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Journal Behav Res Ther

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Two probes and better than one: Development of a psychometrically reliable variant of the attentional probe task.

Ben Grafton, Stephanie Teng, Colin MacLeod,

Cognitive models contend that attentional bias to negative information contributes to elevated anxiety vulnerability and dysfunction. The most common approach for assessing such bias is the attentional probe task. In this task, participants are presented with stimulus pairs, usually comprising a negative and benign member. A single visual probe subsequently ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 138:103805]

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Incentive-based, instructed, and social observational extinction of avoidance: Fear-opposite actions and their influence on fear extinction.

Andre Pittig, Alex H K Wong,

Avoidance is a transdiagnostic symptom of clinical anxiety and its reduction a major focus of cognitive-behavioral treatments. This study examined the instrumental extinction of goal-directed avoidance by means of incentives, verbal instruction, and social observation and their influence on fear extinction. Participants acquired conditioned fear and instrumental avoidance responses (N = 160). ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 137:103797]

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"Shame on you": The impact of shame in body-focused repetitive behaviors and binge eating.

S Houazene, J B Leclerc, K O'Connor, F Aardema,

Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), such as hair-pulling, skin-picking, and nail-biting, have been associated with difficulties in emotion regulation. Studies have suggested that aversive emotions are important triggers for impulsive behaviors such as BFRBs and binge eating. In particular, shame has been hypothesized to be a key emotion before and after ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 138:103804]

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Trait anxiety is associated with reduced typicality asymmetry in fear generalization.

Alex H K Wong, Tom Beckers,

In fear conditioning, training with typical category exemplars has been shown to promote fear generalization to novel exemplars of the same category, whereas training with atypical category exemplars supports limited if any generalization to other category members, amounting to a typicality asymmetry in fear generalization. The present study sought to ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 138:103802]

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Characterizing human safety learning via Pavlovian conditioned inhibition.

Patrick A F Laing, Bram Vervliet, Miquel Angel Fullana, Hannah S Savage, Christopher G Davey, Kim L Felmingham, Ben J Harrison,

Deficient safety learning has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Despite increased translational interest, there has been limited research on the basis of safety learning in humans. Here, we examined safety learning in seventy-three healthy participants via a modified Pavlovian conditioned inhibition paradigm, featuring a conditioned threat stimulus ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 137:103800]

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Intolerance of uncertainty and threat reversal: A conceptual replication of Morriss et al. (2019).

Gaëtan Mertens, Jayne Morriss,

The ability to update responding to threat cues is an important adaptive ability. Recently, Morriss et al. (2019) demonstrated that participants scoring high in Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) were more capable of threat reversal. The current report aimed to conceptually replicate these results of Morriss et al. (2019) in an ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 137:103799]

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Delving into the detail: Greater episodic detail in narratives of a critical life event predicts an increase in adolescent depressive symptoms across one year.

Karen Salmon, Laina Isler, Paul Jose, Ruth Glynn, Claire Mitchell, Mary Dewhirst, Belinda Buxton, Charlotte Gutenbrunner, Elaine Reese,

Depressed people have reduced ability to recall specific autobiographical memories, yet the role of reduced memory specificity in the development of adolescent depression is unclear. Two reasons are the limited longitudinal studies with this age group and the dominant use of just one measure of memory specificity, the Autobiographical Memory ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 137:103798]

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Cognitive predictors of adolescent social anxiety.

Kenny Chiu, David M Clark, Eleanor Leigh,

<h4>Background</h4>Identifying psychological processes that maintain social anxiety holds promise for improving treatment outcomes for young people. Experimental and prospective studies in adults suggest negative social cognitions, safety behaviours, self-focused attention, and pre- and post-event processing are all implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety. Despite social anxiety typically starting in ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 137:103801]

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Individual differences in costly fearful avoidance and the relation to psychophysiology.

Anneloes M Hulsman, Reinoud Kaldewaij, Mahur M Hashemi, Wei Zhang, Saskia B J Koch, Bernd Figner, Karin Roelofs, Floris Klumpers,

Excessive avoidance behaviour is a cardinal symptom of anxiety disorders. Avoidance is not only associated with the benefits of avoiding threats, but also with the costs of missing out on rewards upon exploration. Psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms contributing to these costly avoidance decisions in prospect of mixed outcomes remain unclear. ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 137:103788]

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Reply to Clifford, G., Dalgleish, T. and Hitchcock, C., 2018. Prevalence of auditory pseudohallucinations in adult survivors of physical and sexual trauma with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Behaviour research and therapy, 111, pp.113-118.

Michelle K Jamieson, Benjamin Alderson-Day, Stephanie Allan, Rachel Brand, Andrew Gumley, Akiko Hart, Claire Matrunola, Neil Thomas,

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 137:103789]

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Mental imagery in chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder: Shining a spotlight on a key research and clinical target.

Naomi Koerner, Simon E Blackwell,

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 137:103785]

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Exploring transdiagnostic processes for chronic pain and opioid misuse among two studies of adults with chronic pain.

Andrew H Rogers, Lorra Garey, Nicholas P Allan, Michael J Zvolensky,

Chronic pain is a significant public health problem associated with functional impairment, increased medical expenditures, and opioid misuse. Recent work has suggested that certain transdiagnostic psychosocial factors may be more important than pain intensity to better understand pain and opioid outcomes. Specifically, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, emotion dysregulation, and distress ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103786]

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Does inhibitory control training reduce weight and caloric intake in adults with overweight and obesity? A pre-registered, randomized controlled event-related potential (ERP) study.

Kaylie A Carbine, Alexandra M Muir, Whitney D Allen, James D LeCheminant, Scott A Baldwin, Chad D Jensen, C Brock Kirwan, Michael J Larson,

A cognitive intervention that may reduce weight and caloric intake is inhibitory control training (ICT; having individuals repeatedly withhold dominant responses to unhealthy food images). We conducted a randomized controlled trial where 100 individuals with overweight or obesity were assigned to complete a generic (n = 48) or food-specific ICT (n = 52) training ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103784]

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Looking for carrots, watching out for sticks: A gaze-contingent approach towards training contextual goal-dependent affective attention flexibility.

Malvika Godara, Alvaro Sanchez-Lopez, Chris Baeken, Rudi De Raedt,

The ability to flexibly shift between changing goals is crucial to develop an adaptive response to life stressors. Accordingly, lower affective attention flexibility, i.e. the ability to shift attention flexibly between goals, is associated with low reappraisal ability, high levels of rumination, and lower levels of resilience. However, attempts to ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103787]

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Contingency management for individuals with chronic health conditions: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Jennifer D Ellis, Cara A Struble, Marina C Fodor, Molly Cairncross, Leslie H Lundahl, David M Ledgerwood,

<h4>Background</h4>Contingency management (CM) interventions involve providing reinforcement for engaging in a desired behavior, and have been shown to increase treatment adherence and promote abstinence in the treatment of substance use disorders. This review was conducted to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of CM when applied to a range ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103781]

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Computerized Memory Specificity Training (c-MeST) for major depression: A randomised controlled trial.

D J Hallford, D W Austin, K Takano, M Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, F Raes,

Given modest response and high relapse after treatment for Major Depressive Episodes (MDE), the development and refinement of treatments to target cognitive vulnerabilities is indicated. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) remediates deficits in recalling detailed memories of past experiences through repeated practice of autobiographical memory retrieval. This randomised controlled trial aimed ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103783]

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The mediating role of insomnia severity in internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic stress: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Elin Lindsäter, Erland Axelsson, Sigrid Salomonsson, Fredrik Santoft, Brjánn Ljótsson, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Mats Lekander, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf,

The aim of this study was to investigate insomnia symptom severity as a putative mediator of treatment response in therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for chronic stress, using data from a randomized controlled trial. Participants (N = 100) were randomized to 12 weeks of ICBT or to a waitlist control condition ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103782]

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Joining the pieces in childhood irritability: Distinct typologies predict conduct, depressive, and anxiety symptoms.

Olivia M Elvin, Kathryn L Modecki, Jules Finch, Kylie Donnolley, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters,

This study utilised a person-centered approach to understand childhood irritability as a transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. Latent profile analysis was employed within a community sample (n = 93) of 9-11 year olds to identify typologies of self-regulation capabilities, positive wellbeing characteristics of hope and flourishing, and social functioning that cluster with children's ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103779]

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Cognitive mechanisms of episodic simulation in psychiatric populations.

Amanda M Brunette, Daniel L Schacter,

Episodic simulation is the construction of a mental representation of a specific autobiographical future event. Episodic simulation has increasingly been studied in psychiatric populations. Here we 1) review evidence indicating that episodic simulation is compromised in patients with depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and PTSD; and 2) consider several potential ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103778]

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Self-critical perfectionism and lower mindfulness and self-compassion predict anxious and depressive symptoms over two years.

Ryan Tobin, David M Dunkley,

This study of 124 community adults examined whether perfectionism interacts with mindfulness and self-compassion to predict anxiety and depressive symptoms over two years. Participants completed measures of self-critical (SC) and personal standards (PS) higher-order dimensions of perfectionism at Time 1; mindfulness and self-compassion domains and facets at Time 2 one ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103780]

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Differences in perceptual memory determine generalization patterns.

Ann-Kathrin Zenses, Jessica C Lee, Valérie Plaisance, Jonas Zaman,

Although memory of past experiences is crucial for the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations, surprisingly little research has directly investigated the relationship between memory and generalization. The present study sought to investigate how the perceptual memory of a trained stimulus influences generalization to similar stimuli. Forty participants underwent ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103777]

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Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for depression, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder: Effectiveness and predictors of response in a teaching clinic.

Andrea N Niles, Erland Axelsson, Erik Andersson, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson, Robert Johansson, Sara Widén, Jens Driessen, Fredrik Santoft, Brjánn Ljótsson,

Though therapist-guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) appears to be efficacious for depression, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, relatively little is known about real-world settings and predictors of treatment effects derived from cognitive-behavioral theory. We examined treatment effectiveness and predictors of improvement in a prospective cohort study where patients ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103767]

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Real-time monitoring of the associations between self-critical and self-punishment cognitions and nonsuicidal self-injury.

Taylor A Burke, Kathryn Fox, Marin Kautz, David M Siegel, Evan Kleiman, Lauren B Alloy,

The Defective Self Model of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) proposes that some people engage in NSSI to punish themselves and/or to respond to self-critical cognitions. Although there is a growing body of research to support this theory, there has been a lack of ecologically valid approaches employed to critically examine its ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 137:103775]

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When nothing matters: Assessing markers of expectancy violation during omissions of threat.

Anne L Willems, Bram Vervliet,

Over the past decade, increasing evidence has pointed to the importance of threat omissions and the associated violations of expectancy for long-term gains of extinction learning and exposure treatment. Yet, the identification of valid markers of these expectancy violations remains somewhat challenging, thereby complicating the translation of these scientific discoveries ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103764]

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Wakefulness impairs selective consolidation of relevant trauma-associated memories resulting in more frequent intrusions.

M R Sopp, E Friesen, S K Schäfer, A H Brueckner, B E Wirth, J Weber, J Lass-Hennemann, T Michael,

Recent studies show that sleep reduces intrusive memories after analog trauma. This effect is assumed to be caused by sleep's impact on memory consolidation. However, the underlying processes of this phenomenon have not been uncovered. Thus, the current study investigates the hypothesis that sleep reduces intrusive memories by supporting the ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2021, 136:103776]

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