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Hippocampal CA1 Neurons Represent Positive Feedback During the Learning Process of an Associative Memory Task.

Shogo Takamiya, Kazuki Shiotani, Tomoya Ohnuki, Yuma Osako, Yuta Tanisumi, Shoko Yuki, Hiroyuki Manabe, Junya Hirokawa, Yoshio Sakurai,

The hippocampus is crucial for forming associations between environmental stimuli. However, it is unclear how neural activities of hippocampal neurons dynamically change during the learning process. To address this question, we developed an associative memory task for rats with auditory stimuli. In this task, the rats were required to associate ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:718619]

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Opinion: Advancing Embodiment Research From a Developmental Point of View.

Robert Lickliter,

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:748335]

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Patient-Specific Network Connectivity Combined With a Next Generation Neural Mass Model to Test Clinical Hypothesis of Seizure Propagation.

Moritz Gerster, Halgurd Taher, Antonín Škoch, Jaroslav Hlinka, Maxime Guye, Fabrice Bartolomei, Viktor Jirsa, Anna Zakharova, Simona Olmi,

Dynamics underlying epileptic seizures span multiple scales in space and time, therefore, understanding seizure mechanisms requires identifying the relations between seizure components within and across these scales, together with the analysis of their dynamical repertoire. In this view, mathematical models have been developed, ranging from single neuron to neural population. ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:675272]

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Neuronal Avalanches Across the Rat Somatosensory Barrel Cortex and the Effect of Single Whisker Stimulation.

Benedetta Mariani, Giorgio Nicoletti, Marta Bisio, Marta Maschietto, Roberto Oboe, Alessandro Leparulo, Samir Suweis, Stefano Vassanelli,

Since its first experimental signatures, the so called "critical brain hypothesis" has been extensively studied. Yet, its actual foundations remain elusive. According to a widely accepted teleological reasoning, the brain would be poised to a critical state to optimize the mapping of the noisy and ever changing real-world inputs, thus ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:709677]

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Acute Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 Agonism Results in Sustained Symptom Improvement in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Gerard Pereira, Hunter Gillies, Sanjay Chanda, Michael Corbett, Suzanne D Vernon, Tina Milani, Lucinda Bateman,

<h4>Background</h4>Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex multi-symptom disease with widespread evidence of disrupted systems. The authors hypothesize that it is caused by the upregulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) in the raphé nuclei and limbic system, which impairs the ability to maintain homeostasis. The authors ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:698240]

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Social Cognition in Patients With Cerebellar Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Olivera Tamaš, Milutin Kostić, Aleksandra Kačar, Elka Stefanova, Biljana Salak Ðokić, Dejana Stanisavljević, Andona Milovanović, Mirjana Ðorđević, Nenad Glumbić, Nataša Dragašević-Mišković,

<h4>Objective</h4>Cerebellar neurodegenerative disorders (CDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders. It is known that the cerebellum plays a role not only in motor, but also in cognitive and social cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate social cognition in patients with different CDs.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Social cognition was ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:664223]

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The Association Between Hippocampal Volume and Level of Attention in Children and Adolescents.

Tae-Hyeong Kim, Eunhye Choi, Hayeon Kim, Shin-Young Kim, Yeeun Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Subin Park, Kyu-In Jung, Bumhee Park, Min-Hyeon Park,

The hippocampus, which engages in the process of consolidating long-term memories and learning, shows active development during childhood and adolescence. The hippocampus also functionally influences attention. Based on the influence of hippocampal function on attention, it was expected that the volume of the hippocampus would be associated with the difference ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:671735]

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Revisiting the "Paradox of Stereotaxic Surgery": Insights Into Basal Ganglia-Thalamic Interactions.

Jennifer L Magnusson, Daniel K Leventhal,

Basal ganglia dysfunction is implicated in movement disorders including Parkinson Disease, dystonia, and choreiform disorders. Contradicting standard "rate models" of basal ganglia-thalamic interactions, internal pallidotomy improves both hypo- and hyper-kinetic movement disorders. This "paradox of stereotaxic surgery" was recognized shortly after rate models were developed, and is underscored by the ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:725876]

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Effect of Anesthesia/Surgery on Gut Microbiota and Fecal Metabolites and Their Relationship With Cognitive Dysfunction.

Xinrong Lian, Qianmei Zhu, Li Sun, Yaozhong Cheng,

<b>Aims:</b> Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is the decline in cognitive function of the central nervous system (CNS) after anesthesia/surgery. The present study explored whether anesthesia/surgery altered gut microbiota and fecal metabolites, examining their associations with risk factors of cognitive dysfunction in aged mice. <b>Methods:</b> Sixteen-month-old C57BL/6 mice underwent abdominal surgery ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:655695]

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Infant Attachment and Social Modification of Stress Neurobiology.

Katherine Packard, Maya Opendak, Caroline Davis Soper, Haniyyah Sardar, Regina M Sullivan,

Decades of research have informed our understanding of how stress impacts the brain to perturb behavior. However, stress during development has received specific attention as this occurs during a sensitive period for scaffolding lifelong socio-emotional behavior. In this review, we focus the developmental neurobiology of stress-related pathology during infancy and ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:718198]

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Contralateral and Ipsilateral Interactions in the Somatosensory Pathway in Healthy Humans.

Daisuke Ishii, Kiyoshige Ishibashi, Hiroshi Yuine, Kotaro Takeda, Satoshi Yamamoto, Yuki Kaku, Arito Yozu, Yutaka Kohno,

Hyper-adaptability, the ability to adapt to changes in the internal environment caused by neurological disorders, is necessary to recover from various disabilities, such as motor paralysis and sensory impairment. In the recovery from motor paralysis, the pre-existing neural pathway of the ipsilateral descending pathway, which is normally suppressed and preserved ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:698758]

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Editorial: The Jilted Brain: Neglected Structures and Functions.

Regina A Mangieri, Kelly A Allers, Natalie M Zahr,

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:716242]

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The Shared Origins of Embodiment and Development.

Peter J Marshall, Troy M Houser, Staci M Weiss,

As a domain of study centering on the nature of the body in the functioning of the individual organism, embodiment encompasses a diverse array of topics and questions. One useful organizing framework places embodiment as a bridge construct connecting three standpoints on the body: the form of the body, the ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:726403]

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Structural Alterations in a Rat Model of Short-Term Conductive Hearing Loss Are Associated With Reduced Resting State Functional Connectivity.

Francis A M Manno, Ziqi An, Rachit Kumar, Ed X Wu, Jufang He, Yanqiu Feng, Condon Lau,

Conductive hearing loss (CHL) results in attenuation of air conducted sound reaching the inner ear. How a change in air conducted sound alters the auditory system resulting in cortical alterations is not well understood. Here, we have assessed structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an adult (P60) rat ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:655172]

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COSMO-Onset: A Neurally-Inspired Computational Model of Spoken Word Recognition, Combining Top-Down Prediction and Bottom-Up Detection of Syllabic Onsets.

Mamady Nabé, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Julien Diard,

Recent neurocognitive models commonly consider speech perception as a hierarchy of processes, each corresponding to specific temporal scales of collective oscillatory processes in the cortex: 30-80 Hz gamma oscillations in charge of phonetic analysis, 4-9 Hz theta oscillations in charge of syllabic segmentation, 1-2 Hz delta oscillations processing prosodic/syntactic units ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:653975]

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The Acute Effects of Time-Varying Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as Assessed With fMRI.

Robert D Black, Ryan P Bell, Kristal M Riska, Christopher Spankovich, Richard W Peters, Christopher D Lascola, Christopher T Whitlow,

We describe preliminary results from the application of time-varying caloric vestibular stimulation (tvCVS) to volunteers during a continuous blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) acquisition, recording baseline, during-tvCVS and post-tvCVS epochs. The modifications necessary to enable the use of this novel device in a 3-Tesla magnetic field are ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:648928]

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Age-Related Variations in Regional White Matter Volumetry and Microstructure During the Post-adolescence Period: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Cohort of 1,713 University Students.

Ami Tsuchida, Alexandre Laurent, Fabrice Crivello, Laurent Petit, Antonietta Pepe, Naka Beguedou, Stephanie Debette, Christophe Tzourio, Bernard Mazoyer,

Human brain white matter undergoes a protracted maturation that continues well into adulthood. Recent advances in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods allow detailed characterizations of the microstructural architecture of white matter, and they are increasingly utilized to study white matter changes during development and aging. However, relatively little is known about ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:692152]

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Information Transmission in Delay-Coupled Neuronal Circuits in the Presence of a Relay Population.

Jaime Sánchez-Claros, Aref Pariz, Alireza Valizadeh, Santiago Canals, Claudio R Mirasso,

Synchronization between neuronal populations is hypothesized to play a crucial role in the communication between brain networks. The binding of features, or the association of computations occurring in spatially segregated areas, is supposed to take place when a stable synchronization between cortical areas occurs. While a direct cortico-cortical connection typically ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:705371]

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The Cerebellar Dopaminergic System.

Paolo Flace, Paolo Livrea, Gianpaolo Antonio Basile, Diana Galletta, Antonella Bizzoca, Gianfranco Gennarini, Salvatore Bertino, Jacopo Junio Valerio Branca, Massimo Gulisano, Simona Bianconi, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Anastasi,

In the central nervous system (CNS), dopamine (DA) is involved in motor and cognitive functions. Although the cerebellum is not been considered an elective dopaminergic region, studies attributed to it a critical role in dopamine deficit-related neurological and psychiatric disorders [e.g., Parkinson's disease (PD) and schizophrenia (SCZ)]. Data on the ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:650614]

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Anticonvulsant vs. Proconvulsant Effect of in situ Deep Brain Stimulation at the Epileptogenic Focus.

Ping Chou, Chung-Chin Kuo,

Since deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the epileptogenic focus (<i>in situ</i>) denotes long-term repetitive stimulation of the potentially epileptogenic structures, such as the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the cerebral cortex, a kindling effect and aggravation of seizures may happen and complicate the clinical condition. It is, thus, highly desirable to ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:607450]

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Chronic Ethanol Exposure Enhances Facial Stimulation-Evoked Mossy Fiber-Granule Cell Synaptic Transmission via GluN2A Receptors in the Mouse Cerebellar Cortex.

Bing-Xue Li, Guang-Hui Dong, Hao-Long Li, Jia-Song Zhang, Yan-Hua Bing, Chun-Ping Chu, Song-Biao Cui, De-Lai Qiu,

Sensory information is transferred to the cerebellar cortex <i>via</i> the mossy fiber-granule cell (MF-GC) pathway, which participates in motor coordination and motor learning. We previously reported that chronic ethanol exposure from adolescence facilitated the sensory-evoked molecular layer interneuron-Purkinje cell synaptic transmission in adult mice <i>in vivo</i>. Herein, we investigated the ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:657884]

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NeuroRetriever: Automatic Neuron Segmentation for Connectome Assembly.

Chi-Tin Shih, Nan-Yow Chen, Ting-Yuan Wang, Guan-Wei He, Guo-Tzau Wang, Yen-Jen Lin, Ting-Kuo Lee, Ann-Shyn Chiang,

Segmenting individual neurons from a large number of noisy raw images is the first step in building a comprehensive map of neuron-to-neuron connections for predicting information flow in the brain. Thousands of fluorescence-labeled brain neurons have been imaged. However, mapping a complete connectome remains challenging because imaged neurons are often ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:687182]

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Cortical Synchrony as a Mechanism of Collinear Facilitation and Suppression in Early Visual Cortex.

Kris Evers, Judith Peters, Mario Senden,

Stimulus-induced oscillations and synchrony among neuronal populations in visual cortex are well-established phenomena. Their functional role in cognition are, however, not well-understood. Recent studies have suggested that neural synchrony may underlie perceptual grouping as stimulus-frequency relationships and stimulus-dependent lateral connectivity profiles can determine the success or failure of synchronization among ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:670702]

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A Developmental Framework for Embodiment Research: The Next Step Toward Integrating Concepts and Methods.

Vanessa Lux, Amy L Non, Penny M Pexman, Waltraud Stadler, Lilian A E Weber, Melanie Krüger,

Embodiment research is at a turning point. There is an increasing amount of data and studies investigating embodiment phenomena and their role in mental processing and functions from across a wide range of disciplines and theoretical schools within the life sciences. However, the integration of behavioral data with data from ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:672740]

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Low-Resolution Neurocognitive Aging and Cognition: An Embodied Perspective.

Jordan Mille, Simona M Brambati, Marie Izaute, Guillaume T Vallet,

Consistent with embodied cognition, a growing evidence in young adults show that sensorimotor processing is at the core of cognition. Considering that this approach predicts direct interaction between sensorimotor processing and cognition, embodied cognition may thus be particularly relevant to study aging, since this population is characterized by concomitant changes ... Read more >>

Front Syst Neurosci (Frontiers in systems neuroscience)
[2021, 15:687393]

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