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Inhaled nitric oxide does not improve maximal oxygen consumption in endurance trained and untrained healthy individuals.

Andrew R Brotto, Devin B Phillips, Victoria L Meah, Bryan A Ross, Desi P Fuhr, Rhys I Beaudry, Sean van Diepen, Michael K Stickland,

Previous work suggests that endurance-trained athletes have superior pulmonary vasculature function as compared to untrained individuals, which may contribute to their greater maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max). Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) reduces pulmonary vascular resistance in healthy individuals, which could translate into greater cardiac output and improved [Formula: see ... Read more >>

Eur J Appl Physiol (European journal of applied physiology)
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The effects of eccentric hamstring exercise training in young female handball players.

Márk Váczi, Gábor Fazekas, Tamás Pilissy, Alexandra Cselkó, Lukasz Trzaskoma, Balázs Sebesi, József Tihanyi,

The multidimensional role of hamstring muscle group strength in athletic performance and injury prevention is well documented, and nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a popular method for the development of hamstring strength. Our aim was to examine the EMG characteristics of the eccentric NHE as well as the effects of ... Read more >>

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Plasma potassium concentration and cardiac repolarisation markers, Tpeak-Tend and Tpeak-Tend/QT, during and after exercise in healthy participants and in end-stage renal disease.

Cao Thach Tran, Tania Atanasovska, Claus Graff, Jacob Melgaard, Jørgen K Kanters, Robert Smith, Aaron C Petersen, Keld P Kjeldsen, Michael J McKenna,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The cardiac T-wave peak-to-end interval (T<sub>pe</sub>) is thought to reflect dispersion in ventricular repolarisation, with abnormalities in T<sub>pe</sub> associated with increased risk of arrhythmia. Extracellular K<sup>+</sup> modulates cardiac repolarisation, and since arterial plasma K<sup>+</sup> concentration ([K<sup>+</sup>]) rapidly increases during and declines following exercise, we investigated the relationship between [K<sup>+</sup>] and ... Read more >>

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Determining concentric and eccentric force-velocity profiles during squatting.

R Armstrong, V Baltzopoulos, C Langan-Evans, D Clark, J Jarvis, C Stewart, T D O'Brien,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The force-velocity relationship of muscular contraction has been extensively studied. However, previous research has focussed either on isolated muscle or single-joint movements, whereas human movement consists of multi-joint movements (e.g. squatting). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the force-velocity relationship of isovelocity squatting.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifteen male participants (24 ± 2 years, 79.8 ± 9.1 kg, ... Read more >>

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The rate of force development scaling factor: a review of underlying factors, assessment methods and potential for practical applications.

Žiga Kozinc, Darjan Smajla, Nejc Šarabon,

When humans perform isometric ballistic contractions of different intensities, a strong linear relationship is observed between peak force and peak rate of force development. The slope of this relationship, termed the rate of force development scaling factor (RFD-SF), has been proposed as a measure of neuromuscular quickness of submaximal contractions. ... Read more >>

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Assessment of the determinants of changes and test-retest reliability in the 6-min walk test performance over a 4-month period in healthy 6-12-year-old children.

Tamara Del Corral, Javier Tapia-Castañeda, Gonzalo Ríos-Pérez, Paula Triviño-López, Nerea Sastre-Moreno, Pablo García Fernández, Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of the study is to establish the determinants of change in 6-min walk test (6MWT) performance observed in children aged 6-12 years over a 4-month period, and to provide test-retest reliability (4 months) to establish the minimal detectable change (MDC).<h4>Methods</h4>Healthy children aged 6-12 years performed two 6MWT trials separated by a ... Read more >>

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Global longitudinal strain assessment of cardiac function and extravascular lung water formation after diving using semi-closed circuit rebreather.

María Martinez-Villar, Antonio Tello-Montoliu, Agustín Olea, Ángel Pujante, Daniel Saura, Silvia Martín, Nereo Venero, Ana Carneiro-Mosquera, Nuria Ruiz de Pascual, Noelia Valero, Miguel Martinez-Herrera, Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías, Juan Antonio Vilchez, Miguel García Navarro, Gonzalo de la Morena, Domingo Pascual,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of the present investigation is to study the relationship of ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and ultrasound lung comets (ULC) formation to establish a link between extravascular pulmonary water formation and cardiac contractile dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a prospective observational study including 14 active military divers. The subjects performed two ... Read more >>

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Impact of continuous vs. interval training on oxygen extraction and cardiac function during exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Lisa Van Ryckeghem, Charly Keytsman, Jana De Brandt, Kenneth Verboven, Elvire Verbaanderd, Nastasia Marinus, Wouter M A Franssen, Ines Frederix, Elise Bakelants, Thibault Petit, Siddharth Jogani, Sarah Stroobants, Paul Dendale, Virginie Bito, Jan Verwerft, Dominique Hansen,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Exercise training improves exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains to be elucidated whether such improvements result from cardiac or peripheral muscular adaptations, and whether these are intensity dependent.<h4>Methods</h4>27 patients with T2DM [without known cardiovascular disease (CVD)] were randomized to high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 15) or moderate-intensity ... Read more >>

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A century of exercise physiology: key concepts in muscle cell volume regulation.

Michael I Lindinger,

Skeletal muscle cells can both gain and lose volume during periods of exercise and rest. Muscle cells do not behave as perfect osmometers because the cell volume changes are less than predicted from the change in extracellular osmolality. Therefore, there are mechanisms involved in regulating cell volume, and they are ... Read more >>

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Compensatory responses to increased mechanical abnormalities in COPD during sleep.

Nicolle J Domnik, Devin B Phillips, Matthew D James, Grace A Ayoo, Sarah M Taylor, Robin E Scheeren, Amanda T Di Luch, Kathryn M Milne, Sandra G Vincent, Amany F Elbehairy, Sophie J Crinion, Helen S Driver, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell,

<h4>Purpose</h4>To assess whether night-time increases in mechanical loading negatively impact respiratory muscle function in COPD and whether compensatory increases in inspiratory neural drive (IND) are adequate to stabilize ventilatory output and arterial oxygen saturation, especially during sleep when wakefulness drive is withdrawn.<h4>Methods</h4>21 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and 20 age-/sex-matched healthy ... Read more >>

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Aortic haemodynamics: the effects of habitual endurance exercise, age and muscle sympathetic vasomotor outflow in healthy men.

Denis J Wakeham, Tony G Dawkins, Rachel N Lord, Jack S Talbot, Freya M Lodge, Bryony A Curry, Lydia L Simpson, Christopher J A Pugh, Robert E Shave, Jonathan P Moore,

<h4>Purpose</h4>We determined the effect of habitual endurance exercise and age on aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), augmentation pressure (AP) and systolic blood pressure (aSBP), with statistical adjustments of aPWV and AP for heart rate and aortic mean arterial pressure, when appropriate. Furthermore, we assessed whether muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) ... Read more >>

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Fasting-Mimicking-Diet does not reduce skeletal muscle function in healthy young adults: a randomized control trial.

Mauro Nardon, Massimo Venturelli, Federico Ruzzante, Valter D Longo, Matteo Bertucco,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of the Fasting-Mimicking-Diet (FMD) intervention on neuromuscular parameters of force production in healthy young men.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-four physically active men completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to Fasting-Mimicking (FMD) or Normal Diet (ND) and asked to follow three ... Read more >>

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The impact of different forms of exercise on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

Panagiotis Ferentinos, Costas Tsakirides, Michelle Swainson, Adam Davison, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Theocharis Ispoglou,

Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair and their monitoring could have prognostic clinical value. Exercise is often prescribed for the management of cardiometabolic diseases, however, it is not fully understood how it regulates EPCs.<h4>Objectives</h4>to systematically examine the acute and chronic effects of different exercise modalities on circulating EPCs ... Read more >>

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New kids on the CPET: age-appropriate outdoor cardiopulmonary exercise testing in preschoolers.

Kathrin Rottermann, Annika Weigelt, Tim Stäbler, Benedikt Ehrlich, Sven Dittrich, Isabelle Schöffl,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in preschoolers (4-6 years) represents a challenge. Most studies investigating CPET have been limited to older children (> 8 year). However, knowledge of the performance of small children is essential for evaluating their cardiorespiratory fitness. This study strives to compare a modified Bruce protocol with a new ... Read more >>

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No differences in splenic emptying during on-transient supine cycling between aerobically trained and untrained participants.

Damir Zubac, Ante Obad, Daniela Šupe-Domić, Ana Bošnjak, Mirela Zec, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The role of splenic emptying in O<sub>2</sub> transport during aerobic exercise still remains a matter of debate. Our study compared the differences in spleen volume changes between aerobically trained and untrained individuals during step-transition supine cycling exercise at moderate-intensity. We also examined the relationship between spleen volume changes, erythrocyte release, ... Read more >>

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Muscle stiffening is associated with muscle mechanoreflex-mediated cardioacceleration.

Nobuhiro Nakamura, Naoki Ikeda, Peng Heng, Isao Muraoka,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Although the muscle mechanoreflex is an important mediator to cardiovascular regulation during exercise, its modulation factors remain relatively unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle stiffness on the muscle mechanoreflex.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were divided based on their median muscle stiffness (2.00 Nm/mm) into a low ... Read more >>

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Eight weeks of combined exercise training do not alter circulating microRNAs-29a, -133a, -133b, and -155 in young, healthy men.

Cesar A Meza, Manuel Amador, Andrew J McAinch, Khodeza Begum, Sourav Roy, Sudip Bajpeyi,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH +) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated as biomarkers of type 2 diabetes risk. Here, we investigated if four circulating miRNAs related to glucose metabolism were altered in men with a FH + and ... Read more >>

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Effect of a speed ascent to the top of Europe on cognitive function in elite climbers.

Benoit Champigneulle, Karen Davranche, Julien Vincent Brugniaux, Sébastien Baillieul, Thibault Gajdos, Stéphane Doutreleau, Paul Robach, Pierre Bouzat, Samuel Verges,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The combined effects of acute hypoxia and exercise on cognition remain to be clarified. We investigated the effect of speed climbing to high altitude on reactivity and inhibitory control in elite climbers.<h4>Methods</h4>Eleven elite climbers performed a speed ascent of the Mont-Blanc (4810 m) and were evaluated pre- (at 1000 m) and immediately ... Read more >>

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Effect of protocol on peak power output in continuous incremental cycle exercise tests.

Hans Luttikholt, Andrew M Jones,

<h4>Purpose</h4>Peak power output ([Formula: see text]peak) in an incremental exercise test (EXT) is considered an important predictor of performance for cyclists. However, [Formula: see text]peak is protocol dependent. The purpose of this study was to model the effect of EXT design on [Formula: see text]peak.<h4>Methods</h4>An adapted version of a previously ... Read more >>

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Repeated sprint training under hypoxia improves aerobic performance and repeated sprint ability by enhancing muscle deoxygenation and markers of angiogenesis in rugby sevens.

Wadee Pramkratok, Tongthong Songsupap, Tossaporn Yimlamai,

<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the effects of repeated sprint (RS) training in hypoxia on aerobic performance, repeated sprint ability (RSA), and muscle oxygenation in Rugby Sevens.<h4>Methods</h4>Fourteen Rugby Sevens players were randomly allocated into hypoxic (RSH, F<sub>I</sub>O<sub>2</sub> = 14.5%, n = 7) or normoxic (RSN, F<sub>I</sub>O<sub>2</sub> = 20.9%, n = 7) groups. Both groups underwent RS training consisting of 3 sets ... Read more >>

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Muscle growth adaptations to high-load training and low-load training with blood flow restriction in calf muscles.

Ryo Kataoka, Ecaterina Vasenina, William B Hammert, Adam H Ibrahim, Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner,

<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare muscle growth adaptations between traditional high-load training and low-load training with blood flow restriction (BFR) in the calf muscles over 6 weeks.<h4>Methods</h4>27 trained individuals performed calf exercise in both legs for 6 weeks. Each leg was randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: (1) Traditional (70% of 1RM) ... Read more >>

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Correction to: Bone mineral density in high-level endurance runners: part A-site-specific characteristics.

A J Herbert, A G Williams, S J Lockey, R M Erskine, C Sale, P J Hennis, S H Day, G K Stebbings,

Eur J Appl Physiol (European journal of applied physiology)
[2022, 122(1):269-271]

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Correction to: Actovegin® reduces PMA‑induced inflammation on human cells.

Franz-Xaver Reichl, Christof Högg, Fangfang Liu, Markus Schwarz, Daniel Teupser, Reinhard Hickel, Wilhelm Bloch, Helmut Schweikl, Peter Thomas, Burkhard Summer,

Eur J Appl Physiol (European journal of applied physiology)
[2022, 122(1):267]

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Cerebrovascular and blood pressure responses during voluntary apneas are larger than rebreathing.

Anthony L Marullo, Christina D Bruce, Jamie R Pfoh, Uday V Chauhan, Maria Abrosimova, Emily R Vanden Berg, Rachel J Skow, Margie H Davenport, Nicholas D J Strzalkowski, Craig D Steinback, Trevor A Day,

Both voluntary rebreathing (RB) of expired air and voluntary apneas (VA) elicit changes in arterial carbon dioxide and oxygen (CO<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub>) chemostimuli. These chemostimuli elicit synergistic increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and sympathetic nervous system activation, with the latter increasing systemic blood pressure. The extent that simultaneous and ... Read more >>

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How fiber dynamics of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles based on EMG-driven approach can explain the metabolic cost at different gait speeds.

Pauline Gerus, Elodie Piche, Olivier Guérin, Frederic Chorin, Raphaël Zory,

<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this study was to investigate the fiber dynamics of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles and their association with the net metabolic rate (NC<sub>w</sub>).<h4>Methods</h4>Metabolic, kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography measurements were made on seven young subjects while they walked on a force-plate instrumented treadmill at 1.00, 1.20, 1.40, 1.60, and ... Read more >>

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