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Journal Brain Sci

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Vestibular Stimulation May Drive Multisensory Processing: Principles for Targeted Sensorimotor Therapy (TSMT).

Brigitta Tele-Heri, Karoly Dobos, Szilvia Harsanyi, Judit Palinkas, Fanni Fenyosi, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Csaba E More, Judit Zsuga,

At birth, the vestibular system is fully mature, whilst higher order sensory processing is yet to develop in the full-term neonate. The current paper lays out a theoretical framework to account for the role vestibular stimulation may have driving multisensory and sensorimotor integration. Accordingly, vestibular stimulation, by activating the parieto-insular ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
[2021, 11(8):]

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The Effect of Light Sedation with Midazolam on Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Attention Network.

Junkai Wang, Yachao Xu, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Kuncheng Li, Pei Sun, Peipeng Liang,

Altered connectivity within and between the resting-state networks (RSNs) brought about by anesthetics that induce altered consciousness remains incompletely understood. It is known that the dorsal attention network (DAN) and its anticorrelations with other RSNs have been implicated in consciousness. However, the role of DAN-related functional patterns in drug-induced sedative ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Gender Perspective in Dual Diagnosis.

Marta Torrens-Melich, Teresa Orengo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Isabel Almodóvar, Abel Baquero, Ana Benito,

Little data are available for women diagnosed with a dual diagnosis. However, dual diagnosis in women presents increased stigma, social penalties, and barriers to access to treatment than it does for men. Indeed, it increases the probability of suffering physical or sexual abuse, violent victimization, gender-based violence, unemployment, social exclusion, ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Neural Representation of Costs and Rewards in Decision Making.

Yixuan Chen,

Decision making is crucial for animal survival because the choices they make based on their current situation could influence their future rewards and could have potential costs. This review summarises recent developments in decision making, discusses how rewards and costs could be encoded in the brain, and how different options ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Reduction of Sniff Nasal Inspiratory Pressure (SNIP) as an Early Indicator of the Need of Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Stefano Zoccolella, Rosa Capozzo, Vitaliano N Quaranta, Giorgio Castellana, Lorenzo Marra, Vito Liotino, Vincenza Giorgio, Isabella L Simone, Onofrio Resta, Marco Piccininni, Rosanna Tortelli, Giancarlo Logroscino,

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the standard procedure for feeding severely dysphagic patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is associated with prolonged survival and improvement in quality of life. Nasal inspiratory pressure during a sniff (SNIP) is a respiratory test used extensively in ALS for the assessment of inspiratory ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
[2021, 11(8):]

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Neuroplasticity within and between Functional Brain Networks in Mental Training Based on Long-Term Meditation.

Roberto Guidotti, Cosimo Del Gratta, Mauro Gianni Perrucci, Gian Luca Romani, Antonino Raffone,

(1) The effects of intensive mental training based on meditation on the functional and structural organization of the human brain have been addressed by several neuroscientific studies. However, how large-scale connectivity patterns are affected by long-term practice of the main forms of meditation, Focused Attention (FA) and Open Monitoring (OM), ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Therapeutic Strategies for Mutant SPAST-Based Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia.

Neha Mohan, Liang Qiang, Gerardo Morfini, Peter W Baas,

Mutations of the <i>SPAST</i> gene that encodes the microtubule-severing enzyme called spastin are the chief cause of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia. Growing evidence indicates that pathogenic mutations functionally compromise the spastin protein and endow it with toxic gain-of-function properties. With each of these two factors potentially relevant to disease etiology, the ... Read more >>

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Inflammatory Biomarkers in Febrile Seizure: A Comprehensive Bibliometric, Review and Visualization Analysis.

Ionela Maniu, Raluca Costea, George Maniu, Bogdan Mihai Neamtu,

<h4>Background</h4>Inflammatory markers association with many diseases is the subject of many articles and reviews. This study presents a comprehensive bibliometric review and visualization analysis of inflammatory biomarkers (IB) in the context of febrile seizure (FS) patients.<h4>Methods</h4>The study focused on IB in FS using (1) bibliometric analysis specific indicators and maps ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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A Systematic Review of Sleep in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: From Diagnosis to Prognosis.

Jiahui Pan, Jianhui Wu, Jie Liu, Jiawu Wu, Fei Wang,

With the development of intensive care technology, the number of patients who survive acute severe brain injury has increased significantly. At present, it is difficult to diagnose the patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) because motor responses in these patients may be very limited and inconsistent. Electrophysiological criteria, such as ... Read more >>

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PER Gene Family Polymorphisms in Relation to Cluster Headache and Circadian Rhythm in Sweden.

Felicia Jennysdotter Olofsgård, Caroline Ran, Carmen Fourier, Catalina Wirth, Christina Sjöstrand, Elisabet Waldenlind, Anna Steinberg, Andrea Carmine Belin,

The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, cluster headache (CH), is one of the most painful disorders known to man. One of the disorder's most striking features is the reported diurnal rhythmicity of the attacks. For a majority of patients, the headache attacks occur at approximately the same time every day. Genetic variants ... Read more >>

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Innovation in Digital Education: Lessons Learned from the Multiple Sclerosis Management Master's Program.

Isabel Voigt, Christine Stadelmann, Sven G Meuth, Richard H W Funk, Franziska Ramisch, Joachim Niemeier, Tjalf Ziemssen,

Since 2020, the master's program "Multiple Sclerosis Management" has been running at Dresden International University, offering structured training to become a multiple sclerosis specialist. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many planned teaching formats had to be changed to online teaching. The subject of this paper was the investigation of a ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Prediction of Epilepsy Based on Tensor Decomposition and Functional Brain Network.

Han Li, Qizhong Zhang, Ziying Lin, Farong Gao,

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder which can affect 65 million patients worldwide. Recently, network based analyses have been of great help in the investigation of seizures. Now graph theory is commonly applied to analyze functional brain networks, but functional brain networks are dynamic. Methods based on graph theory find ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Globally Improves Learning but Does Not Selectively Potentiate the Benefits of Targeted Memory Reactivation on Awake Memory Consolidation.

Médhi Gilson, Michael A Nitsche, Philippe Peigneux,

Targeted memory reactivation (TMR) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance memory consolidation. It is currently unknown whether TMR reinforced by simultaneous tDCS has superior efficacy. In this study, we investigated the complementary effect of TMR and bilateral tDCS on the consolidation of emotionally neutral and negative declarative memories. ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Impact of Glucocorticoid on a Cellular Model of Parkinson's Disease: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function.

Silvia Claros, Antonio Gil, Mauro Martinelli, Nadia Valverde, Estrella Lara, Federica Boraldi, Jose Pavia, Elisa Martín-Montañez, María Garcia-Fernandez,

Stress seems to contribute to the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Oxidative distress and mitochondrial dysfunction are key factors involved in the pathophysiology of PD and neuronal glucocorticoid-induced toxicity. Animal PD models have been generated to study the effects of hormonal stress, but ... Read more >>

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An ID-Associated Application to Facilitate Patient-Tailored Management of Multiple Sclerosis.

Michael Lang, Daniela Rau, Lukas Cepek, Fia Cürten, Stefan Ringbauer, Martin Mayr,

Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading neurological cause of disability in young adults. As a chronic disease, MS requires complex and challenging management. In this context, eHealth has gained an increasing relevance. Here, we aim to summarize beneficial features of a mobile app recently ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Role of Vitamin E and the Orexin System in Neuroprotection.

Maria Ester La Torre, Ines Villano, Marcellino Monda, Antonietta Messina, Giuseppe Cibelli, Anna Valenzano, Daniela Pisanelli, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Nicola Tartaglia, Antonio Ambrosi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Giovanni Messina, Chiara Porro,

Microglia are the first line of defense at the level of the central nervous system (CNS). Phenotypic change in microglia can be regulated by various factors, including the orexin system. Neuroinflammation is an inflammatory process mediated by cytokines, by the lack of interaction of specific receptors such as the OX2-OX2R ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
[2021, 11(8):]

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Noninvasive Optical Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Flow and EEG Spectral Responses after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report.

Chien-Sing Poon, Benjamin Rinehart, Dharminder S Langri, Timothy M Rambo, Aaron J Miller, Brandon Foreman, Ulas Sunar,

Survivors of severe brain injury may require care in a neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU), where the brain is vulnerable to secondary brain injury. Thus, there is a need for noninvasive, bedside, continuous cerebral blood flow monitoring approaches in the neuro-ICU. Our goal is to address this need through combined measurements ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
[2021, 11(8):]

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Differential Susceptibility or Diathesis-Stress: Testing the Moderating Role of Temperament and Cortisol Levels between Fathers' Parenting and Children's Aggressive Behavior.

Eider Pascual-Sagastizabal, Nora Del Puerto-Golzarri, Aitziber Azurmendi,

Aggression is a multidimensional behavior that could be caused by different biopsychosocial variables. The aim of this study was to explore whether temperament, cortisol and sex moderate the relation between fathers' parenting style and aggressive behavior in school-aged children, and whether this corresponds to differential susceptibility or diathesis-stress. Participants were ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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(Dys)Prosody in Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Medication and Disease Duration on Intonation and Prosodic Phrasing.

Sónia Frota, Marisa Cruz, Rita Cardoso, Isabel Guimarães, Joaquim J Ferreira, Serge Pinto, Marina Vigário,

The phonology of prosody has received little attention in studies of motor speech disorders. The present study investigates the phonology of intonation (nuclear contours) and speech chunking (prosodic phrasing) in Parkinson's disease (PD) as a function of medication intake and duration of the disease. Following methods of the prosodic and ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Motor Learning Based on Oscillatory Brain Activity Using Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Review.

Naoyuki Takeuchi, Shin-Ichi Izumi,

Developing effective tools and strategies to promote motor learning is a high-priority scientific and clinical goal. In particular, motor-related areas have been investigated as potential targets to facilitate motor learning by noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS). In addition to shedding light on the relationship between motor function and oscillatory brain activity, ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Expression of Microbial Enzymes in Mammalian Astrocytes to Modulate Lactate Release.

Barbara Vaccari Cardoso, Iliana Barrera, Valentina Mosienko, Alexander V Gourine, Sergey Kasparov, Anja G Teschemacher,

Astrocytes support and modulate neuronal activity through the release of L-lactate. The suggested roles of astrocytic lactate in the brain encompass an expanding range of vital functions, including central control of respiration and cardiovascular performance, learning, memory, executive behaviour and regulation of mood. Studying the effects of astrocytic lactate requires ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Rebuilding Body-Brain Interaction from the Vagal Network in Spinal Cord Injuries.

Maria Luisa De Martino, Mina De Bartolo, Erik Leemhuis, Mariella Pazzaglia,

Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) exert devastating effects on body awareness, leading to the disruption of the transmission of sensory and motor inputs. Researchers have attempted to improve perceived body awareness post-SCI by intervening at the multisensory level, with the integration of somatic sensory and motor signals. However, the contributions of ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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The State of Art on Co-Morbid Insomnia and Sleep Apnea (COMISA).

Luigi De Gennaro,

Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are two prevalent sleep disorders which share nocturnal sleep disturbances, impairments to daytime activity and quality of life, and high healthcare and social costs [...]. ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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The Effects of the COVID19-Related Lockdown Are Modulated by Age: An Italian Study in Toddlers and Pre-Schoolers.

Mariangela Cerasuolo, Serena Malloggi, Francesca Conte, Benedetta Albinni, Oreste De Rosa, Marissa Lynn Rescott, Fiorenza Giganti, Gianluca Ficca,

Although the issue has been repeatedly explored, data on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's sleep quality are inconsistent. To clarify these discrepancies, here we investigate possible age-related differences. During the lockdown, 112 parents of toddlers (0-3 years, N = 61) and pre-schoolers (4-5 years, <i>n</i> = 51) ... Read more >>

Brain Sci (Brain sciences)
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Maternal Immune Activation Causes Social Behavior Deficits and Hypomyelination in Male Rat Offspring with an Autism-Like Microbiota Profile.

Gilbert Aaron Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Jing-Huei Lai, Yu-Chun Lo, Yu-Chen S H Yang, Syuan-You Ye, Chia-Jung Lee, Ching-Chiung Wang, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Sung-Hui Tseng,

Maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. Microbial dysbiosis is associated with ASD symptoms. However, the alterations in the brain-gut-microbiota axis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MIA offspring remain unclear. Here, we examined the social behavior, anxiety-like and repetitive behavior, microbiota profile, and myelination levels ... Read more >>

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