Studies of bacterial communities can reveal the evolutionary significance of symbiotic interactions between hosts and their associated bacteria, as well as identify environmental factors that may influence host biology. Atta sexdens is an ant species native to Brazil that can act as an agricultural pest due to its intense behavior ... Read more >>

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RNA Interference Is Enhanced by Knockdown of double-stranded RNases in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes Aegypti.

David Giesbrecht, Daniel Heschuk, Ian Wiens, David Boguski, Parker LaChance, Steve Whyard,

RNA interference (RNAi) techniques are being developed for a range of pest insect control technologies, including the sterile insect technique (SIT) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-based insecticides. In SIT applications, where >99% of the released males should be sterile to meet industry standards, the efficiency of RNAi will need to be ... Read more >>

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Reference Gene Selection for Expression Analyses by qRT-PCR in Dendroctonus valens.

Chunchun Zheng, Dongfang Zhao, Yabei Xu, Fengming Shi, Shixiang Zong, Jing Tao,

Dendroctonus valens is the main pest of the genus Pinus. To facilitate gene expression analyses, suitable reference genes for adults and mature larvae of D. valens under different temperature conditions were determined. In particular, we obtained the sequences of candidate reference genes, ACT, TUB, SHDA, PRS18, 18S rRNA, and CYP4G55, ... Read more >>

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Evolutionary Patterns of Sex-Biased Genes in Three Species of Haplodiploid Insects.

Yu-Jun Wang, Hua-Ling Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Shu-Sheng Liu,

Females and males often differ obviously in morphology and behavior, and the differences between sexes are the result of natural selection and/or sexual selection. To a great extent, the differences between the two sexes are the result of differential gene expression. In haplodiploid insects, this phenomenon is obvious, since males ... Read more >>

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Control of Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Trialeurodes vaporariorum, with Electron Beam and X-Ray Radiation of Fresh Strawberies for Export.

Sun-Ran Cho, Soeun Shin, Hyeonmo Ahn, Hyun-Na Koo, Yuri Kim, Gil-Hah Kim,

Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) is one of the representative fresh agricultural products exported overseas from South Korea. The greenhouse whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Trialeurodes vaporariorum, is an economically important insect pest of commercial strawberries in South Korea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of electron beam ... Read more >>

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Multiscale Determinants Drive Parasitization of Drosophilidae by Hymenopteran Parasitoids in Agricultural Landscapes.

Valeria Trivellone, Michela Meier, Corrado Cara, Lucia Pollini Paltrinieri, Felix Gugerli, Marco Moretti, Sarah Wolf, Jana Collatz,

(1) The management of agricultural landscapes for pest suppression requires a thorough understanding of multiple determinants controlling their presence. We investigated the ecological preferences of indigenous parasitoids and their drosophilid hosts to understand the role of native parasitoids as biological control agents of the invasive frugivorous Drosophila suzukii. (2) Using ... Read more >>

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Enzymology, Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ar-Turmerone on Culex pipiens pallens Larvae.

Jia Liu, Diana Fernandez, Yanjin Gao, Silvie Pierre, Yongdong Gao, Guanghui Dai,

Our previous article demonstrated that ar-turmerone ((6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-methylphenyl)-2-hepten-4-one) extracted from Curcuma longa L. has a significant larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens. To reveal the effects of ar-turmerone on C. pipiens pallens larvae, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the histological and ... Read more >>

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Contact Effect Contribution to the High Efficiency of Lithium Chloride Against the Mite Parasite of the Honey Bee.

Éva Kolics, Kinga Mátyás, János Taller, András Specziár, Balázs Kolics,

Lithium chemicals have been proven to be very effective in eradicating Varroa destructor, the detrimental parasite of the honey bee; however, little is known about the side effects on brood and long term consequences on the colony. Earlier, it was proposed that the action mechanisms of lithium chloride do not ... Read more >>

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A Comparison of Adult Mosquito Trapping Methods to Assess Potential West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Greece during the Onset of the 2018 Transmission Season.

Marina Bisia, Claire L Jeffries, Ioanna Lytra, Antonios Michaelakis, Thomas Walker,

West Nile virus (WNV) threatens the health of humans and equines worldwide. Culex (Cx.) pipiens complex mosquitoes are major vectors but numerous other species have been implicated. Due to variations in blood-feeding behaviour, Cx. pipiens biotypes and hybrids influence transmission, from enzootic cycles (between mosquitoes and birds), to spill-over transmission ... Read more >>

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Synergy of Lepidopteran Nucleopolyhedroviruses AcMNPV and SpliNPV with Insecticides.

Beatriz Dáder, Eduardo Aguirre, Primitivo Caballero, Pilar Medina,

The joint use of baculoviruses and synthetic insecticides for integrated pest management requires the study of the additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects among them on pest mortality. Droplet bioassays were conducted with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) and seven insecticides (azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, cyantraniliprole, emamectin, metaflumizone, ... Read more >>

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Effects of Prey Distribution and Heterospecific Interactions on the Functional Response of Harmonia axyridis and Aphidius gifuensis to Myzus persicae.

Xing-Lin Yu, Rui Tang, Peng-Liang Xia, Bo Wang, Yi Feng, Tong-Xian Liu,

Natural enemy guilds normally forage for prey that is patchily distributed simultaneously. Previous studies have investigated the influence of conspecific interactions and prey distribution on the functional response of natural enemies. However, little is known about how prey distribution and heterospecific interactions between natural enemies could affect their foraging efficiency. ... Read more >>

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Phylogeny of Anopheles (Kerteszia) (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Mitochondrial Genes.

Karin Kirchgatter, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Henrry Hugo Yañez Trujillano, Fernando Rafael Arias, Abraham Germán Cáceres, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Rosa Maria Tubaki, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum,

Identification of mosquito species is necessary for determining the entomological components of malaria transmission, but it can be difficult in morphologically similar species. DNA sequences are largely used as an additional tool for species recognition, including those that belong to species complexes. Kerteszia mosquitoes are vectors of human and simian ... Read more >>

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Drench Application of Systemic Insecticides Disrupts Probing Behavior of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and Inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

Michele Carmo-Sousa, Rafael Brandão Garcia, Nelson Arno Wulff, Alberto Fereres, Marcelo Pedreira Miranda,

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium that is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus and transmitted by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri. There are no curative methods to control HLB and the prevention of new infections is essential for HLB management. Therefore, the objective of our study ... Read more >>

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Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis Early Embryos.

Wei Peng, Shuning Yu, Alfred M Handler, Hongyu Zhang,

: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most devastating and highly invasive agricultural pests world-wide, resulting in severe economic loss. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the transcriptional changes that occur during the activation of its zygotic genome at the early stages of ... Read more >>

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The Effect of Foraging on Bumble Bees, Bombus terrestris, Reared under Laboratory Conditions.

Pavel Dobeš, Martin Kunc, Jana Hurychová, Alena Votavová, Olga Komzáková, Pavel Hyršl,

Bumble bees are important pollinators broadly used by farmers in greenhouses and under conditions in which honeybee pollination is limited. As such, bumble bees are increasingly being reared for commercial purposes, which brings into question whether individuals reared under laboratory conditions are fully capable of physiological adaptation to field conditions. ... Read more >>

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A Historical Review of Management Options Used against the Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

David Cook,

The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), remains a significant economic pest globally in situations where intensive animal production or horticultural production provide a suitable developmental medium. Stable flies have been recorded as pests of livestock and humans since the late 1800s to early 1900s. Over 100 years of ... Read more >>

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ImergardTMWP: A Non-Chemical Alternative for an Indoor Residual Spray, Effective against Pyrethroid-Resistant Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Africa.

Jean M Deguenon, Roseric Azondekon, Fiacre R Agossa, Gil G Padonou, Rodrigue Anagonou, Juniace Ahoga, Boris N'dombidje, Bruno Akinro, David A Stewart, Bo Wang, David Gittins, Larissa Tihomirov, Charles S Apperson, Marian G McCord, Martin C Akogbeto, R Michael Roe,

Malaria is the deadliest mosquito-borne disease and kills predominantly people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The now widespread mosquito resistance to pyrethroids, with rapidly growing resistance to other insecticide classes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), may overturn the successes gained in mosquito control in recent years. It is of ... Read more >>

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Population Dynamics of Hyalomma dromedarii on Camels in the United Arab Emirates.

Nighat Perveen, Sabir Bin Muzaffar, Mohammad Ali Al-Deeb,

Hyalomma dromedarii is the most important tick species infesting camels in the Middle East. So far, there are no studies on the population dynamics of H. dromedarii ticks on camels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Thus, the current study was performed: (1) to assess H. dromedarii population dynamics under ... Read more >>

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Preventative Approach to Microbial Control of Capnodis tenebrionis by Soil Application of Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana.

Dana Ment, Hysen Kokiçi, Enrico de Lillo,

Management of the Mediterranean flat-headed root-borer, Capnodis tenebrionis, is critical due to the larvae's root localization. Neonate larvae can be exposed to natural enemies before penetrating the roots. Application of Metarhizium brunneum strain Mb7 and Beauveria bassiana strain GHA formulations on rice granules was investigated for their efficacy against C. ... Read more >>

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Mating Responses in Bemisia tabaci MED Females.

Zhijia Huo, Yating Liu, Jinjian Yang, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou, Baoping Pang, Youjun Zhang,

Mating triggers substantial changes in gene expression and leads to subsequent physiological and behavioral modifications. However, postmating transcriptomic changes responding to mating have not yet been fully understood. Here, we carried out RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis in the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MED, to identify genes in females in ... Read more >>

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Nest Entrances, Spatial Fidelity, and Foraging Patterns in the Red Ant Myrmica rubra: A Field and Theoretical Study.

Marine Lehue, Claire Detrain, Bertrand Collignon,

The nest architecture of social insects deeply impacts the spatial distribution of nestmates their interactions, information exchanges and collective responses. In particular, the number of nest entrances can influence the interactions taking place beyond the nest boundaries and the emergence of collective structures like foraging trails. Here, we investigated in ... Read more >>

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New Insight into the Systematics of European Lepidocyrtus (Collembola: Entomobryidae) Using Molecular and Morphological Data.

Daniel Winkler, Eduardo Mateos, György Traser, Ferenc Lakatos, Viktória Tóth,

The Collembolan genus Lepidocyrtus is subdivided into up to eight subgenera, of which only Lepidocyrtus s.str. (Bourlet, 1839) and Lanocyrtus (Yoshii & Suhardjono, 1989) are represented by European species. The discovery of unique characters in the European species Lepidocyrtus tomosvaryi (rounded dental tubercle) and L. peisonis (lateral tuft of long ... Read more >>

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