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Journal Cerebellum

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Gating by Memory: a Theory of Learning in the Cerebellum.

Mike Gilbert,

This paper presents a model of learning by the cerebellar circuit. In the traditional and dominant learning model, training teaches finely graded parallel fibre synaptic weights which modify transmission to Purkinje cells and to interneurons that inhibit Purkinje cells. Following training, input in a learned pattern drives a training-modified response. ... Read more >>

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Resting-State Low-Frequency Cerebellar Oscillations Can Be Abnormal in Parkinson's Disease.

Taylor J Bosch, Christopher Groth, Arun Singh,

Recent anatomical studies have shown connections between the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence motor and cognitive functions. Recent neuroimaging and animal studies have suggested the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. However, the role of ... Read more >>

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History of Ataxias and Paraplegias with an Annotation on the First Description of Striatonigral Degeneration.

José Berciano, José Gazulla, Jon Infante,

The aim of this paper is to carry out a historical overview of the evolution of the knowledge on degenerative cerebellar disorders and hereditary spastic paraplegias, over the last century and a half. Original descriptions of the main pathological subtypes, including Friedreich's ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical ... Read more >>

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Functional Gradients of the Cerebellum: a Review of Practical Applications.

Xavier Guell,

Gradient-based analyses have contributed to the description of cerebellar functional neuroanatomy. More recently, functional gradients of the cerebellum have been used as a multi-purpose tool for neuroimaging research. Here, we provide an overview of the many practical applications of cerebellar functional gradient analyses. These practical applications include examination of intra-cerebellar ... Read more >>

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Small-Expanded Allele Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 17 Leading to Broad Movement Disorder Phenotype in a Brazilian Patient.

Daniel Sabino de Oliveira, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando Barsottini, Pedro José Tomaselli, Wilson Marques Júnior, Thiago Cardoso Vale,

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Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Alter Somatosensory Temporal Discrimination Threshold.

Esra Erkoç Ataoğlu, Ece Türksoy, İlker Aslan, Evren Boran, Bülent Cengiz,

This study aimed to explore the role of the cerebellum on the somatosensory temporal discrimination (STD) process. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Each participant was included in three different transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions as anodal, cathodal, and sham sessions in randomised order. Anodal and cathodal ... Read more >>

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Postnatal Neurogenesis Beyond Rodents: the Groundbreaking Research of Joseph Altman and Gopal Das.

Lazaros C Triarhou, Mario Manto,

An integral component of neural ontogeny and plasticity is the ongoing generation of new neurons from precursor cells throughout the lifespan in virtually all animals with a nervous system. In mammals, postnatal neurogenesis has been documented in the cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Germinal centers ... Read more >>

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A Young Japanese Patient with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 Presenting Depressive State with Cenesthopathy and Delusion: a Case Report.

Naomichi Okamoto, Atsuko Ikenouchi, Satoru Ide, Yu Hashimoto, Reiji Yoshimura,

Depressive state is a common complication of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). To the best of our knowledge, cases of SCA3 presenting with cenesthopathy have not been described. Here, we present a case of a severe depressive state with cenesthopathy and delusion in a young Japanese man with SCA3. A ... Read more >>

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The First 50 Years of Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Cerebellum: a Long Journey Across Phenomena, Mechanisms, and Human Disease.

G Giacomo Consalez,

The discovery by Altman and coworkers of adult-born microneurons in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus has triggered a long stream of studies and many attempts to harness adult neurogenesis, promote regeneration after injury, and contrast cognitive decline in the elderly. Likewise, the discovery of postnatal neurogenesis in the cerebellum ... Read more >>

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The Involvement of the Posterior Cerebellum in Reconstructing and Predicting Social Action Sequences.

Frank Van Overwalle, Min Pu, Qianying Ma, Meijia Li, Naem Haihambo, Kris Baetens, Natacha Deroost, Chris Baeken, Elien Heleven,

Recent advances in social neuroscience have highlighted the critical role of the cerebellum and especially the posterior cerebellar Crus in social mentalizing (i.e., theory of mind). Research in the past 5 years has provided growing evidence supporting the view that the posterior cerebellum builds internal action models of our social interactions ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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GAD67-mediated GABA Synthesis and Signaling Impinges on Directing Basket Cell Axonal Projections Toward Purkinje Cells in the Cerebellum.

Hideki Miwa, Ken Kobayashi, Shinobu Hirai, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Masahiko Watanabe, Haruo Okado, Yuchio Yanagawa,

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, synthesized by two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD): GAD65 and GAD67. GABA may act as a trophic factor during brain development, but its contribution to the development and maturation of cerebellar neural circuits is not known. To ... Read more >>

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Silas Weir Mitchell on the Cerebellum: Rich Neurophysiological Concepts and a Modern Perspective.

Elan D Louis,

Silas Weir Mitchell (1829 - 1914), the Philadelphia-based neurologist, is considered a founding father of American neurology. Mitchell's 1869 paper on the physiology of the cerebellum is rich in both content and physiological concepts. Although several of the specific models proposed by Mitchell are no longer considered valid, a number ... Read more >>

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The Contribution of Neuroimaging to the Understanding of Essential Tremor Pathophysiology: a Systematic Review.

Sara Pietracupa, Matteo Bologna, Silvia Tommasin, Alfredo Berardelli, Patrizia Pantano,

Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. Over the last 10 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shed light on the structural and functional abnormalities possibly involved in ET pathophysiology. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the cortical and subcortical structures involved and the role ... Read more >>

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Hypnotisability and the Cerebellum: Hypotheses and Perspectives.

Enrica Laura Santarcangelo, Diego Manzoni,

Hypnotisability is a multidimensional trait predicting the proneness to enter hypnosis and/or accept suggestions and is associated with several psychophysiological correlates. This scoping review reports the differences between individuals with high (highs) and low hypnotizability (lows) in the left cerebellar lobules IV-VI grey matter volume, in the excitability of the ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Impact of Purkinje Cell Simple Spike Synchrony on Signal Transmission from Flocculus.

John S Stahl, Aaron Ketting-Olivier, Prasad A Tendolkar, Tenesha L Connor,

Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellar flocculus carry rate-coded information that ultimately drives eye movement. Floccular PCs lying nearby each other exhibit partial synchrony of their simple spikes (SS). Elsewhere in the cerebellum, PC SS synchrony has been demonstrated to influence activity of the PCs' synaptic targets, and some suggest ... Read more >>

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Cerebellar Contributions to Motor Impairments in People with Multiple Sclerosis.

Alexandra C Fietsam, Warren G Darling, Jacob J Sosnoff, Craig D Workman, John Kamholz, Thorsten Rudroff,

Although Charcot characterized classic cerebellar symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) in 1877, the impact of cerebellar dysfunction on MS symptoms has predominately been evaluated in the last two decades. Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the association between cerebellar pathology, including atrophy and reduced fractional anisotropy in the peduncles, ... Read more >>

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The Role of the Posterior Cerebellum in Dysfunctional Social Sequencing.

Frank Van Overwalle, Chris Baeken, Salvatore Campanella, Cleo L Crunelle, Elien Heleven, Charles Kornreich, Maria Leggio, Xavier Noël, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Kris Baetens,

Recent advances in social neuroscience have highlighted the critical role of the cerebellum in social cognition, and especially the posterior cerebellum. Studies have supported the view that the posterior cerebellum builds internal action models of our social interactions to predict how other people's actions will be executed and what our ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Cerebellar Symptoms in Gluten Sensitivity: a Systematic Review of the Effect of a Gluten-Free Diet on Brain Imaging.

Juliana J Schmidt, Julio C Tolentino, Glenda C B Lacerda, Guilherme J Schmidt, Eelco van Duinkerken, Sergio L Schmidt,

Cerebellar manifestations have been described in patients with gluten sensitivity (GS)-related disorders. A better understanding of the neurological manifestations of GS requires the use of neuroimaging techniques. We performed a systematic review on neuroimaging findings in GS patients with cerebellar symptoms. We also included a specific search on neuroimaging findings ... Read more >>

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"A Great Reinforcing Organ": the Cerebellum According to Silas Weir Mitchell.

Lazaros C Triarhou, Mario Manto,

This Cerebellar Classic highlights a work by the physician and novelist, Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914), a pupil of Claude Bernard and a founding father of American neurology. Published in the aftermath of the American Civil War, the article reported observations on cerebellar physiology based on ablation and tissue freezing experiments ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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The Cerebellum in Drug-naive Children with Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Sankalp Tikoo, Antonio Suppa, Silvia Tommasin, Costanza Giannì, Giulia Conte, Giovanni Mirabella, Francesco Cardona, Patrizia Pantano,

Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are two neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by repetitive behaviors. Our recent study in drug-naive children with TS and OCD provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in both disorders. In addition, cerebellar functional connectivity (FC) was similar in TS patients without comorbidities (TSpure) and TS patients ... Read more >>

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Cerebellar Activation During Simple and Complex Bimanual Coordination: an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) Meta-analysis.

Kim van Dun, Pia Brinkmann, Siel Depestele, Stefanie Verstraelen, Raf Meesen,

Bimanual coordination is an important part of everyday life and recruits a large neural network, including the cerebellum. The specific role of the cerebellum in bimanual coordination has not yet been studied in depth, although several studies indicate a differential role of the anterior and posterior cerebellum depending on the ... Read more >>

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Correction to: Characterization of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome in Patients with Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome.

Diana A Abbasi, Thu T A Nguyen, Deborah A Hall, Erin Robertson-Dick, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Stephanie M Cologna,

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Elucidating the Role of Cerebellar Synaptic Dysfunction in C9orf72-ALS/FTD - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Aleksandra Kaliszewska, Joseph Allison, Tarik-Tarkan Col, Christopher Shaw, Natalia Arias,

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with synaptic dysfunction identified as an early pathological hallmark. Although TDP-43 pathology and overt neurodegeneration are largely absent from the cerebellum, the pathological hallmarks of RNA foci ... Read more >>

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Safety and Outcomes of Dentate Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Cerebellar Ataxia.

Rubens Gisbert Cury, Carina França, Kleber Paiva Duarte, Isabela Paraguay, Juliete Melo Diniz, Paulina Cunha, Ricardo Galhardoni, Valquiria Silva, Ricardo Iglesio, André Bortolon Bissoli, Guilherme Lepski, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade,

Cerebellar symptoms remain orphan of treatment options despite being prevalent and incapacitating. Investigate whether dentate nucleus deep brain stimulation (DN DBS) is safe and leads to improvements in cerebellar symptoms when compared to sham stimulation. This randomized double-blind crossover pilot trial enrolled five patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 or ... Read more >>

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[2021, :]

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Prevalence of Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome in Patients with Cerebellar Ataxia in Japan.

Yujiro Higuchi, Masahiro Ando, Akiko Yoshimura, Satoshi Hakotani, Yuki Koba, Yusuke Sakiyama, Yu Hiramatsu, Yuichi Tashiro, Yoshimitsu Maki, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Junhui Yuan, Yuji Okamoto, Eiji Matsuura, Hiroshi Takashima,

The presence of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation has been linked to patients with a certain type of cerebellar ataxia, the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). However, its prevalence in Japan has yet to be clarified. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of ... Read more >>

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