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Journal Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.

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Heat inactivation decreases the qualitative real-time RT-PCR detection rates of clinical samples with high cycle threshold values in COVID-19.

Jingbo Zou, Shenshen Zhi, Mengyuan Chen, Xingyu Su, Ling Kang, Caiyu Li, Xiaosong Su, Shiyin Zhang, Shengxiang Ge, Wei Li,

SARS-CoV-2 has caused COVID-19 pandemic globally in the beginning of 2020, and qualitative real-time RT-PCR has become the gold standard in diagnosis. As SARSCoV-2 with strong transmissibility and pathogenicity, it has become a professional consensus that clinical samples from suspected patients should be heat inactivated at 56°C for 30 min ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115109]

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Recovery of aerobic gram-negative bacteria from the Copan Eswab transport system after long-term storage.

Sofie C M Tops, Marlien Kolmus, Damy Wulms, Jakko van Ingen, Heiman F L Wertheim, Eva Kolwijck,

We evaluated the Copan Eswab transport system for the quantitative recovery of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days of storage at room and refrigerator temperatures, and 7 and 30 days of storage at -80 °C and -20 °C using mono- and polymicrobial samples. The study ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115100]

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Activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparators when tested against bacterial surveillance isolates collected from patients at risk of infections caused by resistant gram-negative pathogens.

Michael A Pfaller, Dee Shortridge, S J Ryan Arends, Leonard R Duncan, Jennifer M Streit, Robert K Flamm,

Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a β-lactamase inhibitor. Ceftolozane-tazobactam has been approved for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis, for complicated intra-abdominal infections (with metronidazole) in adults, and for hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia including ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This study analyzed gram-negative pathogen susceptibility in US and ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115101]

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Clinical, molecular, and epidemiological characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a comprehensive literature review.

Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Katherine Simbaña-Rivera, Lenin Gómez-Barreno, Mario Rubio-Neira, Linda P Guaman, Nikolaos C Kyriakidis, Claire Muslin, Ana María Gómez Jaramillo, Carlos Barba-Ostria, Doménica Cevallos-Robalino, Hugo Sanches-SanMiguel, Luis Unigarro, Rasa Zalakeviciute, Naomi Gadian, Andrés López-Cortés,

Coronaviruses are an extensive family of viruses that can cause disease in both animals and humans. The current classification of coronaviruses recognizes 39 species in 27 subgenera that belong to the family Coronaviridae. From those, at least 7 coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. Four of these ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115094]

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Review of automated DNA extraction systems for sequencing-based solutions for drug-resistant tuberculosis detection.

Rebecca E Colman, Anita Suresh, David L Dolinger, Taylor Muñoz, Claudia M Denkinger, Timothy C Rodwell,

Robust clinical specimen nucleic acid extraction instrumentation and methods are critical to the performance of downstream molecular diagnostics for the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Currently, there is a high level of interest in sequencing-based solutions for rapid and comprehensive DR-TB testing from primary specimens (i.e., sputum). However, there is ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(2):115096]

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Prevalence of O25b-ST131 clone and fosfomycin resistance in urinary Escherichia coli isolates and their relation to CTX-M determinant.

Selay Demirci-Duarte, Tugce Unalan-Altintop, Ozgen Koseoglu Eser, Aslı Cakar, Belgin Altun, Banu Sancak, Deniz Gur,

Escherichia coli ST131 clone and H30-R/H30-Rx subclones are the most common multidrug-resistant high-risk clones in UTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility of fosfomycin was compared to five other agents in consecutively collected 299 urinary isolates using the agar dilution method. Prevalence of the ST131 clone and the occurrence of blaCTX-M were also investigated. ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115098]

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CXCL13 in patients with facial palsy caused by varicella zoster virus and Borrelia burgdorferi: a comparative study.

Johan Lindström, Daniel Bremell, Anna Grahn, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Marie Studahl,

High cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the chemokine CXCL13 have been associated with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), and have recently been studied as a potential diagnostic marker. It has proven difficult to establish a reliable diagnostic cut-off, possibly in part due to heterogenicity of case-control groups. Our purpose was to investigate ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115095]

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Performance of the Influ a + B K-SeT® assay as compared to two RT-PCR assays for detection of influenza virus.

Avi Peretz, Bat-Sheva Zadok, Maya Azrad,

OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the performance of Influ A + B K-SeT®, a rapid influenza antigen detection kit, in order to determine whether its implementation as a point-of-care test in the emergency room (ER) is justified. METHODS:Nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 170) were collected in triplicates from patients with suspected influenza infection. One sample was tested by ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115097]

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Rapid qualitative antibiotic resistance characterization using VITEK MS.

Timothy S Horseman, Michael B Lustik, Keith S K Fong,

Development and standardization of simple, timely, and cost-effective antibiotic susceptibility assays are much needed to address the emergence of global resistance. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry is routine for bacterial identification. This study evaluated 2 assays using the VITEK MS for rapid detection and ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115093]

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Surgical infective endocarditis and concurrent splenic abscess requiring splenectomy: a case series and review of the literature.

Leen Z Hasan, Nabin K Shrestha, Vinh Dang, Shinya Unai, Gosta Pettersson, Kevin El-Hayek, Christopher Coppa, Steven M Gordon,

Splenic abscess is an uncommon but serious complication of infective endocarditis (IE). The timing of surgical management of splenic abscess can be challenging when valve surgery is required. The American Heart Association (AHA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) currently recommends splenectomy before valve replacement due to fear of ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115082]

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The impact of rapid diagnostic testing, surveillance software, and clinical pharmacist staffing at a large community hospital in the management of Gram-negative bloodstream infections.

Gerard W Gawrys, Khine Tun, Christopher B Jackson, Brenda Astorga, Richard J Fetchick, Edward Septimus, Grace C Lee,

Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) combined with an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) has shown improved outcomes in bloodstream infections (BSIs). We assessed the impact of RDT, surveillance software, and ASP pharmacist staffing on time to optimal therapy (TOT) in Gram-negative BSIs. Adults with Gram-negative BSIs were included in this retrospective evaluation ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115084]

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Utilization and impact of a rapid Candida panel on antifungal stewardship program within a large community hospital.

Taylor D Steuber, Glady's Tucker-Heard, Jonathan Edwards, Adam Sawyer, Elizabeth Thottacherry, Ali Hassoun,

BACKGROUND:The T2 Candida Panel (T2CP) bodes high sensitivity and specificity to detect candidemia, enabling providers to make quick therapy decisions and possibly decrease mortality. However, utilization in practice and clinical application remains to be evaluated. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the overall provider-utilization of the T2CP at a large community hospital. METHODS:This single ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115086]

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A coup d'état by NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae overthrows the major bacterial population during KPC-directed therapy.

Justin R Lenhard, Amisha P Rana, Eric Wenzler, Yanqin Huang, Barry N Kreiswirth, Liang Chen, Zackery P Bulman,

The objective of this study was to utilize a co-culture hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) to characterize the interplay between a small, difficult-to-detect, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (NDM-Kp) minor population and a larger K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae population in the presence of KPC-directed antibacterial therapy. Selective plating onto ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 98(1):115080]

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Comparative in vitro activity of plazomicin and older aminoglyosides against Enterobacterales isolates; prevalence of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes and 16S rRNA methyltransferases.

Deniz Gür, Ufuk Hasdemir, Aslı Çakar, İffet Çavuşoğlu, Tuğçe Çelik, Burak Aksu, ,

Comparative in vitro activity of plazomicin and 4 older aminoglycosides was evaluated with broth microdilution in 714 blood isolates from 14 hospitals in Turkey. Isolates included Escherichia coli (n=320), Klebsiella spp. (n=294), Enterobacter spp. (n=69), Serratia marcescens (n=20), and Citrobacter spp. (n=11). Isolates resistant to older aminoglycosides (n=240) were screened ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115092]

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Impact of FilmArray meningitis encephalitis panel on HSV testing and empiric acyclovir use in children beyond the neonatal period.

Kevin Messacar, James T Gaensbauer, Meghan Birkholz, Claire Palmer, James K Todd, Kenneth L Tyler, Samuel R Dominguez,

Following implementation of the FilmArray meningitis and encephalitis panel, which enables rapid syndromic cerebrospinal fluid testing, HSV testing doubled in children >60 days with suspected central nervous system infection at Children's Hospital Colorado. Acyclovir initiation was unchanged, but duration decreased. Diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship is needed for MEP optimization. ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115085]

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Screening methods for intestinal carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales: interest of enrichment broth.

Emilie Rondinaud, Etienne Ruppé, Sophie Matheron, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Laurence Armand-Lefevre, ,

Travel abroad is associated with a high risk of acquiring multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales (MDR-E) [i.e., extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) and plasmid-mediated-AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (pAmpC-E)]. Here, we evaluated the utility of pre-enrichment and performance of screening for MDR-E using 2 different media (ChromID-ESBL and biplate-ESBL) from 574 traveler stool samples. ESBL-E and ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115079]

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Evaluation of the fully automated AIX1000 rapid plasma reagin system compared to a manual plasma reagin testing method for the diagnosis of syphilis.

Alexander Pyden, Anthony D Kang, Sheryl Amato, Sanjucta Dutta, Gretchen Berg, Stefan Riedel,

The analytical performance of the FDA-cleared AIX1000 automated RPR testing platform was evaluated in comparison to manual RPR card testing. Eight hundred thirty-three patient serum samples were analyzed, 87 samples were positive by the AIX1000, 108 were positive by the manual test method; overall agreement between methods was 96.5% (κ ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115081]

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COVID-19: Understanding the science of antibody testing and lessons from the HIV epidemic.

Stanley H. Weiss, Gary P. Wormser,

Potential pitfalls in the development, deployment and interpretation of antibody tests for COVID-19 are discussed. Lessons learned from the experience with the introduction of antibody tests for HIV are highlighted. ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
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Utility of two DNA extraction methods using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues in identifying congenital cytomegalovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction.

Areli de la Cruz-de la Cruz, Elsa Romelia Moreno-Verduzco, Omar Martínez-Alarcón, Diana Laura González-Alvarez, M Y Valdespino-Vázquez, Addy-Cecilia Helguera-Repetto, Salvador Fonseca-Coronado, Jair Lozano-Cuenca, Alicia Ramírez-Ramírez, Diana Soriano-Becerril, Ismael Mancilla-Herrera, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Alma Herrera-Salazar,

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are a source of biological material for molecular studies; several methods to extract DNA from FFPE tissues have been reported. This process is challenging because of formaldehyde-induced cross-linking between proteins and DNA as well as molecule fragmentation when unbuffered formalin is used for fixation. Here, 2 ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115075]

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A highly multiplexed melt-curve assay for detecting the most prevalent carbapenemase, ESBL, and AmpC genes.

T Edwards, C Williams, Y Teethaisong, J Sealey, S Sasaki, G Hobbs, L E Cuevas, K Evans, E R Adams,

Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria is chiefly mediated by beta-lactamases including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC, and carbapenemase enzymes. Routine phenotypic detection methods do not provide timely results, and there is a lack of comprehensive molecular panels covering all important markers. An ESBL/carbapenemase high-resolution melt analysis (HRM) ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115076]

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Accelerating the global response against the exponentially growing COVID-19 outbreak through decent data sharing.

Cooper J Galvin, Luis Fernandez-Luque, Yu-Chuan (Jack) Li,

COVID-19 is a novel and exponentially-growing disease and consequently the accelerated development of knowledge from good data is possible quickly and globally. In order to combat the global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), all humans on earth need to make difficult strategic decisions on three very different scales, ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
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Evaluation of the role of oral penicillin for treating Lyme disease patients with erythema migrans in the United States.

Gary P Wormser, Franc Strle,

Clinical trials of oral penicillin preparations in the United States for treating Lyme disease patients with erythema migrans are limited to 2 studies. The results of these studies demonstrated a less than optimal outcome of this treatment. However, there were serious methodologic concerns in both studies precluding the interpretation that ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115071]

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Implementing carbapenem-resistance testing algorithms for Enterobacteriales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship with timely infection prevention.

Ana D Vega, Adriana Jimenez, Gemma Rosello, Kimberly C Claeys, Octavio V Martinez, Biagio De Pascale, Armando Perez-Cardona, Lilian Abbo,

Early detection of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative (CRGN) infections can help tailor therapy sooner and prevent horizontal transmission more efficiently. This involves timely, multidisciplinary communication. To this aim, we describe our experience with implementing reflex testing algorithms for expanded antibiotic susceptibilities and molecular mechanisms of resistance in a large academic ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, 97(4):115069]

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Development and evaluation of a multiplex conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of common viral pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis.

Suvrotoa Mitra, Mukti Kant Nayak, Agniva Majumdar, Avisek Sinha, Soumyadipta Chatterjee, Alok Deb, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar, Shanta Dutta,

Timely identification of etiological agents of enteric infections is necessary to reduce the burden of infantile diarrheal mortality. Nucleic acid amplification-based detection methods offer a quick, reliable way for diagnosis of microbes in clinical specimens. This study was undertaken to evaluate an easy-to-use, cost-effective multiplex conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
[2020, 97(4):115061]

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Clinical evaluation of the ResistancePlus MG FleXible test on the GeneXpert Infinity-48s instrument: a near-patient assay for simultaneous detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance.

Miguel Fernández-Huerta, Paula Salmerón, Aroa Silgado, Mateu Espasa, Tomàs Pumarola, Suhella Tulsiani-Drud, María-Jesús Barberá, Yannick Hoyos-Mallecot, Judit Serra-Pladevall,

Antibiotic resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is rising globally, especially to macrolides. In response to this challenge, assays reporting both the detection of MG and macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMM) allow therapy to be tailored to the individual. The study evaluated the performance of the ResistancePlus® MG FleXible assay for the ... Read more >>

Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease)
[2020, :115062]

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