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Journal Clin Infect Dis

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Optimizing dosing and fixed-dose combinations of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide in pediatric patients with tuberculosis: a prospective population pharmacokinetic study.

Paolo Denti, Roeland E Wasmann, Annelies van Rie, Jana Winckler, Adrie Bekker, Helena Rabie, Anneke C Hesseling, Louvina E van der Laan, Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Heather J Zar, Gerry Davies, Lubbe Wiesner, Elin M Svensson, Helen M McIlleron,

In 2010, the WHO revised dosing guidelines for treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Our aim was to investigate first-line antituberculosis drug exposures under these guidelines, explore dose optimization using the current dispersible fixed-dose combination (FDC) table of rifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide; 75/50/150 mg , and suggest a new FDC with revised weight-bands. Children with drug-susceptible ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Severity, criticality, and fatality of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant.

Laith J Abu-Raddad, Hiam Chemaitelly, Houssein H Ayoub, Hadi M Yassine, Fatiha M Benslimane, Hebah A Al Khatib, Patrick Tang, Mohammad R Hasan, Peter Coyle, Sawsan AlMukdad, Zaina Al Kanaani, Einas Al Kuwari, Andrew Jeremijenko, Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal, Ali Nizar Latif, Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik, Hanan F Abdul Rahim, Gheyath K Nasrallah, Mohamed Ghaith Al Kuwari, Adeel A Butt, Hamad Eid Al Romaihi, Mohamed H Al-Thani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Roberto Bertollini,

Beta (B.1.351) variant COVID-19 disease was investigated in Qatar. Compared to Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant, odds of progressing to severe disease were 1.24-fold (95% CI: 1.11-1.39) higher for Beta. Odds of progressing to critical disease were 1.49-fold (95% CI: 1.13-1.97) higher. Odds of COVID-19 death were 1.57-fold (95% CI: 1.03-2.43) higher. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Utility and applicability of rapid diagnostic testing in antimicrobial stewardship in Asia Pacific: A Delphi consensus.

Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Hong Bin Kim, Luke S P Moore, Yonghong Xiao, Sanjeev Singh, Yohei Doi, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa, Sasheela Sri La Sri Ponnampalavanar, Qing Cao, Shin-Woo Kim, Hyukmin Lee, Pitak Santanirand,

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) facilitate fast and accurate identification of infectious disease microorganisms and are a valuable component of multimodal antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs, but are currently underutilized in Asia Pacific. An experienced group of infectious diseases clinicians, clinical microbiologists and a clinical pharmacist used a modified Delphi consensus approach ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Ultraviolet-C Light Evaluation as Adjunct Disinfection to Remove Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms.

Clare Rock, Yea-Jen Hsu, Melanie S Curless, Karen C Carroll, Tracy Ross Howard, Kathryn A Carson, Stephanie Cummings, Michael Anderson, Aaron M Milstone, Lisa L Maragakis,

<h4>Background</h4>Our objective was to determine if the addition of UV-C light to daily and discharge patient room cleaning reduces healthcare-associated infection rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) in immunocompromised adults.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a cluster randomized crossover control trial in four cancer and one solid organ transplant in-patient ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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FDA Public Workshop Summary-Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever): Considerations for Development of Antifungal Drugs.

Elizabeth O'Shaughnessy, Yuliya Yasinskaya, Cheryl Dixon, Karen Higgins, Jason Moore, Kellie Reynolds, Neil M Ampel, David Angulo, Janis E Blair, Antonino Catanzaro, John N Galgiani, Edward Garvey, Royce Johnson, David J Larwood, Gareth Lewis, Rob Purdie, John H Rex, Lisa F Shubitz, David A Stevens, Stephen J Page, Sunita J Shukla, John J Farley, Sumathi Nambiar,

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevalence rates are increasing steadily and new endemic areas of Coccidioides are emerging. Standard treatment is often administered for months to decades, and intolerance to medications and treatment failures are common. No new ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Resistance in Enterobacterales is higher among people with HIV.

Heather I Henderson, Sonia Napravnik, Emily W Gower, Allison E Aiello, Alan C Kinlaw, Billy Williams, David A Wohl, David van Duin,

<h4>Background</h4>Multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales (MDR-E) are important pathogens. People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be at greater risk for MDR-E infection given relatively high antibiotic exposure and burden of comorbidities.<h4>Methods</h4>Analyses were conducted using data collected on 36,521 patients in a healthcare system in North Carolina, who had at least 1 clinical ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Clinical and Genomic Characterization of SARS CoV-2 infections in mRNA Vaccinated Health Care Personnel in New York City.

Elizabeth V Robilotti, Karissa Whiting, Anabella Lucca, Chester Poon, Rebecca Guest, Tracy McMillen, Krupa Jani, Alexander Solovyov, Suzanne Kelson, Kevin Browne, Scott Freeswick, Tobias M Hohl, Deborah Korenstein, Denis Ruchnewitz, Michael Lässig, Marta Łuksza, Benjamin Greenbaum, Venkatraman E Seshan, N Esther Babady, Mini Kamboj,

<h4>Background</h4>Vaccine-induced clinical protection against SARS CoV-2 variants is an evolving target. There is limited genomic level data on SARS CoV-2 breakthrough infections and vaccine effectiveness (VE) since the global spread of the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant.<h4>Methods</h4>In a retrospective study from November 1st, 2020 - August 31st , 2021, divided as pre-Delta ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Medicare Prescription Plans Limit Access to Recommended Drugs for Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Deanna Buehrle, Cornelius J Clancy,

We analyzed June 2021 Medicare Advantage/Part D enrollment and formulary data. Oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin, frontline Clostridioides difficile treatments, were on formulary for 100% (42,314,676/42,314,676) and 84.1% (35,598,385/42,314,676) of enrollees, respectively. However, they were broadly accessible (formulary, unrestricted, Tier 1 or 2) to only 14.4% (6,104,348/42,314,676) and 1.1% (483,004/42,314,676), respectively. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Reply to Bailly, et al.

John Paul Verderese, Linda Henry, Zobair M Younossi,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Reply to Dr. Kataoka.

Vu Quoc Dat, Ronald B Geskus, Dong Huu Khanh Trinh, Behzad Nadjm, H Rogier van Doorn, C Louise Thwaites,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Progressive Development of Cefiderocol Resistance in Escherichia coli During Therapy Is Associated with Increased blaNDM-5 Copy Number and Gene Expression.

Patricia J Simner, Heba H Mostafa, Yehudit Bergman, Michael Ante, Tsigereda Tekle, Ayomikun Adebayo, Stephan Beisken, Kathryn Dzintars, Pranita D Tamma,

<h4>Background</h4>As cefiderocol is increasingly being prescribed in clinical practice, it is critical that we understand key mechanisms contributing to acquired resistance to this agent.<h4>Methods</h4>We report the case of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an NDM-5 producing Escherichia coli intra-abdominal infection where resistance to cefiderocol evolved approximately 2 weeks ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Urgent, Comprehensive Federal Action Needed To Stem Mortality and Medicare Costs Associated With Antimicrobial Resistance.

Vance G Fowler, Amanda Jezek, Emily S Spivak, Kathy Talkington,

This paper is a call to action for the policies necessary to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance, including federal investments in antibiotic stewardship, antibiotic innovation, surveillance, research, diagnostics, infection prevention, the infectious diseases workforce, and global coordination. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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A Review of Adverse Events from the Use of Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT) in the United States, 2004-2019.

Valerie D Bampoe, Haley C Boswell, Yon C Yu, Anna M Acosta,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Selective Outcome Reporting in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Emi Kataoka,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Circulation of third-generation cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi in Mumbai, India.

Silvia Argimón, Geetha Nagaraj, Varun Shamanna, Sravani Darmavaram, Ashwini Kodlipet Vasanth, Akshatha Prasanna, Aruna Poojary, Anurag Kumar Bari, Anthony Underwood, Mihir Kekre, Stephen Baker, David M Aanensen, Ravikumar Kadahalli Lingegowda,

We report the persistent circulation of third-generation cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi in Mumbai, linked to the acquisition and maintenance of a previously characterized IncX3 plasmid carrying the ESBL gene blaSHV-12 and the fluoroquinolone resistance gene qnrB7 in the genetic context of a triple mutant also associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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One-year sustained cellular and humoral immunities of COVID-19 convalescents.

Jie Zhang, Hao Lin, Beiwei Ye, Min Zhao, Jianbo Zhan, Shaobo Dong, Yaxin Guo, Yingze Zhao, Min Li, Sai Liu, Hangjie Zhang, Wenling Xiao, Yuanyuan Guo, Can Yue, Danni Zhang, Mengjie Yang, Jing Zhang, Chuansong Quan, Weifeng Shi, Xinxue Liu, Peipei Liu, Yongzhong Jiang, Guizhen Wu, George F Gao, William J Liu,

<h4>Background</h4>The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>We ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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A non-profit drug development model is part of the AMR solution.

Laura J V Piddock, Jean-Pierre Paccaud, Seamus O'Brien, Michelle Childs, Rohit Malpani, Manica Balasegaram,

Antibiotics underpin modern medicine and are critical for pandemic preparedness. Push funding has revitalized the preclinical AMR pipeline, and government funding via CARB-X and BARDA, as well as private sector led investment via the AMR Action Fund, will help several new antibiotics obtain regulatory approval. Nevertheless, revenues generated by new ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Lack of Antinuclear Antibodies in Convalescent COVID-19 Patients with Persistent Symptoms.

Michael J Peluso, Isaac J Thomas, Sadie E Munter, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Colocalization of radicular pain and erythema migrans in patients with Bannwarth's syndrome suggests a direct spread of borrelia into the central nervous system.

Katarina Ogrinc, Andrej Kastrin, Stanka Lotrič-Furlan, Petra Bogovič, Tereza Rojko, Vera Maraspin, Eva Ružić-Sabljić, Klemen Strle, Franc Strle,

<h4>Background</h4>There is a general assumption that after deposition into skin, Lyme borreliae disseminate hematogenously to other organs, resulting in extracutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, including Lyme neuroborreliosis. However, our experience over the past 40 years, along with several published case reports which observed colocalization of radicular pain and erythema migrans ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Proposed linezolid dosing strategies to minimize adverse events for treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Marjorie Z Imperial, Jerry R Nedelman, Francesca Conradie, Rada M Savic,

<h4>Background</h4>We evaluated clinical trial data (Nix-TB, NCT02333799) to provide data-driven dosing recommendations to potentially minimize linezolid toxicity in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on 104 participants, a pharmacokinetic model and toxicodynamic models for peripheral neuropathy, hemoglobin, and platelets were developed. Simulations compared safety outcomes for daily linezolid of 1200 and ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Reply to Peluso, et al.

Jessica Seeßle, Cord Naujokat, Phil Oberacker, Wolf-Henning Peters, Tim Waterboer, Barbara Müller, Uta Merle,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Mortality, Length of Stay, and Healthcare Costs Associated With Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections Among Elderly Hospitalized Patients in the United States.

Richard E Nelson, David Hyun, Amanda Jezek, Matthew H Samore,

<h4>Background</h4>This study reports estimates of the healthcare costs, length of stay, and mortality associated with infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria among elderly individuals in the United States.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of patients aged ≥65 admitted for inpatient stays in the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system between 1/2007-12/2018. We ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Sex differences in HIV Persistence and Reservoir Size during Aging.

Sara Gianella, Stephen A Rawlings, Masato Nakazawa, Antoine Chaillon, Matthew Strain, Laura Layman, Gemma Caballero, Eileen Scully, Brianna Scott, Caitleen Pacis, Kathleen M Weber, Alan Landay, Christy Anderson, Jonathan Karn,

<h4>Background</h4>Sex differences in HIV reservoir dynamics remain under-explored.<h4>Methods</h4>Longitudinal samples from virally suppressed midlife women (N=59) and age-matched men (N=31) were analyzed retrospectively. At each time point, we measured sex hormones (by ELISA), cellular HIV DNA and RNA (by digital droplet PCR). Number of inducible HIV RNA + cells, which provides ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Discrimination And Calibration Of The Vacs Index 2.0 For Predicting Mortality Among People With Hiv In North America.

Kathleen A McGinnis, Amy C Justice, Richard D Moore, Michael J Silverberg, Keri N Althoff, Maile Karris, Viviane D Lima, Heidi M Crane, Michael A Horberg, Marina B Klein, Stephen J Gange, Kelly Gebo, Angel Mayor, Janet P Tate, , ,

<h4>Background</h4>The updated Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index 2.0 combines general and HIV-specific biomarkers to generate a continuous score which accurately discriminates risk of mortality in diverse cohorts of persons with HIV (PWH), but a score alone is difficult to interpret. Using data from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration ... Read more >>

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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Persistent COVID-19 in an immunocompromised host treated by SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibodies.

Benoit Bailly, Helene Péré, David Veyer, Ana Berceanu, Etienne Daguindau, Pauline Roux, Olivier Hermine, Xavier de Lamballerie, Paul Bastard, Karine Lacombe, Brigitte Autran, Fanny Angelot Delettre, Jean Laurent Casanova, Sandrine Imbeaud, Anne Laure Clairet, Marie Kroemer, Laurie Spehner, Nicolas Robillard, Julien Puech, Solène Marty-Quinternet, Quentin Lepiller, Catherine Chirouze, Kevin Bouiller,

Clin Infect Dis (Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
[2021, :]

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