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Complement Inhibition in Severe COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Sharmila Raghunandan, Cassandra D Josephson, Hans Verkerke, W Matthew Linam, Treva C Ingram, Patricia E Zerra, Connie M Arthur, Sean R Stowell, Michael Briones, Satheesh Chonat,

Most children with COVID-19 have asymptomatic or mild illness. Those who become critically ill suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI). The rapid deterioration of lung function has been linked to microangiopathic and immune-mediated processes seen in the lungs of adult patients with COVID-19. The ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:616731]

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Corrigendum: Overgrowth Syndromes-Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Management.

Joshua Manor, Seema R Lalani,

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fped.2020.574857.]. ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:624141]

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Hemostatic Balance in Pediatric Acute Liver Failure: Epidemiology of Bleeding and Thrombosis, Physiology, and Current Strategies.

Yonca Bulut, Anil Sapru, Gavin D Roach,

Pediatric Acute Liver Failure (PALF) is a rapidly progressive clinical syndrome encountered in the pediatric ICU which may rapidly progress to multi-organ dysfunction, and on occasion to life threatening cerebral edema and hemorrhage. Pediatric Acute Liver Failure is defined as severe acute hepatic dysfunction accompanied by encephalopathy and liver-based coagulopathy ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:618119]

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Conservative Non-intervention Approach for Hemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Preterm Infants.

Se In Sung, Yun Sil Chang, So Yoon Ahn, Heui Seung Jo, Misun Yang, Won Soon Park,

While persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants has been known to be associated with increased mortality and morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, there is minimal evidence supporting their causal relationships, and most traditional medical and/or surgical treatments have failed to show improvements in these outcomes. As ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:605134]

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Perinatal Mortality and Associated Factors Among Antenatal Care Attended Pregnant Mothers at Public Hospitals in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Samuel Dessu, Zinabu Dawit,

<b>Introduction:</b> Perinatal mortality is the death of a baby between 28 weeks of gestation onwards and before the first 7 days of life. According to WHO, Ethiopia is one of the most commonly noticed country in the world in considering perinatal mortality rate. The overall perinatal mortality rate in Ethiopia ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:586747]

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Analysis of 10 Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome Cases With Complications of Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis.

Liping Rong, Lizhi Chen, Zhi Dong, Hongjie Zhuang, Zhilang Lin, Ying Mo, Xiaoyun Jiang,

<b>Background:</b> To analyze the clinical characteristics of nephrotic syndrome (NS) with complications of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in children. <b>Method:</b> Clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and treatment data obtained from 10 confirmed cases of NS with complications of CSVT were analyzed. All patients were followed up for at least 18 months. CSVT ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:607776]

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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasias Presenting in the Newborn and Young Infant.

Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Rita Ortolano, Soara Menabo, Lilia Baldazzi, Valeria Di Natale, Sofia Vissani, Alessandra Cassio,

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia includes autosomal recessive conditions that affect the adrenal cortex steroidogenic enzymes (cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme; 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase; P450 oxidoreductase; 21-hydroxylase; and 11β-hydroxylase) and proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein). These are located within the three major pathways of the steroidogenic apparatus involved in the production of ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:593315]

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The Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Prevention of Allergic Diseases in Infants.

Simona Sestito, Enza D'Auria, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Silvia Salvatore, Valeria Tallarico, Ettore Stefanelli, Flora Tarsitano, Daniela Concolino, Licia Pensabene,

Allergic diseases have been linked to genetic and/or environmental factors, such as antibiotic use, westernized high fat and low fiber diet, which lead to early intestinal dysbiosis, and account for the rise in allergy prevalence, especially in western countries. Allergic diseases have shown reduced microbial diversity, including fewer lactobacilli and ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:583946]

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Assessment of Healthcare Provider Workload in Neonatal Resuscitation.

Emily C Zehnder, Brenda H Y Law, Georg M Schmölzer,

<b>Objective:</b> Human errors or protocol deviations during neonatal resuscitation are common. Excess workload has been proposed as a contributor to human error during medical tasks. We aim to characterize healthcare providers' perceived workload during neonatal resuscitation. <b>Design:</b> Perceived workload was measured using a multi-dimensional retrospective National Aeronautics and Space Administration ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:598475]

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Enteroadsorbent Polymethylsiloxane Polyhydrate vs. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in the Treatment of Rotaviral Gastroenteritis in Infants and Toddlers, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Leo Markovinović, Ivica Knezović, Tihana Kniewald, Lorna Stemberger Marić, Vladimir Trkulja, Goran Tešović,

<b>Purpose:</b> The aim of this study was to compare two adjunct therapies in the treatment of childhood rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). We compared the recommended treatment, probiotic <i>Lactobacillus reuteri</i> DSM 17938 (BioGaia®), vs. a novel treatment, enterosorbent polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate (Enterosgel®). <b>Methods:</b> This was an open-label, randomized, clinical controlled trial at the ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:553960]

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Integrative Perinatal Management Enhanced the Advantage of Prenatal Diagnosis on Critical Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: An Observational Preliminary Study.

Jiawen Li, Gang Li, Xiaoqing Shi, Chuan Wang, Hongyu Duan, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua, Yifei Li,

<b>Background:</b> Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty (PBPV) is recommended as a first-choice treatment for critical pulmonary stenosis (CPS). A concept of perinatal integrative management has been developed. Unfortunately, the evidence on the advantage of integrative management for CPS during the perinatal period is absent. <b>Methods:</b> Single-center, observational, preliminary research has been developed, ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:572238]

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Magnetic Non-invasive Auricular Acupuncture During Eye-Exam for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Infants: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial.

Kimberly M L Gan, Ju-Lee Oei, Im Quah-Smith, Azanna A Kamar, Alexis A D Lordudass, Kian D Liem, Kwee Bee Lindrea, Mary Daly, Nilima Gaunker, Avneet K Mangat, Maryna Yaskina, Georg M Schmölzer,

<b>Background:</b> Eye exam for Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a painful procedure and pharmacological analgesia might be ineffective. We hypothesized that magnetic auricular acupuncture (MAA) compared to placebo will decrease pain during ROP exam in preterm infants. <b>Methods:</b> Multicentre randomized controlled trial conducted in three hospitals (Australia, Canada, and Malaysia). ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:615008]

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A Proteomics Signature of Mild Hypospadias: A Pilot Study.

Coriness Piñeyro-Ruiz, Horacio Serrano, Inmaculada Jorge, Eric Miranda-Valentin, Marcos R Pérez-Brayfield, Emilio Camafeita, Raquel Mesa, Jesús Vázquez, Juan Carlos Jorge,

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Mild hypospadias is a birth congenital condition characterized by the relocation of the male urethral meatus from its typical anatomical position near the tip of the glans penis, to a lower ventral position up to the brim of the glans corona, which can also be accompanied by ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:586287]

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Echocardiography-Guided Management of Preterms With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Influences the Outcome: A Cohort Study.

Gianluca Terrin, Maria Di Chiara, Giovanni Boscarino, Paolo Versacci, Violante Di Donato, Antonella Giancotti, Elisabetta Pacelli, Francesca Faccioli, Elisa Onestà, Chiara Corso, Alessandra Ticchiarelli, Mario De Curtis,

<b>Introduction:</b> Echocardiography (ECHO) with color flow Doppler is considered as the gold standard to identify a hemodynamic patent ductus arteriosus (hs-PDA). However, the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic management for newborns with hs-PDA is still controversial. We aimed to investigate two clinical strategies: (1) targeted treatment based on ECHO criteria and ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:582735]

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Autoimmune Congenital Heart Block: A Review of Biomarkers and Management of Pregnancy.

Sara De Carolis, Cristina Garufi, Ester Garufi, Maria Pia De Carolis, Angela Botta, Sara Tabacco, Silvia Salvi,

Autoimmune Congenital Heart Block (CHB) is an immune-mediated disease due to transplacental passage of circulating anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB autoantibodies. It occurs in 2% of anti-Ro/SSA-exposed pregnancies, and recurrence rate is nine times higher in subsequent pregnancies. Aim of this review is to identify biomarkers of CHB and treatment strategies. The ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:607515]

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Post-infectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans: HRCT, DECT, Pulmonary Scintigraphy Images, and Clinical Follow-up in Eight Children.

I-Chen Chen, Jui-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Wen Chen, Yi-Ching Liu, Yen-Hsien Wu, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yi-Fang Cheng, Zen-Kong Dai,

<b>Background:</b> Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), first mentioned in 1901, is a severe and rare chronic lung disease in children. BO has various etiologies and the most common in children is post-infectious BO (PIBO). High resolution CT (HRCT) is an often-used image tool for the diagnosis of BO, and pulmonary scintigraphy is ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:622065]

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Case Report: Denys-Drash Syndrome With WT1 Causative Variant Presenting as Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Cheng Cheng, Lizhi Chen, Sijia Wen, Zhilang Lin, Xiaoyun Jiang,

The <i>WT1</i> variant is confirmed to be pathogenic for Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), a rare disorder characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome and renal failure, pseudo-hermaphroditism, and a high risk of Wilms' tumor. Several cases of DDS presenting with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have been reported. Here we report the case ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:605889]

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Associations Between Delivery Mode and Early Childhood Body Mass Index Z-Score Trajectories: A Retrospective Analysis of 2,685 Children From Mothers Aged 18 to 35 Years at Delivery.

Lihong Zhang, Liuxia Huang, Zhiyuan Zhao, Renjuan Ding, Hongnian Liu, Wenchao Qu, Xiao Jia,

<b>Objective:</b> To investigate the association between cesarean delivery (CD) and trajectory patterns of age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score in early childhood. <b>Methods:</b> A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 2,685 children whose maternal age at the time of birth was between 18 and 35 years, and birth ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:598016]

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Characterization and Childhood Tumor Risk Assessment of Genetic and Epigenetic Syndromes Associated With Lateralized Overgrowth.

Jessica R Griff, Kelly A Duffy, Jennifer M Kalish,

Lateralized overgrowth (LO), or segmental overgrowth, is defined as an increase in growth of tissue (bone, muscle, connective tissue, vasculature, etc.) in any region of the body. Some overgrowth syndromes, characterized by both generalized and lateralized overgrowth, have been associated with an increased risk of tumor development. This may be ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:613260]

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An Important Finding of White Matter Injury in Late Preterm Infant: Deep Medullary Vein Involvement.

Dan Chen, Jing Sun, Qiuyu Li, Wenjuan Bai, Jian Mao,

<b>Objective:</b> To investigate high risk factors and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in late preterm infants with severe white matter injury (WMI) associated with abnormal deep medullary veins (DMVs). <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Preterm infants with severe WMI, who were hospitalized in Shengjing Hospital from 1st January 2009 to 31st December ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:597567]

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Effectiveness of Gentle Human Touch for Pain Control During Examination for Retinopathy of Pre-maturity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Yongping Sun, Jinghan Zhang, Xu Chen, Yang Yang, Jie Qiu, Ke-Yu Lu, Rui Cheng,

<b>Background:</b> Retinopathy of pre-maturity (ROP) is a disorder of the retinal blood vessels in pre-term infants with low birth weight. It is a leading cause of blindness in children. During ROP screening, the use of mydriatic drops and eyelid openers causes pain and discomfort. Pain management strategies include medications and ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:608378]

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Stimulator of Interferon Genes-Associated Vasculopathy With Onset in Infancy: A Systematic Review of Case Reports.

YunFan Dai, XiuYun Liu, ZhiPeng Zhao, JianXin He, QingQin Yin,

<b>Objective:</b> To summarize and analyze the manifestations of stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). <b>Methods:</b> A systematic literature review was performed including cases from January 1, 2014, to February 1, 2020, using PubMed, OVID, CNKI, and WanFang. This included all the literature containing comparatively complete ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:577918]

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Surgery-Related Quality of Life of Pediatric Patients With Crohn's Disease.

Valeria Dipasquale, Enrica Antonelli, Laura Cannavò, Giorgio Cavatoi, Carmelo Romeo, Giuseppe Trimarchi, Giuseppe Navarra, Claudio Romano,

<b>Objective:</b> Up to 30% of pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome in children with CD who have had ileocolonic resection. <b>Materials and methods:</b> This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on all pediatric patients ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:608370]

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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a Post-viral Myocarditis and Systemic Vasculitis-A Critical Review of Its Pathogenesis and Treatment.

Jeremy C McMurray, Joseph W May, Madeleine W Cunningham, Olcay Y Jones,

MIS-C is a newly defined post-viral myocarditis and inflammatory vasculopathy of children following COVID-19 infection. This review summarizes the literature on diagnosis, parameters of disease severity, and current treatment regimens. The clinical perspective was analyzed in light of potential immunopathogenesis and compared to other post-infectious and inflammatory illnesses of children ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:626182]

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Case Report: Successful Use of Extracorporeal Therapies After ECMO Resuscitation in a Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipient.

Andrey Rybalko, Anna Pytal, Mikhail Kaabak, Nadejda Rappoport, Anuar Bidzhiev, Vasilii Lastovka,

The combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal blood purification in children is rarely used due to small total blood volumes, risks of hemodynamic instability and a negative association between volume of blood transfusion and patient outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a multimodal extracorporeal ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:593123]

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