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Journal Dis. Aquat. Org.

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Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta display different susceptibility to clonal strains of Paramoeba perurans.

O M V Dahle, S H Blindheim, A Nylund, E Karlsbakk, O Breck, H Glosvik, L Andersen,

Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the marine amoeba Paramoeba perurans, is an important disease of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway. The use of wrasse as cleaner fish in salmon net pens raises questions about interspecies transmission of pathogens such as P. perurans. In this study, cohabitant ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:55-72]

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Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida vapA type V and Vibrio spp. are predominant bacteria recovered from ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta in Scotland.

A Papadopoulou, T Wallis, J G Ramirez-Paredes, S J Monaghan, A Davie, H Migaud, A Adams,

Healthy and/or moribund farmed and wild ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta (>0.5 to 900 g) were sampled from hatcheries (n = 2) and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cage sites (n = 8) in Scotland between February 2016 and October 2018. Less than half of the sampled individuals (n = 43; 32.3%) ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:47-54]

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Enhancement of shrimp health and immunity with diets supplemented with combined probiotics: application to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections.

Chettupon Pooljun, Sunisa Daorueang, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Sataporn Direkbusarakom, Pitchanee Jariyapong,

The application of probiotics for disease control in aquaculture is now a convincing approach towards replacement of antibiotics, which can cause adverse effects in aquatic animals and humans. In this study, we combined 2 probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with shrimp feed to create 2 formulas (WU8 and WU9), ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:37-46]

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Isolation and maintenance of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans cultures.

Kristyn A Robinson, Kenzie E Pereira, Molly C Bletz, Edward Davis Carter, Matthew J Gray, Jonah Piovia-Scott, John M Romansic, Douglas C Woodhams, Lillian Fritz-Laylin,

Discovered in 2013, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging amphibian pathogen that causes ulcerative skin lesions and multifocal erosion. A closely related pathogen, B. dendrobatidis (Bd), has devastated amphibian populations worldwide, suggesting that Bsal poses a significant threat to global salamander biodiversity. To expedite research into this ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:1-11]

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Coadministration of citric acid allows oxytetracycline dose reduction in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata infected with Vibrio anguillarum.

Kousuke Akiyama, Noritaka Hirazawa, Akimasa Hatanaka,

Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been commonly used as an effective antibiotic against various fish bacterial diseases, including vibriosis. In this study, the absorption-enhancing effect of citric acid on oral OTC pharmacokinetics and treatment of artificial Vibrio anguillarum infection was evaluated in juvenile yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata followed by serum OTC concentration analysis. ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:25-29]

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Livoneca redmanii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) in meagre Argyrosomus regius: parasitological and molecular diagnosis and proposed control measure.

Amr Fadel, Mohamed Bessat, Mohamed Abdel-Aziz,

Isopodiosis in cultured meagre Argyrosomus regius was investigated at 3 farms in the northern lakes of Egypt throughout 2018, based upon prevalence rate, parasitological examination, and molecular identification by PCR targeting the large ribosomal subunit 16S of the rRNA gene. Further, the susceptibility of A. regius to isopod infection was ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:13-24]

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First report of bacterial kidney disease in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Russia.

N V Sergeenko, E A Ustimenko, M G Eliseikina, A D Kuhlevskiy, E V Bochkova, T V Ryazanova,

This paper describes the first case of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) to be identified in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Russia. The fish in question was caught in Lake Bolshoi Vilyui on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The diseased fish had foci of granulomatous inflammation in the kidneys. The diagnosis was confirmed ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 140:31-36]

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Hyperpigmented melanistic skin lesions of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu from the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Vicki S Blazer, Kelsey T Young, Geoffrey D Smith, Adam J Sperry, Luke R Iwanowicz,

Hyperpigmented melanistic skin lesions (HPMLs) of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu are observed in the Potomac and Susquehanna rivers, Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. Routine, nonlethal population surveys were conducted at 8 sites on the mainstem Susquehanna River and 9 on the Juniata River, a tributary of the Susquehanna River, between 2012 ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:199-212]

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Recirculation versus flow-through rainbow trout laboratory Flavobacterium columnare challenge.

Clayton Birkett, Ryan Lipscomb, Travis Moreland, Timothy Leeds, Jason P Evenhuis,

Flavobacterium columnare immersion challenges are affected by water-related environmental parameters and thus are difficult to reproduce. Whereas these challenges are typically conducted using flow-through systems, use of a recirculating challenge system to control environmental parameters may improve reproducibility. We compared mortality, bacterial concentration, and environmental parameters between flow-through and recirculating ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:213-221]

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Optimized Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis DNA extraction of swab samples results in imperfect detection particularly when infection intensities are low.

Laura A Brannelly, Daniel P Wetzel, Matt West, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki,

Accurate detection of the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is critical for wildlife disease research; however, false negatives in detection do occur. Here we compared different DNA extraction methods to determine the threshold for Bd detection and identify an optimal extraction method to improve detection and quantification of the ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:233-243]

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Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to VHSV and IHNV and potential transmission to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

J Cabon, F Almeras, M Baud, L Pallandre, T Morin, L Louboutin,

Determining the origin of recurrent outbreaks of fish diseases occurring on fish farms is essential for disease prevention and control measures. In this study, we investigated the potential reservoir role of wild fish species living near salmonid farms which were regularly found to be positive for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:175-187]

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High occurrence rate of xanthomatosis and nephrocalcinosis in aquarium-housed Atlantic wolffish Anarhichas lupus and spotted wolffish A. minor.

Karine Béland, Emiko Wong, Jean-François St-Cyr, Stéphane Lair,

The Atlantic wolffish (AW) and the spotted wolffish (SW) are long-lived fish found in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans and are respectively classified as special concern and threatened species, mainly due to fisheries bycatch. To better understand health issues associated with the care of these species in public aquaria, ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:223-232]

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Advanced vacuolation indicates propagation of various salmonid alphavirus type 2 isolates in Acholeplasma-infected BF-2 cells.

O Schachner, N Dinhopl, A Friedl, H Soliman, M El-Matbouli,

During previous routine inspections of bluegill fry (BF-2) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells incubated with organ samples from asymptomatic Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, a distinctive, reproducible cytopathic effect (CPE) appeared. The striking CPE, involving progressive vacuolation turning into slowly proceeding ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:189-197]

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Low internal transcribed spacer rDNA variation in New Zealand Bonamia ostreae: evidence for a recent arrival.

Henry S Lane, J Brian Jones,

Bonamia ostreae is a haplosporidian parasite of oysters that was first reported to occur in the Southern Hemisphere in 2015 in the New Zealand flat oyster Ostrea chilensis. Until that report, B. ostreae had been restricted to populations of O. edulis within the Northern Hemisphere. This large range extension raised ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:121-130]

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A sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based qPCR assay for detecting scale drop disease virus (SDDV) in Asian sea bass.

Sukhontip Sriisan, Chuenchit Boonchird, Siripong Thitamadee, Molruedee Sonthi, Ha Thanh Dong, Saengchan Senapin,

Scale drop disease virus (SDDV) is a megalocytivirus known to cause disease in Asian sea bass in Southeast Asia. To support SDDV diagnosis and surveillance, we report on a sensitive and specific SYBR Green qPCR assay. The qPCR primers were designed to target a 135 bp fragment of the SDDV ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:131-137]

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Vibrio harveyi virulence gene expression in vitro and in vivo during infection in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

Shaheer Peeralil, Toms C Joseph, V Murugadas, P G Akhilnath, V N Sreejith, K V Lalitha,

Luminescent Vibrio harveyi is common in sea and estuarine waters. It produces several virulence factors and negatively affects larval penaeid shrimp in hatcheries, resulting in severe economic losses to shrimp aquaculture. Although V. harveyi is an important pathogen of shrimp, its pathogenicity mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. In ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:153-160]

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Diseases and parasites of wild and cultivated mussels along the Patagonian coast of Argentina, southwest Atlantic Ocean.

N Vázquez, A Frizzera, F Cremonte,

A histological survey of the commercially edible mussels Mytilus platensis and M. chilensis from wild and cultivated populations along the coast of Patagonia, Argentina (42°00' to 54°47'S), was carried out to determine their health status. Diagnostic results included 3 types of inflammatory responses (infiltrative, nodular, and encapsulation), disseminated neoplasia disease, ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:139-152]

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Marine mammals are natural hosts of Oceanivirga salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen of Atlantic salmon.

Roy Palmer, Gerard T A Fleming, Stefanie Glaeser, Torsten Semmler, Agnes Flamm, Christa Ewers, Peter Kämpfer, Olga Budich, Simon Berrow, Joanne O'Brien, Ursula Siebert, Evelyn Collins, Margaret Ruttledge, Tobias Eisenberg,

During 1992 and 1993, a bacterial disease occurred in a seawater Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farm, causing serious mortalities. The causative agent was subsequently named as Oceanivirga salmonicida, a member of the Leptotrichiaceae. Searches of 16S rRNA gene sequence databases have shown sequence similarities between O. salmonicida and uncultured bacterial ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:161-174]

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Aeromonas spp. suggested as the causative agents of red spot disease in northern Vietnamese grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

Richard Mayrhofer, Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Johannes Pucher, Ulfert Focken, Mansour El-Matbouli,

In northern Vietnam, a disease called 'red spot disease' has been causing high morbidity and mortality in populations of farmed grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella for about 2 decades. The name 'red spot disease' refers to a condition characterised by haemorrhagic lesions, reddening and ulceration of the skin. Eight different bacterial ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:113-119]

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Water temperature fluctuations as a key driver of cetacean pox (tattoo) lesions in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

Lara A Croft, Robert Laughlin, Mercy Manley, Hendrik H Nollens,

Dolphin tattoo lesions are superficial non-raised skin lesions caused by poxviruses. Their presentation can vary but typical lesions in bottlenose dolphins are circular to ovoid with concentric rings of black stippling. These lesions have at times been suggested as an indicator of overall dolphin health and welfare. This study explored ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:69-79]

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Inferring diet, feeding behaviour and causes of mortality from prey-induced injuries in a New Zealand fur seal.

D P Hocking, F G Marx, W M G Parker, J P Rule, S G C Cleuren, A D Mitchell, M Hunter, J D Bell, E M G Fitzgerald, A R Evans,

New Zealand fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri are the most abundant of the 4 otariid (eared seal) species distributed across Australasia. Analyses of stomach contents, scats and regurgitates suggest a diet dominated by bony fish and squid, with cartilaginous species (e.g. sharks and rays) either absent or underrepresented because of a ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:81-86]

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Cranial crassicaudiasis in two coastal dolphin species from South Africa is predominantly a disease of immature individuals.

Marie-Francoise Van Bressem, Pádraig Duignan, Juan Antonio Raga, Koen Van Waerebeek, Natalia Fraija-Fernández, Stephanie Plön,

Crassicauda spp. (Nematoda) infest the cranial sinuses of several odontocetes, causing diagnostic trabecular osteolytic lesions. We examined skulls of 77 Indian Ocean humpback dolphins Sousa plumbea and 69 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus, caught in bather-protecting nets off KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) from 1970-2017, and skulls of 6 S. plumbea stranded along ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:93-102]

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Pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV). I. Characterisation of an emerging virus isolated from pilchards Sardinops sagax and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

Peter G Mohr, Mark St J Crane, John Hoad, Lynette M Williams, David Cummins, Matthew J Neave, Brian Shiell, Gary Beddome, Wojtek P Michalski, Grantley R Peck, Francisca Samsing, James W Wynne, Sandra G Crameri, Alexander D Hyatt, Nicholas J G Moody,

An orthomyxo-like virus was first isolated in 1998 as an incidental discovery from pilchards Sardinops sagax collected from waters off the South Australian coast. In the following 2 decades, orthomyxo-like viruses have been isolated from healthy pilchards in South Australia and Tasmania. In 2006, an orthomyxo-like virus was also isolated ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:35-50]

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Eight rules for improving the quality of papers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from aquatic animals.

Peter Smith,

The methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria, although relatively simple, are not robust. As a consequence, if the data generated in such tests are to be commensurate, all susceptibility tests must be performed using standard protocols. A review of the published literature of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:87-92]

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Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus truncated G protein effect on survival, immune response, and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Xiaojing Hua, Ying Feng, Xin Guan, Yanxue Wang, Ying Zhou, Xuanyu Ren, Dechuan Li, Shuai Gao, Jinshan Huang, Xueting Guan, Wen Shi, Min Liu,

The major antigenic protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is the surface glycoprotein G, which contains neutralizing epitopes that induce the production of immune neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the IHNV G gene sequence was truncated according to bioinformatics principles and then recombinantly expressed via an E. coli expression ... Read more >>

Dis. Aquat. Org. (Diseases of aquatic organisms)
[2020, 139:25-33]

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