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Journal Curr Osteoporos Rep

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Skeletal Stem Cells for Bone Development and Repair: Diversity Matters.

Yuki Matsushita, Wanida Ono, Noriaki Ono,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) are considered to play important roles in bone development and repair. These cells have been historically defined by their in vitro potential for self-renewal and differentiation into "trilineage" cells; however, little is known about their in vivo identity. Here, we discuss recent progress on ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):189-198]

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Correction to: New Developments in Fracture Risk Assessment.

William D Leslie, Suzanne N Morin,

The article, "New Developments in Fracture Risk Assessment for Current Osteoporosis Reports. ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, :]

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The Actions of IGF-1 in the Growth Plate and Its Role in Postnatal Bone Elongation.

Holly L Racine, Maria A Serrat,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Bone elongation is a complex process driven by multiple intrinsic (hormones, growth factors) and extrinsic (nutrition, environment) variables. Bones grow in length by endochondral ossification in cartilaginous growth plates at ends of developing long bones. This review provides an updated overview of the important factors that influence this ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):210-227]

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Delivery of RNAi-Based Therapeutics for Bone Regeneration.

Dominic W Malcolm, Yuchen Wang, Clyde Overby, Maureen Newman, Danielle S W Benoit,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The clinical significance, target pathways, recent successes, and challenges that preclude translation of RNAi bone regenerative approaches are overviewed. RECENT FINDINGS:RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new therapeutic approach for bone regeneration by stimulating or inhibiting critical signaling pathways. However, RNAi suffers from significant delivery challenges. These challenges ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):312-324]

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Modelling Human Locomotion to Inform Exercise Prescription for Osteoporosis.

Saulo Martelli, Belinda Beck, David Saxby, David Lloyd, Peter Pivonka, Mark Taylor,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:We review the literature on hip fracture mechanics and models of hip strain during exercise to postulate the exercise regimen for best promoting hip strength. RECENT FINDINGS:The superior neck is a common location for hip fracture and a relevant exercise target for osteoporosis. Current modelling studies showed that ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):301-311]

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Epidemiology, Clinical Assessments, and Current Treatments of Nonunions.

G Bradley Reahl, Louis Gerstenfeld, Michael Kain,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The failure of bony union following a fracture, termed a fracture nonunion, has severe patient morbidity and economic consequences. This review describes current consensuses and future directions of investigation for determining why, detecting when, and effective treatment if this complication occurs. RECENT FINDINGS:Current nonunion investigation is emphasizing an ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):157-168]

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New Developments in Fracture Risk Assessment for Current Osteoporosis Reports.

William D Leslie, Suzanne N Morin,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Identifying individuals at high fracture risk can be used to target those likely to derive the greatest benefit from treatment. This narrative review examines recent developments in using specific risk factors used to assess fracture risk, with a focus on publications in the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS:There is ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):115-129]

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Are Probiotics the New Calcium and Vitamin D for Bone Health?

René Rizzoli, Emmanuel Biver,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is recommended for patients at high risk of fracture and/or for those receiving pharmacological osteoporosis treatments. Probiotics are micro-organisms conferring a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts, likely by influencing gut microbiota (GM) composition and/or function. GM has been ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):273-284]

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The Effect of Opiates on Bone Formation and Bone Healing.

Flaminia Coluzzi, Maria Sole Scerpa, Marco Centanni,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Opioids have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fracture. The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the effects of opioids on bone formation and bone healing in animal models and in human studies. RECENT FINDINGS:Most opioids, such as morphine and ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):325-335]

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Exercise and Nutritional Approaches to Combat Cancer-Related Bone and Muscle Loss.

Nicole Kiss, Brenton J Baguley, Jack Dalla Via, Steve F Fraser, Kate A Bolam, Robin M Daly,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of this narrative review is to summarise recent literature on the effects of exercise and nutrition interventions alone or in combination on muscle and bone loss in people with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS:There is emerging evidence to support the inclusion of targeted exercise and nutrition strategies to ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):291-300]

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The Skeletal Consequences of Bariatric Surgery.

Alexandra N Krez, Emily M Stein,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review outlines the recent findings regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on bone. It explores potential mechanisms for skeletal changes following bariatric surgery and strategies for management. RECENT FINDINGS:Bone loss following bariatric surgery is multifactorial. Probable mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):262-272]

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Exercise and Peak Bone Mass.

Magnus K Karlsson, Björn E Rosengren,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The main goal of this narrative review is to assess whether physical activity (PA) influences peak bone mass and fracture risk. RECENT FINDINGS:Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) show that short-term PA intervention programs in childhood improve the accrual of bone mineral. There are now also long-term controlled PA ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):285-290]

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Transcriptomics: a Solution for Renal Osteodystrophy?

Aline Martin, Valentin David,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The molecular mechanisms of the bone disease associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), called renal osteodystrophy (ROD), are poorly understood. New transcriptomics technologies may provide clinically relevant insights into the pathogenesis of ROD. This review summarizes current progress and limitations in the study and treatment of ROD, and ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):254-261]

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Dietary Protein Intake and Bone Across Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Elizabeth R Stremke, Annabel Biruete, Kathleen M Hill Gallant,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the effect of very-low-, low-, and high-protein diets on outcomes related to chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and bone health in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS:Dietary protein restriction in the form of low- and very-low-protein diets have ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):247-253]

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Management of Pain Associated with Fractures.

Hannah Elsevier, Lisa K Cannada,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose is to review current literature on pain management strategies from initial presentation to postoperative care on common fracture types. RECENT FINDINGS:- Hip fractures benefit from use of multimodal pain control for early mobility and decreased narcotic requirement. - Distal radius fracture pain during reduction can be ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):130-137]

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Developing Registries and Effective Care Models for the Management of Hip Fractures: Aligning Political, Organizational Drivers with Clinical Outcomes.

Amy Hoang-Kim, Dubi Kanengisser,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of the review is to conduct a literature search on cost-effectiveness or cost savings of osteoporosis fracture liaison services. RECENT FINDINGS:We identified four types of FLS. A total of 11 cost-effectiveness studies examining 15 models of secondary fracture prevention models were identified. Nine models were found ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):180-188]

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Effects of PTH and PTH Hypersecretion on Bone: a Clinical Perspective.

Lars Rejnmark, Henriette Ejlsmark-Svensson,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Hyperparathyroidism may be due to an autonomous hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) or occurs in response to a number of physiological stimuli. A number of recent findings have provided new insights into the importance of the calcium-parathyroid-vitamin D axis to bone in normal physiology and pathological conditions. RECENT ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):103-114]

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Chondrogenesis Defines Future Skeletal Patterns Via Cell Transdifferentiation from Chondrocytes to Bone Cells.

Yan Jing, Zheng Wang, Hui Li, Chi Ma, Jian Feng,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The goal of this review is to obtain a better understanding of how chondrogenesis defines skeletal development via cell transdifferentiation from chondrocytes to bone cells. RECENT FINDINGS:A breakthrough in cell lineage tracing allows bone biologists to trace the cell fate and demonstrate that hypertrophic chondrocytes can directly transdifferentiate ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):199-209]

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Imaging Modalities to Assess Fracture Healing.

Peter Schwarzenberg, Salim Darwiche, Richard S Yoon, Hannah L Dailey,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review discusses imaging modalities for fracture repair assessment, with an emphasis on pragmatic clinical and translational use, best practices for implementation, and challenges and opportunities for continuing research. RECENT FINDINGS:Semiquantitative radiographic union scoring remains the clinical gold standard, but has questionable reliability as a surrogate indicator of ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):169-179]

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Kidney Disease and Bone: Changing the Way We Look at Skeletal Health.

Matthew R Allen, Elizabeth A Swallow, Corinne E Metzger,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Kidney disease imparts profound skeletal changes, and unlike many other skeletal diseases, cortical bone is predominantly impacted. Significant advances in medical imaging have led to our ability to now obtain high-resolution three-dimensional views of cortical bone. This paper overviews recent work focused on cortical bone imaging, specifically cortical ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):242-246]

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Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy: New Insights, Controversies, and Approach to Management.

Alison M Boyce, Rachel I Gafni, Carlos R Ferreira,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review summarizes current understanding of generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), emphasizing pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and approaches and controversies in management. RECENT FINDINGS:Identification of causative ENPP1 mutations revealed that GACI arises from deficiencies in inorganic pyrophosphate (leading to calcifications) and adenosine monophosphate (leading to intimal proliferation). Identification ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):232-241]

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Pharmacologic Treatments to Preserve Bone and Muscle Mass in Osteosarcopenia.

Gordon L Klein,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:We aim to recast the diagnosis of osteosarcopenia in light of its pathophysiology rather than of the age at which it is diagnosed. We will consider why we think the diagnosis of osteosarcopenia is missed in those who are not elderly and why pharmacologic treatment based on pathophysiology ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):228-231]

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The Role of Diet in Osteoporotic Fracture Healing: a Systematic Review.

Manuela Chiavarini, Giulia Naldini, Roberto Fabiani,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Summarize the in vivo evidences on the association between nutrition and osteoporosis fracture healing. RECENT FINDINGS:Osteoporotic fractures constitute a considerable public health burden. The healing capacity of fractures is influenced by local factors related to the fracture and by general factors (e.g., age, sex, osteoporosis, muscular mass, smoking, ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):138-147]

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Bone Disease in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes.

Shuaa Basalom, Frank Rauch,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize the bone findings, mainly bone mass and fracture risk, in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS). RECENT FINDINGS:Low bone mineral density and fractures seem to be frequent in some of the rare EDS types (kyphoscoliotic, arthrochalasia, spondylodysplastic, and classic-like EDS). For the more prevalent hypermobile and classic EDS types, ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(2):95-102]

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Review of Secondary Causes of Osteoporotic Fractures Due to Diabetes and Spinal Cord Injury.

Ariane Zamarioli, Caio de Andrade Staut, José B Volpon,

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of this review is to gain a better understanding of osteoporotic fractures and the different mechanisms that are driven in the scenarios of bone disuse due to spinal cord injury and osteometabolic disorders due to diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS:Despite major advances in understanding the pathogenesis, prevention, and ... Read more >>

Curr Osteoporos Rep (Current osteoporosis reports)
[2020, 18(3):148-156]

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