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Journal Front Pediatr

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The Challenges of Apnea Tests in the Determination of Brain Death in Child Patient on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Lingling Xu, Yujian Liang, Yuan Liao, Jian Rong, Guixing Xu, Wen Tang,

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. ECMO is linked with high risk of neurological complications including brain death. Neurological monitoring during ECMO is important for identifying patients who are suspected of brain death and allows to discontinue ineffective medical ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:358]

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The Important Role of Endoscopy in Management of Pediatric Pseudomembranous Necrotizing Tracheitis.

Xiling Wu, Lei Wu, Zhimin Chen,

Pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheitis is a rare, but life-threatening cause of central airway obstruction. Here, we reported three cases of pediatric pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheitis. The infectious etiologies were Staphylococcus aureus secondary to influenza A virus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Endoscopy was used in diagnosis and management of all patients and two patients ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:360]

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Diabetes in Patients With Ataxia Telangiectasia: A National Cohort Study.

Helena Donath, Ursula Hess, Matthias Kieslich, Marius Theis, Ute Ohlenschläger, Ralf Schubert, Sandra Woelke, Stefan Zielen,

Background: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal-recessive multisystem disorder characterized by pronounced cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasia, cancer predisposition and altered body composition. In addition, evidence is rising for endocrine dysfunction. Objectives: To determine the evolution of diabetes and its prevalence in a larger A-T cohort. Methods: A retrospective analysis of ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:317]

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De novo 8p21.3→ p23.3 Duplication With t(4;8)(q35;p21.3) Translocation Associated With Mental Retardation, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Congenital Heart Defects: Case Report With Literature Review.

Cristina Gug, Dorina Stoicanescu, Ioana Mozos, Laura Nussbaum, Mariana Cevei, Danae Stambouli, Anca Gabriela Pavel, Gabriela Doros,

Duplications of chromosome 8p lead to rare genetic conditions characterized by variable phenotypes. 8p21 and 8p23 duplications were associated with mental retardation but only 8p23 duplication was associated with heart defects. 8p22→ p21.3 duplications were associated with an autism spectrum disorder in several cases. We present a rare case with ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:375]

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Dynamic Changes of Fecal Calprotectin and Related Clinical Factors in Neonates.

Ji Sook Park, Jae Young Cho, Changyeong Chung, Seong Hee Oh, Hyun-Jeong Do, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn,

Objective: Fecal calprotectin (FC) has been widely used for a clinical marker of intestinal inflammation in children and adults. However, the clinical usefulness has not been determined in neonates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of FC and associated clinical factors in neonates. Methods and Materials: ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:326]

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Genomic Diagnosis for Pediatric Disorders: Revolution and Evolution.

Emilie Lalonde, Stefan Rentas, Fumin Lin, Matthew C Dulik, Cara M Skraban, Nancy B Spinner,

Powerful, recent advances in technologies to analyze the genome have had a profound impact on the practice of medical genetics, both in the laboratory and in the clinic. Increasing utilization of genome-wide testing such as chromosomal microarray analysis and exome sequencing have lead a shift toward a "genotype-first" approach. Numerous ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:373]

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Kidney Replacement Therapy in COVID-19 Induced Kidney Failure and Septic Shock: A Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy [PCRRT] Position on Emergency Preparedness With Resource Allocation.

Rupesh Raina, Ronith Chakraborty, Sidharth Kumar Sethi, Timothy Bunchman,

The recent worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 has had a detrimental worldwide impact on people of all ages. Although data from China and the United States indicate that pediatric cases often have a mild course and are less severe in comparison to adults, there have been several cases of kidney failure ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:413]

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Role of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) and Inflammation in Obese Children.

Susanna Esposito, Anna Biscarini, Barbara Federici, Marta Cofini, Alberto Argentiero, Cosimo Neglia, Lucia Lanciotti, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Nicola Principi,

Knowledge of the real incidence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in obese children and its role in obesity development seems essential for a more effective approach to the treatment of this condition. In this prospective, single-blind study, presence of SIBO was evaluated in a group of children with overweight/obesity. ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:369]

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A de novo DDX3X Variant Is Associated With Syndromic Intellectual Disability: Case Report and Literature Review.

Yun Chen, Kai-Yu Liu, Zai-Lan Yang, Xiao-Huan Li, Rui Xu, Hao Zhou,

De novo DDX3X variants account for 1%-3% of intellectual disability (ID) in females and have been occasionally reported in males. Here, we report a female patient with severe ID and various other features, including epilepsy, movement disorders, behavior problems, sleep disturbance, precocious puberty, dysmorphic features, and hippocampus atrophy. With the ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:303]

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Nursery Assistants' Performance and Knowledge on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Impact of Simulation-Based Training.

Fabien Beaufils, Aiham Ghazali, Bettyna Boudier, Valérie Gustin-Moinier, Denis Oriot,

Background: Child cardiac arrest is rare, but more frequent among infants, requiring immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Many studies have reported that simulation-based training (SBT) increased CPR performance of healthcare providers. However, the CPR performance of laypeople using basic life support remains poorly known. The aim of this study was to ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:356]

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Clinical Perspective on Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System in Childhood (cPACNS).

Martin Smitka, Normi Bruck, Kay Engellandt, Gabriele Hahn, Ralf Knoefler, Maja von der Hagen,

Non-arteriosclerotic arteriopathies have emerged as important underlying pathomechanism in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). The pathogenesis and classification of cerebral arteriopathies in childhood are heterogeneous. Different classifications base on (i) the anatomic site; (ii) the distribution and size of the affected vessel; (iii) the time course, for example, transient vs. ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:281]

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SARS-COV-2 Infection and Kawasaki Disease: Case Report of a Hitherto Unrecognized Association.

Marco Cazzaniga, Lucia Augusta Baselli, Rolando Cimaz, Sophie Suzanne Guez, Raffaella Pinzani, Rosa Maria Dellepiane,

Coronavirus-associated disease (COVID-19) was firstly reported at the end of 2019. Generally, COVID-19 seems to be a less severe disease in children than in adults. According to the current literature, children account approximately for 2% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases. Northern Italy is one of the geographical areas mainly affected by ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:398]

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Maturation of Intestinal Oxygenation: A Review of Mechanisms and Clinical Implications for Preterm Neonates.

Baukje M Dotinga, Jonathan P Mintzer, James E Moore, Jan B F Hulscher, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth M W Kooi,

Nutrient requirements of preterm neonates may be substantial, to support growth and maturation processes in the presence of challenging post-natal circumstances. This may be accompanied by substantial intestinal oxygen requirements. Preterm neonates may not be able to meet these oxygen requirements, due to a developmental delay in intestinal oxygenation regulation ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:354]

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The Transition of Care From Pediatric to Adult Health-Care Services of Vertically HIV-Infected Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

Grazia Isabella Continisio, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Francesca Wanda Basile, Carla Russo, Maria Rosaria Cotugno, Giulia Palmiero, Cinzia Storace, Carmela Mango, Alfredo Guarino, Eugenia Bruzzese,

Objective: Clinical and psychological HIV-related problems peak during adolescence, which coincides with transition of children and adolescents infected from mothers from pediatric to adult reference centers for HIV infection. Transition often is done without specific programs. We wanted to explore transition as an opportunity to increase the efficacy of care ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:322]

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Low-Dose Vitamin D Protects Hyperoxia-Induced Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia by Inhibiting Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

Cuie Chen, Huachun Weng, Xixi Zhang, Shi Wang, Chaosheng Lu, Hongxing Jin, Shujun Chen, Yuanyuan Liu, Anqun Sheng, Yuanyuan Sun,

Background and Objective: As bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) can lead to considerable mortality and morbidity, this disease is the focus of attention in neonatology. Vitamin D (VD), which has anti-inflammatory properties and promotes lung growth, may have a therapeutic effect on BPD. The overexpression of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:335]

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Ultrasound-Based Scoring System for Indication of Pyeloplasty in Patients With UPJO-Like Hydronephrosis.

Bruce Li, Melissa McGrath, Forough Farrokhyar, Luis H Braga,

Background: Previous scoring systems have used renal scan parameters to assess severity of ureteropelvic junction obstruction-like hydronephrosis (UPJO-like HN), however this information is not always reliable due to protocol variation across centers and renogram limitations. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the Pyeloplasty Prediction Score (PPS), which utilizes only baseline ultrasound ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:353]

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Parent Perspectives on Participation in Family-Centered Rounds and Informational Resource Use.

Alexander F Glick, Michael Goonan, Jacob Sherman, Diana Sandmeyer, Gabrielle Gold-von Simson,

Objectives: Family-centered rounds (FCR) can improve communication and patient/family engagement. While use of informational resources (e.g., tablets, computers on wheels, paper notes) can guide FCR, there are limited data concerning parental perspectives on how use of these resources during FCR, or other factors, affect their engagement. Our objectives were to ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:343]

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Neonatal Cholestasis Over Time: Changes in Epidemiology and Outcome in a Cohort of 154 Patients From a Portuguese Tertiary Center.

Ermelinda Santos Silva, Alexandra Almeida, Simão Frutuoso, Esmeralda Martins, Maria João Valente, Alice Santos-Silva, Ana Isabel Lopes,

Introduction: In the last two decades there have been advances in the diagnosis and management of neonatal cholestasis, which may have changed its epidemiology, diagnostic accuracy, outcomes, and survival. Our goal was to characterize these changes over time in our setting. Methods: Retrospective cohort study in a tertiary center, enrolling ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:351]

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Special Attention to Diet and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents With Obesity During the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic.

Valeria Calcaterra, Matteo Vandoni, Vittoria Carnevale Pellino, Hellas Cena,

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:407]

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No Added Neuroprotective Effect of Remote Ischemic Postconditioning and Therapeutic Hypothermia After Mild Hypoxia-Ischemia in a Piglet Model.

Ted C K Andelius, Mette V Pedersen, Hannah B Andersen, Mads Andersen, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Michael Pedersen, Steffen Ringgaard, Lærke H Hansen, Tine B Henriksen, Kasper J Kyng,

Introduction: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of death and disability in children worldwide. Apart from supportive care, the only established treatment for HIE is therapeutic hypothermia (TH). As TH is only partly neuroprotective, there is a need for additional therapies. Intermittent periods of limb ischemia, called remote ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:299]

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Perinatal Opioid Exposure Primes the Peripheral Immune System Toward Hyperreactivity.

Jessie Newville, Jessie R Maxwell, Yuma Kitase, Shenandoah Robinson, Lauren L Jantzie,

The increased incidence of opioid use during pregnancy warrants investigation to reveal the impact of opioid exposure on the developing fetus. Exposure during critical periods of development could have enduring consequences for affected individuals. Particularly, evidence is mounting that developmental injury can result in immune priming, whereby subsequent immune activation ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:272]

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The Role of Vitamin D Deficiency in Children With Recurrent Wheezing-Clinical Significance.

Gavriela Feketea, Corina I Bocsan, Luminita Aurelia Stanciu, Anca Dana Buzoianu, Mihnea Tudor Zdrenghea,

Recurrent wheezing (RW) in infancy is one of the most frequent reasons for parents to consult health care providers and creates a significant global burden. Clinical course of RW is difficult to predict, also which infants will progress to asthma, since no valid biomarkers have been established. Identification of those ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:344]

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Pediatric NMOSD: A Review and Position Statement on Approach to Work-Up and Diagnosis.

Silvia Tenembaum, E Ann Yeh, ,

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) primarily affecting the optic nerves and spinal cord, but also involving other regions of the CNS including the area postrema, periaqueductal gray matter, and hypothalamus. Knowledge related to pediatric manifestations of NMOSD has grown ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:339]

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Physical Fitness and Somatic Characteristics of the Only Child.

Luis P Rodrigues, Ricardo Franco Lima, Ana Filipa Silva, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Miguel Camões, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle,

The purpose of this study was to examine if only child show differences on somatic growth and physical fitness compared to be a child with siblings. The participants included 542 children (boys: N = 270; girls: N = 270) between 7 and 15 years of age. Somatic growth (height, weight, ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:324]

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Risk for Behavioral Problems Independent of Cognitive Functioning in Children Born at Low Gestational Ages.

Erik Domellöf, Anna-Maria Johansson, Aijaz Farooqi, Magnus Domellöf, Louise Rönnqvist,

This study aimed to investigate cognitive and behavioral outcomes in relation to gestational age (GA) in school-aged children born preterm (PT). Results from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were analyzed in 51 children (mean age: 7.8 years [range: 7.0-8.7]) born ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:311]

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