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Journal Behav Res Ther

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Generalization of extinction with a generalization stimulus is determined by learnt threat beliefs

Alex H.K. Wong, Valentina M. Glück, Juliane M. Boschet, Paula Engelke,

Expectancy violation refers to the mismatch between an expected and the actual outcome. Maximizing expectancy violation is crucial for exposure-based treatment. Since the original stimulus of fear acquisition (CS+) is rarely available, stimuli that resemble the CS+ (generalization stimuli; GSs) are presented during treatment. A given GS may evoke either ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, :]

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Concreteness of thoughts and images during suppression and expression of worry.

Alexander A Jendrusina, Elizabeth S Stevens, Erica R Nahin, Alison C Legrand, Evelyn Behar,

The avoidance theory of worry (Borkovec, Alcaine, & Behar, 2004) posits that the verbal-linguistic (versus imagery-based) nature of worry elicits abstract (versus concrete) processing, which inhibits affective responding and generates a host of negative consequences. Although suppression of worrisome thinking is maladaptive (Purdon, 1999), expression of worry using vivid imagery ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103754]

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Internalizing symptoms modulate real-world affective response to sweet food and drinks in children.

Tyler B Mason, Christine H Naya, Susan M Schembre, Kathryn E Smith, Genevieve F Dunton,

The purpose of the current study was to examine affective response to sweet foods and drinks as a function of children's internalizing symptoms using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A sample of 192 8-12-year-old children completed a self-report measure of internalizing symptoms and EMA prompts of affect and food intake for ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103753]

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Intrusive memories: A mechanistic signature for emotional memory persistence.

Noa Herz, Yair Bar-Haim, Emily A Holmes, Nitzan Censor,

Memories of negative emotional events persist more over time relative to memories for neutral information. Such persistence has been attributed to heightened encoding and consolidation processes. However, reactivation of the encoded information may also lead to reduced memory decay through rehearsal or a reconsolidation processes. Here, we tested whether involuntary ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103752]

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What is attention bias variability? Examining the potential roles of attention control and response time variability in its relationship with anxiety.

Patrick J F Clarke, Welber Marinovic, Jemma Todd, Julian Basanovic, Nigel T M Chen, Lies Notebaert,

The present study examined the underlying role of attention control and response time variability in explaining the relationship between anxiety and two commonly computed measures of attention bias variability: 'moving average' and 'trial-level bias score' measures. Participants (final n = 195) completed measures of anxiety symptomatology, antisaccade performance (attention control), a stand-alone ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103751]

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Differentiating "types" of treatment dropout: Nonstarters in an RCT of prolonged exposure versus sertraline.

Alexander C Kline, Allison L Baier, Alexandra B Klein, Norah C Feeny, Lori A Zoellner,

Despite effective interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), many patients prematurely drop out. Differentiating "types" of dropout at various stages of treatment may improve our ability to predict and prevent attrition. Using data from a doubly randomized preference trial, this study examined patient dropout prior to treatment and compared these ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103750]

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The longitudinal structure of disgust proneness: Testing a latent trait-state model in relation to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

Bunmi O Olatunji, Rebecca C Cox, David A Cole,

Although disgust proneness (DP) is increasingly recognized as a personality characteristic that confers risk for psychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the extent to which it reflects a time-varying (TV) or state-like factor versus a time-invariant (TI) or trait-like personality characteristic is unclear. In a 6-wave, 5-month longitudinal study, ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103749]

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions for affect intolerance/sensitivity.

Kristen M Kraemer, Christina M Luberto, Daniel L Hall, Long H Ngo, Gloria Y Yeh,

Affect intolerance/sensitivity, defined as one's sensitivity to, or inability to tolerate, affective states, is a transdiagnostic process implicated in the development and maintenance of numerous forms of psychopathology. Mindfulness and acceptance interventions are posited to improve affect intolerance/sensitivity; however, there has been no quantitative synthesis of this research to date. ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103746]

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Imaginal exposure exacerbation revisited: Deconstructing patient characteristics associated with worse reactions to the initiation of imaginal exposure in PTSD.

Rosemary S W Walker, Elizabeth H Marks, Jeff Jaeger, Jeanne M Duax, Norah C Feeny, Lori A Zoellner,

OBJECTIVE:This study examines whether imaginal exposure leads to symptom exacerbation, systematically comparing individuals who received prolonged exposure (PE) to those who received pharmacotherapy. The study also examined whether common clinical features increase the likelihood of symptom exacerbation. METHOD:In 151 men and women with PTSD, we examined rates of reliable exacerbation ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103747]

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The effects of verbal and imaginal worry on panic symptoms during an interoceptive exposure task.

Evelyn Behar, T D Borkovec,

Previous research has documented the inhibitory effects of worry on cardiovascular reactivity to subsequently presented fear-relevant stimuli. Although theoretical assertions point to the verbal-linguistic (as opposed to imagery-based) nature of worry as the cause of these inhibitory effects, extant research investigating the effects of worrisome thinking on subsequent anxiety-eliciting tasks ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103748]

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Large-group one-session treatment: Feasibility and efficacy in 138 individuals with phobic fear of flying.

André Wannemueller, Svenja Schaumburg, Sally Tavenrath, Alina Bellmann, Katharina Ebel, Tobias Teismann, Sören Friedrich, Jürgen Margraf,

Recent research suggests that exposure-based large-group one-session treatments (LG-OSTs) may represent useful and efficient treatment options for different types of phobic fear. Although there are effective single session- and small group-interventions for the treatment of clinically relevant Fear of Flying (FoF), no LG-OST for this type of phobic fear has ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103735]

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Positive memory training for the treatment of depression in schizophrenia: A randomised controlled trial.

Craig Steel, Kees Korrelboom, M Fazil Baksh, David Kingdon, Judit Simon, Til Wykes, Peter Phiri, Mark van der Gaag,

BACKGROUND:Around half of people diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer from co-morbid depression, yet there are no evidence-based psychological treatments to target this presentation. METHOD:Participants were aged 18-65 years old, had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and at least a mild level of depression. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103734]

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Social safety learning: Shared safety abolishes the recovery of learned threat.

Yafeng Pan, Andreas Olsson, Armita Golkar,

Humans, like other social animals, learn about threats and safety in the environment through social cues. Yet, the processes that contribute to the efficacy of social safety learning during threat transmission remain unknown. Here, we developed a novel dyadic model of associative threat and extinction learning. In three separate social ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103733]

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Augmenting exposure therapy with pre-extinction fear memory reactivation and deepened extinction: A randomized controlled trial.

Cynthia L Lancaster, Marie-H Monfils, Michael J Telch,

BACKGROUND:Pre-extinction fear memory reactivation (PE-FMR) and deepened extinction (DE) enhance long-term extinction of shock-conditioned fear, and may also enhance long-term extinction of naturally acquired fear. Preliminary data suggest that PE-FMR may additionally boost the speed of fear reduction during exposure therapy. DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial, factorial design. METHODS:Participants with elevated fears ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103730]

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Group and longitudinal intra-individual networks of eating disorder symptoms in adolescents and young adults at-risk for an eating disorder.

Cheri A Levinson, Irina A Vanzhula, Tosha Woods Smith, Eric Stice,

Several studies have identified risk factors that predict future onset of eating disorders (ED) in adolescence, however, it is currently unknown how specific ED symptom dynamics operate both across time and within individuals. Advances in network methodologies allow for the study of how dynamic symptoms interrelate and predict each other ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103731]

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Reducing attention bias in spider fear by manipulating expectancies.

Elinor Abado, Jasmine Sagi, Nir Silber, Jan De Houwer, Tatjana Aue, Hadas Okon-Singer,

The present series of studies examines the causal interaction between expectancy and attention biases in spider fear. Previous studies found that a-priori expectancy does not affect attention bias toward spiders, as measured by detection of spider targets in a subsequent visual search array compared to detection of bird targets (i.e. ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103729]

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Memories of 100 years of human fear conditioning research and expectations for its future.

Bram Vervliet, Yannick Boddez,

This special issue celebrates the 100th anniversary of the Little Albert study, published in February 1920, which marked the birth of human fear conditioning research. The collection of papers in this special issue provides a snapshot of the thriving state of this field today. In this Editorial, we first trace ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103732]

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Fundamental frequency during cognitive preparation and its impact on therapy outcome for panic disorder with Agoraphobia.

Gesine Wieder, Melanie S Fischer, Franziska Einsle, Donald H Baucom, Kurt Hahlweg, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Sarah Weusthoff,

BACKGROUND:Cognitive preparation plays a crucial role in CBT with exposure for panic disorder and agoraphobia. High emotional arousal while developing the exposure rationale might impair patients' cognitive capacities for processing information about treatment and impede therapeutic outcome. OBJECTIVE:This study investigates whether patients' vocally encoded emotional arousal, assessed by fundamental frequency ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103728]

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Transdiagnostic trajectories of irritability and oppositional, depression and anxiety problems from preschool to early adolescence.

Lourdes Ezpeleta, Eva Penelo, J Blas Navarro, Núria de la Osa, Esther Trepat,

Irritability is a transdiagnostic symptom in oppositional defiant disorder, depression, and anxiety, all highly comorbid disorders but with unknown simultaneous evolution. The aim was to obtain the developmental trajectories of simultaneous irritability and oppositional, depression, and anxiety problems from preschool age to early adolescence. A sample of 493 community children ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 134:103727]

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Collaborative care for depression in older adults: How much is enough?

Toby Bonvoisin, Lewis W Paton, Catherine Hewitt, Dean McMillan, Simon Gilbody, Paul A Tiffin,

Collaborative care in primary care has been shown to be effective for subthreshold depression in older adults in the 'CASPER' trial. However, to understand the impact of adherence, and to explore the minimum effective dose of collaborative care, we reanalysed the trial data using a complier average causal effect (CACE) ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 135:103725]

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Anticipated consequences as the primary causes of suicidal behavior: Evidence from a laboratory study.

Xieyining Huang, Kensie M Funsch, Esther C Park, Joseph C Franklin,

Due to the limitations of conducting experimental studies on suicide, little is known about its causes. Based on basic behavioral research, we hypothesized that the anticipated consequences of suicidal behavior (e.g., stress relief) are the primary causes of suicidal behavior, and experienced antecedents (e.g., stress) are secondary causes. We evaluated ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 134:103726]

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Examining the effectiveness of an online program to cultivate mindfulness and self-compassion skills (Mind-OP): Randomized controlled trial on Amazon's Mechanical Turk.

Shadi Beshai, Christine Bueno, Mabel Yu, Justin R Feeney, Adrian Pitariu,

OBJECTIVES:The demand for effective psychological treatments for depression, anxiety, and heightened stress is far outstripping their supply. Accordingly, internet delivered, self-help interventions offer hope to many people, as they can be easily accessed and at a fraction of the price of face-to-face options. Mindfulness and self-compassion are particularly exciting approaches, ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 134:103724]

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Building resilience to body image triggers using brief cognitive training on a mobile application: A randomized controlled trial.

Dinur Aboody, Jedidiah Siev, Guy Doron,

OBJECTIVE:Body image disturbance (BID) is common among women, characterized by persistent and distressing appearance dissatisfaction, and linked with eating disorders. Although effective, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by trained professionals is not easily accessible. This randomized trial evaluated the effects of a CBT-based mobile application designed to increase resilience to ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 134:103723]

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The effect of differential disgust conditioning and subsequent extinction versus counterconditioning procedures on women's sexual responses to erotic stimuli.

Aleksandra Pawłowska, Charmaine Borg, Peter J de Jong, Stephanie Both,

Recent theoretical accounts point to disgust as an important factor in the development and persistence of sexual dysfunctions. This study tested if (i) contingent disgust experiences can render initially sexually arousing stimuli disgusting, and (ii) such acquired disgust responses could be best neutralized via a CS-only extinction or a counterconditioning ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 134:103714]

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Deficits in opioid receptor-mediated prediction error contribute to impaired fear extinction during adolescence.

Madelyne A Bisby, Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson,

Adolescent-onset anxiety disorders are more common and costly than those that emerge later in life. Unfortunately, nearly half of adolescents undergoing cognitive behavioural therapies, including exposure therapies, show significant symptom relapse. Such poor treatment outcomes are consistent with preclinical work examining fear extinction, in which adolescents show persistent fear to ... Read more >>

Behav Res Ther (Behaviour research and therapy)
[2020, 133:103713]

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