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Management of Multi Organ Dysfunction in Neonatal Encephalopathy.

Mary O'Dea, Deirdre Sweetman, Sonia Lomeli Bonifacio, Mohamed El-Dib, Topun Austin, Eleanor J. Molloy,

Neonatal Encephalopathy (NE) describes neonates with disturbed neurological function in the first post-natal days of life. NE is an overall term that does not specify the etiology of the encephalopathy although it often involves hypoxia-ischaemia. In NE, although neurological dysfunction is part of the injury and is most predictive of ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:]

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Pericardial Effusion/Cardiac Tamponade Induced by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Ana Hou, Jianhua Fu,

Background: Although pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade (PCE/CT) is a rare complication of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), with an incidence of 0. 07-2%, it is associated with high mortality and is often life threatening. We sought to improve understanding of PICC-induced PCE/CT among pediatricians. Case presentation: The clinical data of PICC-associated ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:235]

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Pericardial Effusion/Cardiac Tamponade Induced by Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Ana Hou, Jianhua Fu,

Background: Although pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade (PCE/CT) is a rare complication of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), with an incidence of 0. 07–2%, it is associated with high mortality and is often life threatening. We sought to improve understanding of PICC-induced PCE/CT among pediatricians.Case presentation: The clinical data of PICC-associated PCE/CT ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:]

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Incidence, Treatment, and Outcome Trends of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

Carlos Zozaya, Inés García González, Alejandro Avila-Alvarez, Niki Oikonomopoulou, Tomás Sánchez Tamayo, Enrique Salguero, Miguel Saenz de Pipaón, Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, María L Couce,

Background: Data regarding the incidence and mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis trends are scarce in the literature. Recently, some preventive strategies have been confirmed (probiotics) or increased (breastfeeding rate). This study aims to describe the trends of necrotizing enterocolitis incidence, treatment, and mortality over the last decade in Spain. Methods: Multicenter ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:188]

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Human Endogenous Retroviruses Are Preferentially Expressed in Mononuclear Cells From Cord Blood Than From Maternal Blood and in the Fetal Part of Placenta.

Massimiliano Bergallo, Luca Marozio, Giovanni Botta, Annalisa Tancredi, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Paola Montanari, Alessandra Coscia, Chiara Benedetto, Pier Angelo Tovo,

Background: Placenta shows high transcription levels of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) that are overexpressed during embryonic and fetal development. Methods: In order to gather further information on the degree of HERV activation in maternal and fetal tissues we assessed the transcription levels of pol genes of HERV-H, -K, and -W ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:244]

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DNA Methylation in Nasal Epithelium: Strengths and Limitations of an Emergent Biomarker for Childhood Asthma.

Giulia Solazzo, Giuliana Ferrante, Stefania La Grutta,

Asthma is one of the most widespread chronic respiratory conditions. This disease primarily develops in childhood and is influenced by different factors, mainly genetics and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism which may represent a bridge between these two factors, providing a tool to comprehend the interaction between ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:256]

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Is SARS-CoV-2 Vertically Transmitted?

Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Caio Ribeiro Vieira Leal,

At the end of 2019, in Wuhan (China), the onset of a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was observed. The disease, named COVID-19, has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic or mild to critical, and for some patients the disease is even ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:]

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DNA Methylation in Nasal Epithelium: Strengths and Limitations of an Emergent Biomarker for Childhood Asthma.

Giulia Solazzo, Giuliana Ferrante, Stefania La Grutta,

Asthma is one of the most widespread chronic respiratory conditions. This disease primarily develops in childhood and is influenced by different factors, mainly genetics and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism which may represent a bridge between these two factors, providing a tool to comprehend the interaction between ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:]

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Aspirin Dose and Treatment Outcomes in Kawasaki Disease: A Historical Control Study in Japan.

Yu Ito, Takuya Matsui, Kota Abe, Takafumi Honda, Kumi Yasukawa, Jun-Ichi Takanashi, Hiromichi Hamada,

Aspirin has been used as a concomitant drug in the treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD). In recent years, there has been discussion concerning whether high-dose aspirin is appropriate for treatment in the acute phase of KD. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) and the antipyretic effect ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:249]

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Preschool Wheezing: Trajectories and Long-Term Treatment.

Valentina Fainardi, Angelica Santoro, Carlo Caffarelli,

Wheezing is very common in infancy affecting one in three children during the first 3 years of life. Several wheeze phenotypes have been identified and most rely on temporal pattern of symptoms. Assessing the risk of asthma development is difficult. Factors predisposing to onset and persistence of wheezing such as ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:240]

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Reducing Anemia Among School-Aged Children in China by Eliminating the Geographic Disparity and Ameliorating Stunting: Evidence From a National Survey.

Jun-Yi Wang, Pei-Jin Hu, Dong-Mei Luo, Bin Dong, Yinghua Ma, Jie Dai, Yi Song, Jun Ma, Patrick W C Lau,

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the geographic disparity in anemia and whether stunting was associated with anemia in different geographic groups among school-aged children in China. Methods: 71,129 Han children aged 7, 9, 12, and 14 years old were extracted from the 2014 cycle of Chinese ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:193]

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Clinical and Pathophysiological Insights Into Immunological Mediated Glomerular Diseases in Childhood.

Antonio Mastrangelo, Jessica Serafinelli, Marisa Giani, Giovanni Montini,

The kidney is often the target of immune system dysregulation in the context of primary or systemic disease. In particular, the glomerulus represents the anatomical entity most frequently involved, generally as the expression of inflammatory cell invasion or circulant or in situ immune-complex deposition. Glomerulonephritis is the most common clinical ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:205]

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Management of Multi Organ Dysfunction in Neonatal Encephalopathy.

Mary O'Dea, Deirdre Sweetman, Sonia Lomeli Bonifacio, Mohamed El-Dib, Topun Austin, Eleanor J Molloy,

Neonatal Encephalopathy (NE) describes neonates with disturbed neurological function in the first post-natal days of life. NE is an overall term that does not specify the etiology of the encephalopathy although it often involves hypoxia-ischaemia. In NE, although neurological dysfunction is part of the injury and is most predictive of ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:239]

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Changes in Intestinal Flora and Metabolites in Neonates With Breast Milk Jaundice.

Yaxuan Li, Nan Shen, Jing Li, Rui Hu, Xi Mo, Liqing Xu,

Background: Breast milk jaundice (BMJ) is the first cause of neonatal jaundice; however, its underlying mechanism is yet to be deciphered. We conducted a study to investigate intestinal flora in neonates with BMJ and used metabolomics to decipher the possible mechanisms by which intestinal flora induces jaundice. Methods: Microbiota collected ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:177]

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FMR1 Low Zone CGG Repeats: Phenotypic Associations in the Context of Parenting Stress.

Marsha R Mailick, Jinkuk Hong, Leann Smith DaWalt, Jan S Greenberg, Arezoo Movaghar, Mei Wang Baker, Paul J Rathouz, Murray H Brilliant,

The FMR1 gene on the X chromosome has varying numbers of CGG repeats. The modal number is 30, and expansion to >200 results in fragile X syndrome, but the copy number extends down to 6. Past research suggests that individuals whose CGGs are in the "low zone" (LZ; defined here ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:223]

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Exploring the Emotional Breastfeeding Experience of First-Time Mothers: Implications for Healthcare Support.

Maria Lorella Giannì, Marta Lanzani, Alessandra Consales, Giovanna Bestetti, Lorenzo Colombo, Maria Enrica Bettinelli, Laura Plevani, Daniela Morniroli, Gabriele Sorrentino, Elena Bezze, Lidia Zanotta, Patrizio Sannino, Giacomo Cavallaro, Eduardo Villamor, Paola Marchisio, Fabio Mosca,

Background: Among breastfeeding determinants, the unique emotional breastfeeding experience has been poorly explored. The present study aimed to investigate the emotional breastfeeding experience in a cohort of first-time mothers. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective observational study that enrolled primiparas having delivered singleton healthy term newborns, and exclusively breastfeeding ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:199]

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Chromosome 15 Imprinting Disorders: Genetic Laboratory Methodology and Approaches.

Merlin G Butler, Jessica Duis,

Chromosome 15 imprinting disorders include Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes, which are caused by absent expression from the paternal and maternal alleles in the chromosome 15q11. 2-q13 region, respectively. In addition, chromosome 15q duplication caused by the presence of at least one additional maternally derived copy of the 15q11.2-q13 ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:154]

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Clinical Characteristics of 5 COVID-19 Cases With Non-respiratory Symptoms as the First Manifestation in Children.

Xiaofang Cai, Yaoling Ma, Songbo Li, Yan Chen, Zhihui Rong, Wenbin Li,

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, which then rapidly spread to more than 80 countries. However, detailed information on the characteristics of COVID-19 in children is still scarce. Five patients with non-respiratory symptoms as the first manifestation were hospitalized from ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:]

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Novel Strategies to Reduce Pulmonary Hypertension in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Ahmed El-Saie, Binoy Shivanna,

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a developmental lung disorder of preterm infants primarily caused by the failure of host defense mechanisms to prevent tissue injury and facilitate repair. This disorder is the most common complication of premature birth, and its incidence remains unchanged over the past few decades. Additionally, BPD increases ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:201]

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Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Symptomatic Cholecystic Disease in Children: Defining Surgical Timing.

Gloria Pelizzo, Rossana Bussani, Annalisa De Silvestri, Marco Di Mitri, Gregorio Rosone, Salvatore Amoroso, Mario Milazzo, Vincenza Girgenti, Giovanni Battista Mura, Elettra Unti, Davide Rozze, Vennus Shafiei, Valeria Calcaterra,

Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the standard of care for gallbladder (GB) pathologies. We evaluated clinical, ultrasonographic (US) data as well as histopathological findings in children affected with symptomatic cholecystic disease (SCD) who underwent LC, with the aim of defining surgical timing. Methods: We reviewed our cases who underwent elective ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:203]

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Primary Prevention: No Associations of Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Status With Arterial Stiffness in Young School Children.

Hannah Kirchhuebel, Renate Oberhoffer, Birgit Böhm,

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) are well-established biomarkers of arterial stiffness. Further, fitness is known to be an important protective factor in adults in respect of vascular stiffening. However, the association of both muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with arterial properties in younger individuals has ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:175]

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Adolescent Health: A Framework for Developing an Innovative Personalized Well-Being Index.

Francesca Mastorci, Luca Bastiani, Cristina Doveri, Gabriele Trivellini, Anselmo Casu, Cristina Vassalle, Alessandro Pingitore,

Adolescence is not only typically considered a time of good health but also characterized by an emergence of risk factors that may have long-term consequences for well-being that represents strong predictors of adverse health outcomes. The aim of the study is to assess adolescence well-being through the development of an ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:181]

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Thyroxine Threshold Is Linked to Impaired Outcomes in Preterm Infants.

Stephanie Coquelet, Helene Deforge, Jean-Michel Hascoët,

Transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP) presents as decreased free thyroxine without an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone. Thyroxine availability is important in case of premature birth, and THOP could be associated with impaired adaptation to extra-uterine life but the association of thyroxine level and clinical status has not yet been ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:224]

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Time to Say Goodbye to Bronchiolitis, Viral Wheeze, Reactive Airways Disease, Wheeze Bronchitis and All That.

Konstantinos Douros, Mark L Everard,

The diagnosis and management of infants and children with a significant viral lower respiratory tract illness remains the subject of much debate and little progress. Over the decades various terms for such illnesses have been in and fallen out of fashion or have evolved to mean different things to different ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:218]

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Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Infections in <3-Month-Old Infants in France: Clinical and Laboratory Features.

Zoé Germont, Philippe Bidet, Céline Plainvert, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Claire Poyart, Valérie Biran, Alice Frérot, Albert Faye, Romain Basmaci,

Few data are available on invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections (IGASIs) in infants. We described initial clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of <3-month-old infants hospitalized for an IGASI between 2007 and 2016 in France. Patients were identified from the French National Reference Centre for streptococci. IGASI was defined ... Read more >>

Front Pediatr (Frontiers in pediatrics)
[2020, 8:204]

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